Ed Psy Ch. 4 Learning Disabilites – Flashcards

Flashcard maker : Oscar Hall
labeling is a very ________ issue
some see labels as a stigma that can’t be changed, or are mistaken for explanations for behavior, but on otherhand being labeled special needs may have classmates more willing to accept them
the inability to do something specific such as walk or hear or pronounce words
a disadvantage in a particular situation, sometimes caused by a disability; sometimes disabilities lead to handicaps; blind is a handicap when driving, but not when composing music (steven hawking and leu gerigs disease)
important we don’t create handicaps for people by the way we react to their disability
some suggest dropping term handicap because came from phrase capinhand and people with disabilities often had to
beg on the street
human characteristics are all on a continuum meaning
we all have different position and it changes over time (great hearing to complete deafness)
when speaking about disabilities avoid pity language “confined in wheelchair” or “victim of aids”
use person first language “students with a behavior disorder” or “students placed at risk” instead of
“emotionally disturbed student” or “at risk student” because it implies their disability is the most important aspect of the person
racial and ethnic minority students are ________ in the disability categories and _________ in gifted programs (blacks and latinos) pg. 118
overrepresented; underrepresented
causes of over and under representation
higher poverty rates among blacks and latinos, poorer parental care, nutrition, health care, systematic biases in teachers attitudes, curriculum, instruction and referral process itself and teachers lack of preparation for working effectively with ethnic minority students; teachers should have more knowledge about the student and his/her circumstances outside school to make better decisions about what programs are appropriate
blacks twice as likely to identified with mental health condition, three times likely to have intellectually disability and more likely than whites or asians to be placed outside general ed
latinos less likely to be diagnosed inalmost all categories except hearing
gifted programs only have 8 percent of blacks and latinos when they are about 20 to 13 percent of student population
ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world; “ability to reason deductively or inductively, think abstractly, use analogies, synthesize information, and apply it to new domains
theories on nature of intelligence (way back 2000 yrs to Plato)
1) capacity to learn
2) total knowledge a person has acquired
3)ability to adapt successfully to new situations and to the environment in general
there are moderate to high correlations among scores on ____ mental tests
general intelligence
mental energy (g) to perform any mental test suggested by Spearman; a general factor in cognitive ability that is related in varying degrees to performance on all mental tests (ability to do any mental task based on g + task-specific abilities); not general intelligence itself- doesn’t help in understanding specific human abilities
fluid intelligence
Cattell and Horn’s definition; mental efficiency, nonverbal abilities grounded in brain development; may be related to changes in brain voume, myelinization, density of dopamine receptors, prefrontal lobe processing abilities, working memory; increases until late adolescence, sensitive to injuries and diseases (kanzawas def)
crystallized intelligence
ability to apply culturally approved problem-solving methods (kanzawas def); learned skills and knowledge (reading, facts, how to make quilt, design unit on symbolism in poetry, hail a cab), “application to new domains” can increase throughout life span
many tasks in life like mathematical reasoning use both
fluid and crystalized intelligence
most widely accepted psychometric view on intelligence is that it has many facets and is a hierarchy of abilities with general ability at the top and more specific abilities at lower levels
John Carroll identifies one general ability as
a few broad abilities (fluid and crystallized abilities, learning and memory, visual and auditory perception, processing and speed) and at least 70 specific abilities like language development, memory span, simple reaction time
general ability may be related to the maturation and functioning of the
frontal lobe of the brain
while specific abilities may be connected to
other parts of the brain
while working at Project Zero and VA Medical center with brain injured patients who were lost spatially but couldn’t do verbal task ______ concluded there are several separate mental abilities
theory of multiple intelligences
Garner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s 8 separate abilities:logical-mathematical, linguistic(verbal), musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic(movement), interpersonal(understanding others), intrapersonal(understanding self), and naturalist (understanding and observing natural and human-made patterns and systems); not defined to just 8 though
may be spiritual intelligence and existential intelligence
the abilities to contemplate big questions about the meaning of life
one student may excel in one of 8 and then have problems in others
Gardner believes intelligence has a ______ base
varying cultures and eras of history place different values on each
