Essay Questions for Sociolgy Final Exam

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Complete definition of Sociology
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Sociology is the scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. Sociology is credited to Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Sociology is derived from two words: Socius, which means \”companion\” or \”associate\” Logos, which means \”word\” \”words about human associations or society\”
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Difference between Sociology and Social work?
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Is social work a social science? It is not social work is a field that uses the principles of sociology are applied to actual social problems in the same way the principles of physiology are applied to medicine and the principles of economics are applied to business.
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Social structure of a society
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Common sense and sociology?
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Common Sense?Often distorts reality Misconceptions Myths Often Contradictions Perceptions often change over time Basis
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Sociological imagination
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Social imagination: a quality of mind that allows us to understand the influence of history and biography on our interactive processes. \”Our experience guide our perceptions\” – C. Wright Mills -There is more then what I can just see in front of me.Ex: glass of orange juice and asking how it got to you or the store and if it is natural or not.
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Origins of sociological thinking and its historical development
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Origins of sociological thinking Auguste Comte-The farther of sociology Argued for Empirical study of societyAuguste Comte… \”Science of man\” – 2 areas of concentration The Science of Man – Book …social statics….how various institutions are…. InterrelatedFocusing on order, stability and interrelated harmony. ..social dynamics …study of complete society’s ..how they develop and change over time.
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Steps in research design
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Give me the Social Research Design steps : Defining research problem/topical!Formulate a research question?Why worthy research?What areFactors associated with domestic violence Factors associated with drug use and crimeOne lead to the other?Narrow the topic as much as possible Pain killers….heroin!Review LiteratureAlready known!Look at Published works?.NET.gov.orgNew perspectives? Define (The independent variable leads to or causes the dependent variable)Independent VariablesLeads/causes dependentIs expected to Explain change in D.Dependent Variables What’s being predicted Used in making predictionFormulate a HypothesisPrecise Terminology! How are the variable related to one another?Operational/ how measured? Observation and surveyInterviewing college students during lunch hours and survey on FacebookNominal/ what measured?Relationship between cell/texting phones and friendshipsChose a research methodHow is the data collected Population: Group you are studying Sample size :(Must be random) TypesSurvey!At least 20 questionsObservation Interview Field Research!Participant observation!Experiment!Manipulating IV and how……it affects DV.Research Methods Collect DataCheck validity from several sources Analyze ResultsAssemble, organize and classify data!Test HypothesisMeasure variables and their associationMean(average), Median(Middle number), Mode (Number that occurs most often Interpret results and draw conclusions Theory : plausible assertions…. Explain phenomena….. ScientificallyHypothesis: Prediction…. Reasonably follows… Theory.Variables change studied!Direct, Inverse and NullVariables: Changes…. Independent leads to dependentConstants : Do not change Nominal Definitions: Essence of idea….Operational Definitions (how am I going to do it) : Essence of idea… in measurementReliability(consistency over time): ….Consistency…Validity(Accuracy)-Can I repeat this experiment again did you measure the same results Research Methods: Quantitative(numbers) Methods Variables measured in numbers-Age, Income crime rates Concepts and variables-Concept is abstract system of meanings.Ex: Dollar-Variable is something that can change Ex: Level of income Survey \”population\” …group to be studied \”Representative\” sample of ……..group surveyed Random sample can be used….-anyone can be chosen …..to obtain …\”generalization\”Research Methods: Qualitative Methods Techniques:-Historical Records -Does Time……. In history influence the findings?Records accurate, complete, unbiased ?Interviews and Life Histories -Structured interviews seek… -Detailed answers to questions -Life histories seek… -….to discover essential features of a lifetimeTable
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Complete definition of culture
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Culture: System of ideas, values, beliefs ….knowledge ,norms ,customs,…..and Technology…. ….Shared by almost everyone……..in a society ….all that human beings…learn….to do ……to use……….to produce……to know………and to believe…….to grow to maturity….inSocial groups….!
