Test 1 Child Development

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Prenatal
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Conception to birth
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Infancy and Toddlerhood
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Birth to 2 years
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Early Childhood
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2 to 6 years
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Middle Childhood
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6 to 11 years
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Adolescence
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11 to 18 years
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Emerging Adulthood
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18 to 25 years
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Science of human development seeks to
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understand how and why people (all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age) change over time.
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Scientific Method:
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1. Formulate a research question (theory) 2. Develop hypothesis 3. test hypothesis 4. Draw conclusions 5. Make findings available
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Replication
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repeating the procedures and methods of a study with different participants: used to verify data, seen as sixth step of scientific method
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Sudden infant death syndrome
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Susan Beal figured out correlation between infants sleeping on their stomachs and heightened risk for SIDS. Fixed by putting infants on back, but that also brought other problems: flat head, etc. Therefore, need for “tummy time” to correct this.
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Nature
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refers to the influence of the genes that people inherit.
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Nurture
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refers to environmental influences, beginning with the health and diet of the embryo’s mother and continuing lifelong, including family, school, culture, society.
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MAOA gene: short vs. long
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o Low activity, no maltreatment: low chance of violence o Low activity, probable/severe maltreatment: high chance of violence o Genes often predispose people to be either unusually successful or pathological
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Differential sensitivity
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certain versions of particular genes may make it more likely for people to develop specific problems OR strengths. Based on both nurture and nature: special nurture without the sensitivity nature may make no difference
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Critical period
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a time when something must occur to ensure normal development or the only time when an abnormality may occur.
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Sensitive period
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a time in which a particular development occurs more easily – but not exclusively.
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Plasticity
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two complementary aspects of development: human traits can be molded, yet people maintain a certain durability of identity. The idea that abilities, personality, and other human characteristics can change over time.
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Difference-equals-deficit error
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the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behaviour or characteristics that meet the standard
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Social constructions
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an idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality. Many age-related terms (childhood, adolescence, yuppie) are social constructions, connected to biological traits but strongly influenced by social assumptions.
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Culture
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the system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviours, expectations and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct.
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Ethnic group
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people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. Social construct, affected by social context.
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Race
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a group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others a distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance, typically skin color. Social scientists think race is a misleading concept, as biological differences are not signified by outward appearance. Social construct.
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Socioeconomic status/social class
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a person’s position in society as determined by income, occupation, education, and place of residence.
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Dynamic systems
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a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial influences. The crucial understanding is that development is never static but is always affected by, and affects, many systems of development.
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Ecological-systems approach
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a perspective on human development that considers all the influences from the various contexts of development (later named bioecological theory). o Microsystems: elements of the immediate surroundings, such as the family system o Exosystems: local institutions such as school and work o Macrosystems: larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, political processes o Mesosystem: dynamic interaction between all 3 systems.
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Cohort
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people born within the same historical period who therefore move through life together, experiencing the same social changes and historical events at around the same stage of development.
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3 domains of developmental study
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biosocial, cognitive, psychological. Explained in one word: biopsychosocial: a term emphasizing the interaction of the 3 developmental domains (biosocial, cognitive, psychological). All development is biopsychosocial although the domains are studied separately.
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Mirror neurons
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the term for parts of the brain that react to actions people see as if the people were actually performing that actions themselves. (if you watch someone grab a banana, the same neurons light up in your brain as the person actually grabbing the banana)
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Scientific observation
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a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants’ behaviour in a systematic and objective manner – in a natural setting, lab, or in searches of data.
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Experiment
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gives most amount of control, used to establish cause.
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Independent variable
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the manipulated variable, the imposed treatment or special condition.
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Dependent variable
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depends on the independent variable, the variable that may change because of the independent variable.
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Survey
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research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means
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Cross-sectional research
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a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
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Longitudinal research
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a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed.
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Cohort-sequential research
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a research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over the years.
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Correlation
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a number between +1.0 and -1.0 that indicates the degree of relationship between 2 variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will or will not occur when the other variable does or does not.
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Positive
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if both increase or decrease together
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Negative
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if one increases while other decreases
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Quantitative research
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research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales.