like farming values on naturalist, or verbal and math on technological; industrialized cultures label intelligence as a combo of linguistic and logical math skills in modern, secular schools
Gardner’s MI theory as not received wide acceptance in the ______community while many educators have embraced it
studies have shown that there may be connections among the intelligences
some suggest that several intelligences are talents like— research isn’t strong in evidence of adopting mI approach to enhance learning
music, bodily-kinestic skill
Gardner and supporters say critics have narrow view of intelligence and research about intelligence
Gardner based theory on set of criteria that are in wide range of research in psychology
-potential isolation by brain damage
-existence of prodigies and other exceptional individuals who are experts in some areas and average or below in others
-identifiable core operation or set of operations
-a distinctive developmental trajectory, culminating in expert performance
-evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility
-support from experimental psychological tasks
-evidence from psychometric findings
-susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system
Gardner doesn’t _______ existence of general abilty, but does question how useful it is as an explanation for human achievement
intelligence is not the same as the _______system (no auditory or visiual intelligence); and not the same as _____styles
sensory; learning
misuse of MI theory when study on diff ethnic groups in Australia to see if lacked special intelligences
this was pseudoscience and veiled racism and it was canclled
when using MI theory, focus on 6 entry points
narrative, logical-quantitative, aesthetic, experiential, interpersonal, existential/foundational (pg. 122 with examples)
Gardner believes 2 lessons are most important for teachers
1.) teachers should take the individual differences among students seriously and differentiate their instruction to connect with each student
2)any discipline, skill, or concept should be taught in several appropriate ways (not 8 ways every time)
-charts, movements, tables, equations, poetry, images, etc
theories of Spearman, Cattell and Horn, Carroll, and Gardner describe how individuals differ in _______ of intelligence (different abilities); work in cognitive psychology emphasizes ________ instead that is common to all people
content; information processing
debates on issue of ________ that emphasizes working memory capacity, abilities to focus attention and inhibit impulses and emotional self-regulation as aspects of fluid cognitive abilities
Behavioral and Brain Sciences (2006)
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of successful intelligence
a three-part description of the mental abilities (thinking process, coping with new experiences, and adapting to context) that lead to more or less intelligent behavior
successful intelligence
stresses that intelligence is more than what is tested by mental abilities measures; intelligence is about life success based on your own definition of success in your cultural context
3 functions served of elementary information processes
-higher-order planning, strategy selection and monitoring that’s performed by metacomponents (executive processes)
-performance components (taking notes to focus in class)
-gaining new knowledge gained by knowledge-acquisition components like separating relevant from irrelevant information as you try to understand a new concept
*people who are good at this are more likely to be successful on all types of test
applying metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components allows individuals to solve problems in different situations and develop 3 kinds of successful intelligence
analytic, creative and practice
analytic intelligence
involves applying these components to situations with relatively familiar problems
creative intelligence
necessary to cope successfully with new experiences in two ways by using insight and automaticity
ability to deal effectively with novel situations and find new solutions
the result of learning to perform a behavior or thinking process so thoroughly that the performance is automatic and doesn’t require effort
practical intelligence
highlights the importance of choosing an environment in which you can succeed, adapting to that environment, and reshaping if necessary; people who are successful often seek situations in which abilities will be valued, work hard to capitalize those abilities and compensate for any weaknesses (involves career choice and social skills); ppl with higher practical and analytical skills cope better to stresses in rapid changes
Sternberg’s WICS theory added concept of “wisdom”: goal of education is to help citizens use
-creativity to generate new ideas and problems as well as possible solutions to problems
-analytical intelligence to evaluate the quality of these solutions
-practical intelligence to implement decisions and persuade others of their value
-wisdom to ensure that these decisions help achieve a common good over the long and short terms
teachers, students, and parents are most familiar with intelligence as a number or score of an
IQ test
Binet(in france wanted to measure learning ability to protect students in poverty forced to leave school bc slow learners or victims of discrimination) and Simon wanted to measure not merely school achievement but also intellectual skills students needed o do well in school