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Material/non material culture
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Material Cultural : Things that we produce including physical (tangible) the things we can see and touch House we live in The movies we go too see The cars we drive Nonmaterial culture: Rules and Symbols Cognitive Culture: Shared beliefs -Work hard and you will prosper Language and Symbols!
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Difference s between cultural relativism/ ethnocentrism and xenocentricm
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Culture Shock: Difficulty adjusting to differences in another culture!Not burping in another culture is rude Ethnocentrism: Judgments based on our own culture/ values Cultural Relativism: culture understood on own terms before comparisons! Multi- Culturalism : Beliefs cultures from different perspectives The melting pot of different cultures Cultural Lag: New patterns of behavior emerge conflict w/ traditional values ! Reformulation old trait modified to fit! Cultural relativism : Cultures should be studied in their own terms not judged .Xenocentrism: Belief foreign culture is best Temp centrism : time is more important
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Major \”agents of socialization\”
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Agents of socialization: Family, peers, school ,media ,community groups and jobs Three perspectives on family Functionalist Perspective: Agents of socialization! Society The family models create Rules/ Expectations! , Emotional and Sexual Reponses and Behavior.Principle of legitimacy: Every society has a feeling or a want or need to have a farther or farther figure that is legitimate part of their lives.Social Placement: Where they are fit into the status or society
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Effect of mass media and socialization
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Socialization: The process people learn culture bySecondary Socialization Socialization outside family after childhood.-hidden curriculum Ex: School teaches students expectations! Be good citizens after they leave school.Primary Socialization: Comes from family
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5 types of social interaction
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Types of social interactions Generally, Humans interact with intention(plan to do it)5 types of intentional social interaction Exchange: goods, ideas, actionsCooperation : equals cohesion and unity Competition: To achieve or get better Conflict: can be healthyCoercion: Forcing you to do something, Pressure to do something
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Effect of group size on the group
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Group Size Dyad: Smallest group for interaction only two peopleSize has dramatic effect on members interactions.As size increases division of labor increases = need for formal leadership = Communication patterns change = Group cohesion(Less intimate and more sub cultures and counter cultures) decreases!
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Difference between in group and out group
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In Groups and Out Groups In Groups ….Heightened sense of belonging and loyalty Small or large, but loyalty sets them apart.Out Groups Groups…. not a member of Less then to no sense of belonging or loyalty(no reason or interest to be apart of the group)Out groups treated/indifference Interest of in and out groups can clash
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What a bureaucracy is
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• Formal organization…. Directs and coordinates efforts of those involved in various organizational task Classical work Max Weber
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Freud’s view of self
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Id: drives and instincts • Every human inherits but remain unconscious. o Super Ego: Society’s norms and moral values as • Primary from parents norms , values and beliefs o Ego: (Id and super ego balancing kind of like a sea saw ) • Mediates conflict between id and super ego. • Find \”socially Acceptable\” ways for id’s drives to be expressed. • Sigmund Freud and the development of Personality
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Meads \”generalized other\”, significant \”other\” and the \”I\” and \”me\”
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The I and The me • Mead’s stages of development o 3 stages • Preparatory stage Child imitates the behavior of others. Lacking a sense of self so they will imitate others • Play Stage Around 3 to 6 • Playing house, cops/ robbers, etc Child begins to formulate role expectations • example: Toy tuck commercial • Game Stage Able to take on multiple roles Requiring complex interactions with other roles Child learns rules that specify \”proper and correct relationships\” among the players
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5 types of social interaction
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…o Exchange: goods, ideas, actions o Cooperation : equals cohesion and unity o Competition: To achieve or get better o Conflict: can be healthy o Coercion: Forcing you to do something, Pressure to do something
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Cooley’s looking glass self
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…• Early Socialization(Socialization is a process) o Started chapter with adult re socialization • Number in prison • Boot in the military
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Effect of isolation and \”Feral\” children
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…• Children raised in the wild (This is folk lore) o Often can’t talk! o Can not learn language as adults o Lack Manners (Manners are socialized) o Act animalistic even after extensive therapy o \”Aveyron\” and Caldara
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5 types of societies?