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Qualitative research
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research that considers qualities, not quantities. Narrative accounts and individual variations are often stressed.
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Code of ethics
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a set of moral principles or guidelines that members of a profession or group are expected to follow
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Developmental theory
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is a group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. Provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
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Norm
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an average or typical standard of behaviour or accomplishment, such as the norm for age of walking or the norm for greeting a stranger. A norm is neither a median nor a mean, a norm is a mode.
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Psychoanalytic theory
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Began from Freud’s theory. A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behaviour.
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oral stage
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Infancy (birth – 1 yr): the mouth. Freud
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anal stage
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Early childhood (1 – 3 yrs): the anus. Freud
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phallic stage
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Preschool years (3 – 6 yrs): the penis. Freud
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trust vs. mistrust
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birth – 1 yr. Babies either trust that others will care for their basic needs or develop mistrust about the care of others. Erikson
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autonomy vs. shame + doubt
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1 – 3 yrs. Children either become self-sufficient in many activities or doubt their own abilities. Erikson.
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initiative vs. guilt
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3 – 6 yrs. Children either want to undertake many adultlike activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. Erikson.
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industry vs. inferiority
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6 – 11 yrs. Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior. Erikson.
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identity vs. role confusion
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adolescence. Adolescents try to figure out “who am i?”. They establish sexual political, etc. identities or are confused about what roles they play. Erikson.
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intimacy vs. isolation
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adulthood. Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others b/c they fear rejection. Erikson.
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generativity vs. stagnation
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adulthood. Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work raising families etc, or they stagnate. Erikson
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integrity vs. despair
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adulthood. Older adults try to make sense out of their lives either seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing goals they never achieved. Erikson
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Behaviourism
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a grand theory of human development that studies observable behaviour. Laws and processes by which people learn behaviors. Change is cumulative.
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Conditioning
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according to behaviourism the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.
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Classical conditioning
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the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before the conditioning (also called respondent conditioning)
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Skinner
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created operant conditioning (also called instrumental conditioning)
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Operant conditioning
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the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (makes the action more likely to occur) or by something unwanted (makes the action less likely to occur).
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Reinforcements
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when a behavior is followed by something desired such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.
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Social learning theory
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an extension of behaviourism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behaviour. Even w/o specific reinforcement every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people. Also called observational learning.
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Modelling
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the central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them.
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Self-efficacy
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in social learning theory the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context.
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Cognitive theory
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a grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours.
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Sensorimotor
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birth – 2 yrs. Infants use sense to understand world. Active learning. Advantages: Infants learn that an object exists when out of their sight called object permanence. One of Piaget’s 4 stages of development.
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Preoperational
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2 – 6 years. Using language to understand world. Egocentric thinking. Advantages: imagination flourishes language becomes significant means of self-expression. One of Piaget’s 4 stages of development.
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Concrete operational
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6 – 11 yrs. Children understand and apply logical operations. Objectivity and rationality. Thinking is limited to own experiences. Advantages: conversation numbers, classifications, etc. understood through logical abilities. One of Piaget’s 4 stages of development.
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Formal operational
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12 – adulthood. Abstractions and hypothetical concepts. Reason analytically not just emotionally. Advantages: ethics, politics, and social and moral issues become fascinating as adolescents and adults take a broader and more theoretical approach to experience. One of Piaget’s 4 stages of development.
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Cognitive equilibrium
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in cognitive theory a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas.
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conginitive disequilibrium
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an imbalance that creates confusion
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Assimilation
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the reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas.
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Accommodation
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the restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences. More difficult than assimilation but produces intellectual advancement.
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Information-processing theory
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a perspective that compares human thinking processes by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output. Seen as not a single theory, but a framework characterizing a large number of research programs.
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Sociocultural theory
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a newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
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Vygotsky
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founder of sociocultural theory
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Apprenticeship in thinking
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Vygotsky’s term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society.
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Guided participation
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the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
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Zone of proximal development
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in sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area or “zone” surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close (“proximal”) to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.
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Humanism
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a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs regardless of culture, gender, or background. Maslow founded it.