mental age
in intelligence testing, a performance that represents average abilities for that age group (by Binet); a child succeeding on items passed by most 6 year olds has mental age of 6 whether child is 4, 5, 6, or 7 yrs old; Binet and Simon identified 58 tests (for each age group 3 to 13)
intelligence quotient (IQ)
score comparing mental and chronological ages; added after Binet’s test brought to US and revised at Standford making it the Stanford-Binet test; (been revised 5 times)
Inteligence Quotient formula
Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
deviation IQ
score based on a statistical comparison of an individual’s performance with the average performance of others in that age group; scores based on mental age as children get older don’t have same meaning, so had to do this
average score of IQ test
100; half get over, half get under
68 percent of general population will earn IQ scores between
85-115; 16 percent will get below 85 and 16 will score above 115; also these standards are true for white, native americans whos first language is English; debated if used for ethnic minority groups
Stanford binet test is by one student at a time by trained psychologist and takes ____ hours where the questions are asked ____; no reading or writing
2, orally;; students pay closer attention and motivated to do well when with an adult
group tests (whole school) are less likely to yield accurate picture of any one person’s abilities
true; may have trouble with directions, pencil may break, lose place on answer sheet, etc
Flynn effect by James Flynn (political scientist)
because of better health, smaller families, increased complexity in the environment, and more and more better schooling, IQ test scores are steadily rising; IQ tests are getting harder to keep average at 100 so now some average students of previous generation could be identified today as having intellectual disabilities; average score goes up about 18 points in 20 diff industrialized countries
(grigorenko) IQ test scores can provide some prediction of achievement but if
measures of self-regulated learning skills, practical intelligence, and creatively are included, more accurate predictions are likely
people with higher intelligence test scores tend to complete more years of school and have higher-status jobs; but when number of years of education held constant, correlation decreases between IQ scores, income and success in later life because
self regulation, motivation, social skills, and luck may make a difference in life achievement (earn over $3,400,000 with graduates with professional degrees; college graduates make over $200,000 more
from infancy through preschool and beyond
psychologists find no differences in general intelligence on the standard measures because tests designed to minimize sex differences
more males than females with very high or very low scores on tests
more variable, true
more boys diagnosed with learning disabilities, ADHD, and autism
boys more likely than girls to take physics
analyses that combine data from many different studies on the same topic that have found few differences in math achievement for boys and girls and in most countries comparable whereas in others like Russia and MX girls are better, but it Switzerland, Netherlands and Africa, girls are better
as general trend
girls tend to get higher grades than boys in math classes, boys scored below girls in reading literacy in 34 countries
males average better on tests with mental rotation of a figure in space, prediction of trajectories of moving objects and naviagting
some think because of evolution, others think its because of active play styles, experience with video games and participation in athletics; suggest differences in math scores comes from learning, not biology
in us and Germany girls found parity with boys in math perhaps to combat
differences in intelligence are result of both
heredity and environment (from pregnancy to quality of teaching child receives) (scores same with Asians vs. americans, but have higher in math bc way its taught and the self motivation skills)
IQ tests can never be free of cultural content even though they protect rights of children with poorer families and predict school success equally accurately for students of different races and income levels
so they always have some biases built in
students score should be used to support student’s learning and development and to identify effective practices
not to deny the student access to resources or appropriate teaching, cognitive skills are always improvable
intelligence is a current state of affairs
affected by past experiences and open to future changes
cognitive-centered styles
assess the ways people process information by being reflective or impulsive in responding
personality-centered styles
assess more stable personality traits such as being extroverted vs. introverted or relying on thinking vs. feeling
activity-centered styles
assess a combination of cognition and personality traits that affect how people approach activities, so these styles may be of special interest to teachers
surface-processing approach
focus on memorizing and learning materials, not understanding them and are motivated by rewards, grades, external standards and desire to evaluated positively by others
deep-processing approach
see learning activities as a means for understanding some underlying concepts or meanings. tend to learn for sake of learning and less concerned for how their performance is evaluated