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…• Order of Complexity o Pre-Industrial • Limited production, limited division of labor, limited variation of social classes 7. Industrial • Technology, clear leadership structure, means of production 8. Agrarian • Agrarian societies, hierarchical structure, more farming, more roles 9. Advanced Horticultural • More upon more roles, dependence, more stratification 10. Simple Horticultural • Introduction of new roles, new found leadership 11. Hunting-and-Gathering • Defined roles, not a lot of stratification within
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4 types of social \”stratification\”?
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…• Caste : • Estate : Inherit , Born into this stauts after your estate( Blue blood and old money) • Slavery : • Class
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Major social classes in US?
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Upper ClassesUpper Upper : Traditionally wealthyLower Upper : Recent wealth Middle ClassesUpper Middle: Educated professional Lower Middle: White collar workers; services American Working Class: Extremely vulnerable to….Disruptions in income due to layoffs or unemployment Cannot afford to pay for their children’s college education Working Poor: Under Class: Homeless, not able to get a job , high school drop
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\”Working poor\” and \”truly disadvantaged
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working poor ….spend at least 27 weeks annually in labor force (working or looking for work) income falls below \”official\” poverty level. American Social Classes Truly disadvantaged o People who live predominantly in the inner city feel trapped in a cycle of joblessness, deviance, crime , poverty, welfare dependency and unstable home family life.
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What poverty is?
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…Lacking in resources necessary for material well being land and health care as well. Traditionally food and water and housing Homeless 3 million US
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Culture of poverty
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the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
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Difference between race and ethnicity?
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…Race: Socially constructed (we invent it) category! • Physical characteristics o Facial Features o Body type o Skin color • Ethnicity o Shared cultural traits o Strong Community o Ethnocentrism o Territoriality (Very Exclusive) • Confederate Flags o Often Ascribed (born into) o Jews and Mormons o Hispanics and southerners
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3 components of racism?
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…, 1) belief in white superiority 2) belief in racial segregation 3) discrimination against blacks
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Difference between prejudice and discrimination.?
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…• Prejudice o Race o Ethnicity o Sexual Preference o Theories of prejudice • Economic: Competition of scare resources • Psychological: Satisfies personality Defect! • Discrimination! o Outright exclusion ! o Rights! Opportunities! o Privileges!
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stereotype
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…, a generalized belief about a group of people
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What are the types of families in US?
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…• Blended/Step/ Childless • Same Sex/ Polygamous(Many different spouses)
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Difference between expulsion and annihilation of certain groups
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…• Expulsion o Forceful removal of a racial or ethic group…homeland! o Examples: Native American relocation • Annihilation: o Process by which one group exterminates another o Groups: • Ethnic, racial o Rwandwa genocide
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Difference between \”minority\” and \”majority\” groups?
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…• Minority o Less about power not size • US White males! • Apartheid
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Structural functionalist perspective of family
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Traditional View : Blood, marriage ,adoption (residence/ reciprocal rights) Assumption that something happens both ways. Assumes: Legal Union/ Children! Many challenge : Conjugal (Smallest family unit husband and wife married ) , Nuclear(Atomic relationship 2 people living together brother and sister living together bonding relating to blood married and adoption) and single ParentBlended/Step/ ChildlessSame Sex/ Polygamous(Many different spouses)/ Extended (more then one generation cousins ,aunts, uncles in the same house)Kinship : Relationship web among a group of peopleFamily of Orientation : People you grow up with who your socialized by.Family of Procreation: Your family and new generation eating dinner with your socialized fa
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Structural poverty
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explanation of poverty that says people are unmotivated because they are poor; no matter how hard they try the cards are always stacked against them, so they eventually just give up

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