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Physiological needs
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food, water, warmth, air. 5 needs of humans. 1st
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Safety
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feeling protected from injury and death. 5 needs of humans. 2nd
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Love and belonging
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having loving friends, family, and a community. 5 needs of humans. 3rd
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Esteem
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being respected by the wider community as well as by oneself. 5 needs of humans. 4th
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Self-actualization
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becoming truly oneself fulfilling one’s unique potential while appreciating all of humanity. 5 needs of humans. 5th
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Unconditional positive regard
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all humans should give each other this meaning that they should see each other with appreciation without conditions.
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Evolutionary theory
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a theory in which many human impulses needs, and behaviours evolved to help humans survive and thrive over millions of years, with children particularly protected. Survival and reproduction are the two longest standing, biologically based drives.
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Selective adaptation
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the process by which living creatures adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected over the generations, to become more prevalent.
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.
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Chromosome
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one of the 46 molecules of DNA in 23 pairs that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that together, contain all the genes.
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Gene
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a small section of a chromosome the basic unit for the transmission of heredity.
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Allele
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a variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes for the same characteristics. Many genes never vary others have several possible alleles.
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Genome
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the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species.
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Gamete
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reproductive cell. Either sperm or ovum.
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Zygote
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the single cell formed from the union of two gametes one sperm and one ovum.
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Genotype
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an organism’s entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential.
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Homozygous
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Referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly the same in every letter of their code. Most gene pairs are homozygous.
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Heterozygous
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referring to two genes of one pair that differ in some way. Typically one allele has only a few base pairs that differ from the other member of the pair.
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23rd pair
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the chromosome pair that in humans, determines sex.
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XX
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a 23rd chromosome pair that consists of two x-shaped chromosomes one each from the mother and father, XX zygotes become females.
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XY
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a 23rd chromosome pair that consists of an x-shaped chromosome from the mother and a y-shaped chromosome from the father. XY zygotes become male.
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Stem cells
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: cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form.
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Monozygotic (MZ) twins
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twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development (identical twins). All genes in common.
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Dizygotic (DZ) twins
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twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time (fraternal twins). Half of genes in common.
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Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
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a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
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In vitro fertilization (IVF)
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fertilization that takes place outside a woman’s body (as in a glass laboratory dish). Mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman’s ovary. If zygote produces, it is inserted in woman’s uterus.
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Phenotype
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the observable characteristics of a person including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits.
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Polygenic
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referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes.
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Multifactorial
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referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental, that enhance, halt, shape, or alter the expression of genes, resulting in a phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype.
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Epigenetic
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referring to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression – enhancing, halting, shaping, or altering the expression of genes and resulting in phenotype that may differ markedly from the genotype.
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Human Genome Project
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an international effort to map the complete human genetic code. The effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing.
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Additive
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some alleles are additive because their effects add up to influence the phenotype.
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Dominant-recessive pattern
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the interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reflects one allele (the dominant gene) more so than the other allele (the recessive gene).
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Carrier
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a person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in their phenotype. Occurs in half the carrier’s gametes and therefore passes onto half of the carrier’s children.
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x-linked
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a gene carried on the x chromosome.
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Copy number variations
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genes with various repeats or deletions of base pairs.
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Parental imprinting
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some genes are affected by whether they came from the father or mother. Ex. Prader-Willi and Angelman. Both result in congnitive impairment, both caused by deletion of small piece of chromosome 15. However, from father’s chromosome 15: Prader-Willi, obese, slow-moving, stubborn. From the mother’s chromosome 15: Angelman, thin, hyperactive, happy – laughing at inappropriate times.
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Current Consensus
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1. Genes affect every aspect of behaviour, 2. Most environmental influences in children raised in the same home are not shared, 3. Genes elicit responses that shape development. Personality might be a cause, not a result of experiences, 4. Throughout life, people choose friends and environments that encourage their genetic predispositions (called niche-picking). Therefore, genetic effects increase with age
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Heritability
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a statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes.
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Syndrome
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a cluster of distinct characteristics that tend to occur together.
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Down syndrome
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a condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of 46, with 3 rather than 2 chromosomes at the 21st site. Also called trisomy-21
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Huntington disease
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a fatal central nervous system disorder caused by genetic miscode – more than 35 repetitions of a particular triplet. Effects do not begin until middle adulthood.
