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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e, (Marieb) Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

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The nasal cavity is indicated by ________.
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label a
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The right main (primary) bronchus is indicated by ________.
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label h
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The trachea is indicated by ________.
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label i
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The diaphragm muscle is indicated by ________.
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label g
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The oral cavity is indicated by ________.
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label c
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The ________ routes air and food into their proper channels and plays a role in speech.
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larynx
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The mucosa-lined windpipe that extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra is called the ________.
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trachea
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The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of ________.
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hyaline cartilage
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The serous membrane that surrounds each lung is created by a parietal and visceral ________.
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pleura
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The division of the trachea produces two tubes called the right and left main (primary) ________.
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bronchi
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The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are known as ________.
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bronchioles
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The ________ zone includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli and is where gas exchange occurs.
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respiratory
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The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or ________.
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pulmonary ventilation
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Gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli is called ________.
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external respiration
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The inspiratory muscles that contract so we can inspire air are the ________ and ________.
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diaphragm; external intercostals
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Air flowing out of the lungs is known as ________.
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expiration
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Lung collapse, or ________, can occur if the intrapleural pressure equals atmospheric pressure when air enters the pleural space.
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atelectasis
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________ volume is the air moved into and out of the lungs during normal quiet breathing and is approximately 500 mL of air.
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tidal
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The total amount of exchangeable air is known as ________.
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vital capacity (VC)
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Respiratory capacities are measured with a ________.
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spirometer
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________ is an odorless, colorless gas which binds preferentially with the same binding site on hemoglobin as oxygen.
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Carbon monoxide
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When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms ________.
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carbonic acid
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The most important stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is the body’s need to rid itself of the blood gas called ________.
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carbon dioxide
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In order to return acidic blood pH to normal, breathing becomes deeper and more rapid, a phenomenon known as ________.
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hyperventilation
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Gas exchange occurs in the ________.
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alveoli
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What is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity?
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trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris
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The correct pathway air flows through the respiratory system is ________.
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nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, main (primary) bronchi
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Following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to ________.
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speak
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Exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the respiratory membrane occurs by ________.
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simple diffusion
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The gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called ________.
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internal respiration
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Expiration (exhalation) occurs when ________.
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the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
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Which nonrespiratory air movement clears the upper respiratory passageways?
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sneezing
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Laura’s lung collapsed during a skiing accident when a rib punctured her lung. The condition of a collapsed lung is known as ________.
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atelectasis
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Oxygen is transported in the blood as ________.
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oxyhemoglobin
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Hyperventilation is the body’s response to ________.
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increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood
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Hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves ________.
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extremely slow breathing
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The most important chemical stimulus leading to increased rate and depth of breathing is ________.
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increased carbon dioxide in the blood
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The abbreviation IRDS stands for ________.
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infant respiratory distress syndrome
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What is the most common cause for lung cancer?
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smoking
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The homeostatic imbalance associated with the death of many full-term newborn infants is called ________.
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SIDS
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Chronically inflamed, hypersensitive bronchial passages that respond to many irritants are characteristic of ________.
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asthma
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Passageway for both food and air; known as the “throat”
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pharynx
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First tube to branch off of the trachea
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main (primary) bronchus
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Part of the respiratory zone, these air sacs perform gas exchange
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alveoli
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Air that remains in the lungs even after the most strenuous expiration
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residual volume
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Where are the alveoli found?
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in the lungs
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By what process does oxygen move from the alveoli into the blood of the pulmonary capillaries?
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simple diffusion