learning styles
characteristic approaches to learning and studying; way a person approaches learning and studying
learning preferences
preferred ways of studying and learning, such as using pictures instead of text, working with other people vs.alone, learning in structured or in unstructured situations and so on (learning style inventory and learning style profile studying this)
matching learning with teaching styles did not improve learning because peoples judgments represented preferences rather than superior skills in using auditory, visual or kinesthetic modalities; tests of learning styles are criticized and learning preferences more accurate label
Mayer has studied the distinction between visual and verbal learners with computer-based multimedia and has found there is a visualizer-verbalizer dimension with 3 facets
cognitive spatial ability (low to high), cognitive style (visualizer vs. verbalizer) and learning preference (visual learner vs. verbal learner), student may have preference for learning with pictures, but low spatial ability and making pictures for learning less effective; type of learning materials might matter too, like static or animated pictures, research hasn’t identified effects of teaching styles though bc students can be a poor judge of learning style; learning styles minor factor in learning
looking at students learning styles can
1. help students think about how they learn and develop thoughtful self-monitoring and self-awareness
2. how an individual approaches learning might help teachers appreciate, accept, and accommodate student differences and differentiate instruction
some accommodation of student preferences may make classroom more inviting and student friendly and communicate to your students you care
true; having solitary tables and big tables for groups, earplugs for music, or dark vs. light atmospheres etc
1975 began series of laws beginning with PL 94-112 called
the Education of the Handicapped Act that has led to revolutionary changes for children with disabilities
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) or sometimes (IDEIA)
latest amendment of PL 94-142; guarantees a free public education to all children regardless of disability; revised in 1990, 1997, 2004
Free, appropriate public education (FAPE)
public funding to support appropriate educational programs for all students, no matter what their needs, law requires zero reject
zero reject
a basic principle of the IDEA specifying that no student with a disability, no matter what kind or how severe, can be denied of free public education
child find system alerts and educates the public about services for children with disabilities and to distribute useful information because special needs of these students are a
public responsibility
about 13 percent of all students (6-21) receive special ed services under IDEA; most spend time in regular gen ed classes for at least 40 percent of the day
3 major points of interest to parents and teachers in IDEA
the concept of “least restrictive placement”, the individualized education program (IEP), and the protection of the rights of both students with disabilities and their parents
least restrictive environment (LRE)
educating each child with peers in the regular classroom to the greatest extent possible
classes have moved from mainstreaming-
including children with special needs in few regular education classes as convenient; for part of all their school day
to integration-
fitting the child into existing class structure
to inclusion
restructuring educational settings to promote belonging for all students
LRE is assumed to be inclusion as much as possible although the IDEA legislation doesn’t actually say that
successful inclusion depends on teachers being knowledgable and well prepared, getting support they need to teach, and being committed to inclusion
emphasis on standardized testing may interfere with good teaching for included students
individualized education program (IEP)
annually revised program for an exceptional student, detailing present achievement level, goals, and strategies, drawn up by teachers, parents, specialists, and (if possible) the student; must state in writing 6 things on page 132
IDEA’s rights of parents and students
schools must have procedures for maintiaing confidentiality of records, cant discriminate with cultural backgrounds, parents can see all records, parents can obtain independent evaluation of child, may bring advocate or representive to meeting when IEP developed, children without parent must be assigned surrogate, parents must receive written notice in their language before evaluation, and parents can challenge the program developed for their child and are protected by due process of law
not all students who need special accomodations are covered by IDEA, but they may be covered by other legislations
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
a part of civil rights law that prevents discrimination against people with disabilities in programs hat receive federal funds, like public schools; all school-age children are ensured an equal opportunity to participate in school activities
disability is broad in 504
means if a student has a condition that substantially limits participation in school, then the school must still develop a plan for giving that student access to education and must often be assessed by a team and a plan developed, but unlike IDEA there are fewer rules about how this must happen so individual schools design own procedures