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Fragile x syndrome
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a genetic disorder in which part of the x chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause is a single gene that has more than 200 replications of one triplet.
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Genetic counselling
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consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive.
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Phenylketonuria (PKU)
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a genetic disorder in which a child’s body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine. Unless the infant immediately begins a special diet, the resulting build up of phenylalanine in body fluids causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms.
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Germinal period
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the first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation
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Embryonic period
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the stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eight week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop
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Fetal period
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the stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds and organs become more mature, gradually able to function on their own
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Implantation
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the process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
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Embryo
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the name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception
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primitive streak
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appears down middle of embryo. This later becomes the neural tube.
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Cephaloucadal pattern
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“head-to-tail”, head develops first
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Proximodistal pattern
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“near-to-far”, from the spinal cord out develops, extremities develop after head-to-tail
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Fetus
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the name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth.
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SRY gene
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triggers sex development of males in ninth week, otherwise fetus is female
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Ultrasound
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an image of a fetus (or an internal organ) produced by using high-frequency sound waves. Sex of fetus visible at end of 3rd month.
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Age of viability
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the age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus might survive outside the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available
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Apgar scale
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a quick assessment of a newborn’s health. Baby’s color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice – at 1 min and at 5 mins after birth – and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the max score of 10 (rare). Use the name as an acronym: APPEARANCE, PULSE, GRIMACE, ACTIVITY, RESPIRATION
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Cesarean section
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a surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother’s abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina
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Doula
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a woman who helps with the birth process
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Teratogens
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agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death
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Behavioral teratogens
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agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning
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Teratology
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science of risk analysis. All teratogens increase risk of harm, none always cause damage
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Threshold effect
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in prenatal development, when a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level
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Vitamin A
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essential for healthy development but a cause of abnormalities if the dose is 50,000 units per day or higher
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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
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a cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, that may occur in the fetus of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant.
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Low birthweight
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defined by the World Health Organization as under 2,500 g (5.5 pounds)
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Very low birthweight
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under 1,500 g (3lbs 5 ounces)
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Extremely low birthweight
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under 1,000 g (2 lbs 3 ounces)
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Preterm
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a birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38/40 weeks of the typical pregnancy
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Small for gestational age
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a term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.
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Cerebral palsy
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a disorder that results from damage to the brain’s motor centers. Difficulty with muscle control
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Anoxia
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a lack of oxygen that if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death
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Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
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a test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes
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Reflex
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unlearned, involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus
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Reflexes that maintain oxygen supply
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the breathing reflex begins before the umbilical cord is cut, hiccups and sneezes as well as thrashing to escape something that covers the face
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Reflexes that maintain constant body temperature
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cry, shiver, tuck their legs in close to their bodies. When they are hot, push away blankets
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Reflexes that manage feeding
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sucking reflex causes newborns to suck anything that touches their lips, rooting reflex causes babies to turn their mouths toward anything that brushes their cheeks, swallowing, crying when stomach is empty, spitting up when too much has been swallowed too quickly
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Babinski reflex
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when a newborns feet are stroked, the toes fan up
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Stepping reflex
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when newborns are held upright, feet touching a flat surface, they move their legs as if to walk
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Swimming reflex
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when held horizontally on their stomachs, stretch legs and arms out
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Palmar grasping reflex
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when something touches their palms, they grip tightly
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Moro reflex
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when someone bangs on the table they are lying on, newborns fling their arms outward and then bring them to their chest, crying with wide-open eyes
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Couvade
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symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by the fathers
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Parental alliance
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a commitment by both parents to cooperate in raising the child
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Postpartum depression
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9 – 15 percent of women, a sense of inadequacy and sadness (baby blues to postpartum psychosis range)
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Parent-infant bond
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the strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn
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Kangaroo care
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a form of newborn care in which mothers rest their babies on their naked chests, like kangaroo mothers that carry their immature newborns in a pouch on their abdomen
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Synaptic pruning
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synapses are destroyed to create a more efficient network
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Preformationism
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parallel to miniature adult. Plato. Homonuculus: “little man” inside all of us
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John Locke
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philosopher. ideas from experience. Tabula rasa: blank slate; infant’s mind.
