Events that led to the creation of Israel

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First Aliyah
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1882-1903, first modern widespread wave of Zionist Jews who migrated to Palestine. Mostly Eastern Europeans (Russia); some were also from Yemen. An estimated 25,000-35,000 Jews immigrated to Ottoman Palestine during the First Aliyah. (persecution against Jews)
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Second Aliyah
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1904-1918, most important and influential. It took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 40,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman Palestine, mostly from Russia and Poland. Resulted from Russian Pogroms.
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Balfour Declaration
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Post WWI, British had influence over Palestine in order to prepare the country for independence. The BD is a statement issued by Britain’s Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favouring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine after WWI. – Britain needed Jewish support in the war and by having a Zionist stand they could have this hence the Balfour declaration
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Result of increased Jewish immigration to Palestine
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– Arab’s began to get defensive as they were losing land, jobs etc because of the increased Jewish population. – British tried to gain Arab support by issuing several White Papers which put restrictions on Jewish immigration.
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Peel Commission
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1936, before Peel: attempted to have local self-government and split Palestine into into parts for the Jews and Arabs and still ensure a Jewish homeland.
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WWII and the Holocaust
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– resulted in another wave of Jewish immigration from Europe to Palestine
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Name Drop, White Paper 1939
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As London historian Christopher Catherwood accurately/appropriately states, not only was timing of the 1939 White Paper disastrous but also that \”much of the 1930s [was spent] backtracking on [the] promises to the Jewish peoples\” by the British Mandate.
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1922 White Paper
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June 3, 1922, after investigation of the Arab riots of 1921, the Balfour declaration was not and instead the area under influence of the British Mandate was reduced (nothing past Jordan River)
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1930 White Paper
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October 21, 1930, limited Jewish immigration and purchase of land in Palestine after another series of Arab riots in 1929.
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1939 White Paper
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May 17, 1939, is the paper which rejected the Peel Commission, thus the partitioning of Palestine did not happen. Jewish immigration was limited dramatically once again just before WWII.
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The issue with the White Papers and the British Mandate
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In the Balfour declaration, Jews were promised a homeland and their aims for Palestine were supported by the British. However, in desperate times for spheres of influence the British went back on their promises for the Jews and made enemies on both sides.
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British mandate in Palestine
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– oil interests – cold war (communism vs capitalism, desperate need of spheres of influence to have on side) – Passed onto the UN in 1947
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Resolution 181
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1947, UN partition Palestine into two states: one Jewish, other Arab with this partition, Israel was created in May 1948.
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Wailing Wall
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Arab fears that Jews were attempting to seize control of Jerusalem’s Wailing Wall in August 1929 caused a series of riots which left 133 Jews and 116 Arabs dead.
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May 14, 1948
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The Jewish Agency declared the Jewish State of Israel.

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