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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noble savage. Children innately good, child on their own would be just fine without society.
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Romantic naturalism
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children will naturally figure it out. (Jean-Jacques Rousseau)
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Foundling homes
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basically orphanages. Diseases spread quickly, horrible conditions. Example for data matters.
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Cholera + John Snow
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fatal disease, diarrhea/vomiting. John Snow made map of victims to figure out it was coming from water, and specific wells.
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Hemphill
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cut off for large correlations in 1000’s of studies seemed to be r=0.30
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Arnold Gesell
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co-twin control with 1 yr old MZ twins. Trained 1 twin 20 min/day for 6 weeks on stair climbing and picking up books. After training: trained twin was better. After 5 weeks: evened out, the training effect was temporary.
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Thomas Bouchard
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u of m. twins reared apart. Plenty of similarities, married women named linda and betty (1st/2nd marriages), named sons James Alan and James Allan. Conclusion: evidence for genetic influence for most medical and psychological traits studied.
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Passive G-E correlation
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similar genes + so parents produce environments that are compatible with those genes (child’s genetic predispositions). – you are not the one that had a choice in the environment
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Evocative G-E correlation
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direct link between child’s genes + environment. Child’s genes influence their behaviour in turn, influences how others respond to the child. Child is evoking that environment out of others through his own genes. “self-fulfilling prophecy”
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Active G-E correlation
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niche-picking. Direct link between environment and genes. Children actively seek or create environments that are compatible with them.
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G-E effects by age
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Shaffer. Prof disagrees because characteristics change through time, but basically: passive weakens through time, evocative remains the same, active strengthens through time.
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Canalization
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pathways are carved. Environments we choose carve different paths. Change possible mostly early on, after a while you are in too deep to get out. Developmental pathways.
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Reaction range
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hereditary provides a range of possible outcomes, environment determines where in the range you end up.
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Birth catch-up
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small babies experience extra gain to catch up to the norm
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Head sparing
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a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition
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Percentile
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a point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the people in the population being studied rank higher and half rank lower.
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REM sleep
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rapid eye movement sleep. Flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, rapid brain waves. Half of the sleep of full-term newborns (preterms sleep more)
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Co-sleeping
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a custom in which parents and their children (usually infants) sleep together in the same room.
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Neurons
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the billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain.
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Brain stem
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controls automatic responses such as heartbeat, breathing, temperature, arousal.
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Midbrain
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areas that affect emotions and memory
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Cortex
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the brain’s six outer layers (also called neocortex)
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Frontal cortex
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assists in planning, self-control, self-regulation. Very immature in newborn
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Auditory cortex
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hearing is acute at birth, the result of months of eavesdropping in fetal period
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Visual cortex
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vision is the least mature sense at birth because fetus has nothing to see in womb
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Prefrontal cortex
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the area of cortex at front of brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, impulse control. Last part to mature
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Axons
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a fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrite of other neurons
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Dendrite
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a fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
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Synapse
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the intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons
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Neurotransmitters
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carry information from the axon of the sending neuron across the synaptic gap to the dendrites of the receiving neuron, a process speeded up by myelination.
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Transient exuberance
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the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant’s brain during the first 2 years of life
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Pruning
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when applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die.
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Experience-expectant brain functions
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brain functions that require certain basic common experiences (which an infant can be expected to have) in order to develop normally.
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Experience-dependant brain functions
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brain functions that depend on particular, variable experiences and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant
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Shaken baby syndrome
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a life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections. Considered abusive head trauma
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Self-righting
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the inborn drive to remedy deficits. Emotional as well as physical imbalance.
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Sensation
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the response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus
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Perception
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the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation. Perception occurs in the cortex and require experience.
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Binocular vision
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the ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated matter in order to see one image. This ability is absent at birth. At about 14 weeks.
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Motor skills
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the learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the eyelid.
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Gross motor skills
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physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping
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Fine motor skills
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physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin
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Pincer movement
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using thumb and forefinger to pick up tiny objects
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Sit, head steady
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50% of babies at 3 months and 95% of babies at 4 months.
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Sit, unsupported
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50% of babies at 6 months and 95% of babies at 7 months.
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Pull to stand (holding on)
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50% of babies at 9 month and 95% of babies at 10 months.
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Stand alone
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50% of babies at 12 months, 95% of babies at 14 months.
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Walk well
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50% of babies at 13 months, 95% of babies at 15 months.
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Walk backward
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50% of babies at 15 months, 95% of babies at 17 months.
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Run
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50% of babies at 18 months, 95% of babies at 20 months.
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Jump up
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50% of babies at 26 months, 95% of babies at 29 months.
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Immunization
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the process of protecting a person against a disease, via antibodies. Immunization can happen naturally, when someone survives a disease, or medically, usually via a small dose of the virus that stimulates the production of antibodies and thus renders a person immune. Also called vaccination.
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Colostrum
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thick, high calorie fluid secreted by the mother’s breasts at birth.
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Protein-calorie malnutrition
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a condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in severe illnesses, severe weight loss, and even death.
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Stunting
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the failure of children to grow to a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition
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Wasting
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the tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition.
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Marasmus
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a disease of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, and the infant eventually dies.
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Kwashiorkor
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a disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, and influenza. “a disease of the older child when a new baby arrives”
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Sensorimotor intelligence
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piaget’s term for the way infants think – by using their senses and motor skills – during the first period of cognitive development.
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Circular reactions
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piaget’s description of the interaction of sensation, perception and cognition.
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Primary circular reactions
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the first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, the one involving the infant’s own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimuli and tries to understand them.
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Stage 1
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reflexes, birth – 1 month
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Stage 2
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the first acquired adaptations (grabbing bottle to suck it), 1 – 4 months
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Secondary circular reactions
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the second of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects. Infants respond to other people, to toys, and to any other object they can touch or more.
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Stage 3
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making interesting sights last (repetition), 4 – 8 months
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Stage 4
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new adaptation and participation, 8 – 12 months
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Goal-directed behaviour
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purposeful action.
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Object permanence
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the realization that objects still exist when they can no longer be seen, touched or heard.
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Tertiary circular reactions
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the third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experimentation. Infant explore a range of new activities, varying their responses as a way of learning about the world.
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Stage 5
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new means through active experimentation (12-18 months) – “little scientist”
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Stage 6
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mental combinations (18-24 months)
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Deferred imitation
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a sequence in which an infant first perceives something done by someone else and then performs the same action hours or even days later.
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Little scientist
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the stage 5 toddler (12-18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial and error in active and creative exploration.
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Piaget and modern research
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many infants reach the sensorimotor stage earlier than Piaget predicted. Problems with his research: sample too small, methods too simple, no brain activity documented.
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fMRI
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functional magnetic resonance imaging, a measuring technique in which the brain’s electrical excitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain; fMRI helps researchers locate neurological responses to stimuli.
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Information processing theory
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a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
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Affordances
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an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment.
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Visual cliff
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an experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden drop-off between one horizontal surface and another.
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Dynamic perception
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perception that is primed to focus on movement and change.
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People preference
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an universal principle of infant perception, specifically an innate attraction to other humans, evident in visual, auditory, and other preferences.
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Memory
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the mobile and the string.
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Reminder session
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a perceptual experience that helps a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience.
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Implicit memory
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unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and various sensations.
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Explicit memory
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memory that is easy to retrieve on demand. Most explicit memory involves consciously learned words, data, and concepts.
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Child directed speech
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the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants and children (baby talk, motherese).
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Babbling
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an infants repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old.
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Holophrase
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a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought.
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Naming explosion
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a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nous, that begins at about 18 months of age.
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Grammar
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all the methods – word order, verb forms, and so on – that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves.
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Theory of learning language
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skinner, reinforcement.
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Social-pragmatic
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theory of language. Infants communicate because humans are social beings, dependent on one another for survival and joy.
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Theory of language
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children’s teach themselves. Chomsky.
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Language acquisition device (LAD)
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chomsky’s term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation.
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Colic
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bouts of uncontrollable crying for infants, probably due to immature digestion.
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Social smile
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a smile evoked by a human face, normally evident in infants six weeks after birth.
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Cortisol
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stress hormone
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Stranger wariness
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an infant’s expression of concern – a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar person, or sadness – when a stranger appears
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Separation anxiety
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an infant’s distress when a familiar caregiver leaves, most obvious between 9 and 14 months.
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Self-awareness
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a person’s realization that he or she is a distinct individual, whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people.
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cross-modal perception
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the sensory connections
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temperament
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inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. Temperament is epigenetic, originating in genes but affected by child-rearing practices.
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Goodness of fit
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a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community.
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Trust vs mistrust
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erikson’s first psychological crisis. Infants learn basic trust if their basic needs are met.
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Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
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erikson’s second psychological crisis. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
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Social learning
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learning that is accomplished by observing others. (behaviourism)
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– Albert bandura
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children watched video of frustrated man hitting bobo doll, children imitated.
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Working model
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in cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. Ex. A person might assume other people are always trustworthy and be surprised when this working model is proven inadequate.
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Ethnotheory
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a theory that underlies values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture.
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Proximal parenting
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caregiving practices that involve being physically close to a baby, with frequent holding and touching.
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Distal parenting
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caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from a baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching.
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Synchrony
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a coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant.
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Still-face technique
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an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.
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Attachment
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according to ainsworth, an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver- a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
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Proximity seeking and contact maintaining
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ways infant show their attachment
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Birth to 6 weeks
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preattachment. Newborns signal by crying that they need others
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6 weeks to 8 months
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attachment in the making. Infants respond preferentially to familiar people by smiling, laughing, babbling
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8 months to 2 years
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classic secure attachment. Infants greet the primary caregiver, show separation anxiety, proximity seeking.
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2 to 6 years
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attachment as launching pad. Seek praise and reassurance.
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6 to 12 years
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mutual attachment. Make caregivers proud
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12 to 18 years
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new attachment figures. Friendships.
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18 years and on
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attachment revisited. Romantic partners and children.
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Secure attachment
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a relationship type(B) in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of their caregiver.
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Insecure-avoidant attachment
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a relationship type (A) in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return.
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Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment
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a relationship type (C) in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.
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Disorganized attachment
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relationship type (D) that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return.
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Strange situation
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created by ainsworth. A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infant’s reactions to stress in eight episodes of three minutes each.
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Social referencing
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seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else’s expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference.
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Myelination
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the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.
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Corpus callosum
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a long, thick band of nerve fiber that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them.
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Lateralization
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literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
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Perseveration
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the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time
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Amygdala
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a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.
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Hippocampus
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a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations.
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Hypothalamus
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a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body.
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Injury control/harm reduction
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practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place.
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Accident autopsy
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analysis to see a primary cause of injury. When child is hit by car: parental neglect (microsystem), traffic lights absent (exosystem), entire nation values speedy cars over slow pedestrians (macrosystem).
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Primary prevention
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actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse.
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Secondary prevention
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actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian.
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Tertiary prevention
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actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event (such as illness or injury) occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability.
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Child maltreatment
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intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone over 18 years of age
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Child abuse
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deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.
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Child neglect
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failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.
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Reported maltreatment
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harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities.
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Substantiated maltreatment
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harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified.
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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an anxiety disorder that develops as a delayed reaction to having experienced or witnessed a profoundly shocking or frightening event, such as a rape, severe beating, war, or natural disaster. Its symptoms may include flashbacks to the event, hyperactivity and hypervigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, nightmares, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality.
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Permanency planning
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an effort by child-welfare authorities to find a long-term living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful to the child.
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Foster care
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a legal, publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents custody and entrusted to another adult or family, which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child’s needs.
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Kinship care
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a form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver.
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Dubowitz test
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determine gestational age if age of fertilization unknown. Higher the score, higher the gestational age. Very positive correlation.
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Benson’s experiment
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kids who are born in winter walk quicker
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Object permanence
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incomplete at first. A-not-B error. (when hidden twice, child looks at location A twice – instead of first location A and then location B)
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assimilate
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try to understand with pre-existing knowledge
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werker conclusion
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decline in phonemic sensitivity between 6 and 12 months

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