2 major groups for Section 504 are
medical or health needs and students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
federal legislation prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, transportation, public access, local government, and telecommunications; extends section 504 beyond the school and workplace to libraries, local and state gov, restaurants, hotels, theaters, stores, public transportation and more
many factors involved in learning challenges children face besides just minimal brain dysfunction
true; injuries or diseases of brain can certainly lead to disabilities in language, math, attention or behavior
brains of students with learning disabilities with attention deficit disorders show some differences in structure and activity compared to students without problems
may have some areas of brain that are smaller, flow of blood is lower than typical in cerebellum and frontal lobes and levels of electrical activity are different in certain brain areas
with language disabilities have more immature auditory systems
their brains process basic auditory info in a way similar to the brains of children 3 to 4 yrs younger, difficult to determine if learning problems or brain differences came first
research shows that children with learning disabilities have problems using the system of working memory that holds verbal and auditory info while you work with it
bc they have trouble holding onto words and sounds, it is difficult for them to put words together to comprehend the meaning of a sentence or to figure out what a math story problem is really asking about
another serious problem would be retrieving needed info from long-term memory
hard for children to simultaneaously hold on to info (like first 2 figures multiplied in an algebra problem) while they have to transform new incoming info such as the next numbers to add
kids with learning disabilities in math and problem solving have trouble holding
visual spatial info like number lines or quanitity comparisons in working memory; so less than or greater than problems are challenging
one half of kids with learning disabilities of all public school receiving special ed services in public schools
learning disability
problem with acquisition and use of language; may show up as difficulty with reading, writing, reasoning, or math; 8 definitions, but most agree that students with them perform significantly below what would be expected, given their other abilities
there are physiological and environmental bases for learning disablities
ex: brain injury, exposure to toxins from smoking, drinking birth mothers, poor nutrition, poor instruction. genetics as well. if parents have learning disability 30 to 50 percent chance of having a learning disability too
students with learning disabilities are not all alike
for example one student may be 3 years behind in reading, but above grade level in math. while another may have opposite strengths and weaknesses and a third may have problems with organizing and studying that affect almost all subject areas
most students with learning disabilities have difficulties in
phonemic awareness
English-speaking students that have problems with relating sounds to letters that make up words, making spelling hard as well
morphological awareness
Chinese speaking reading disablility that is the ability to combine morphemes into words
smallest units of meaning that make sense alone; books has two (book and s)
the second most common problem area for students with learning disabilities is
math (computation and problem solving)
students with some math disabilities have difficulty automatically associating numerals (1,2,3) with the
correct magnitude (how many is 28)
students with learning disabilities often lack effective ways of approaching academic tasks because
they don’t know how to focus relevant info, get organized, apply learning strategies and study skills, or change strategies that aren’t working or evaluate their learning
they tend to be ________ learners
passive; because they don’t know how to learn–have failed so often, working independently hard and seatwork often left incomplete
early diagnosis of learning disabilities is good so kids don’t get
terribly frustrated and discouraged
learned helplessness
the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all of one’s efforts will lead to failure;; could happen if don’t get help or understand why schools hard;; may also try to compensate for problems with bad learning habits or try to avoid subjects out of fear–teachers should refer to appropriate professionals in the school asap
did this with electric shocks on innocent animals and eventually once animals could escape shocks, they didn’t because they thought they couldn’t control it
2 approaches preferable used together that are highly effective for students with learning disablities
direct instruction and strategy instuction
direct instruction
clear explanations and demonstrations of new material, teaching in small steps with practice after each step, immediate feedback, and teacher guidance and support
strategy instruction
specific rules for focusing attention and accomplishing tasks such as TREE for supporting elementary students persuasive writing
Topic sentence: tell what you believe
Reasons: tell 3 or more reasons why you believe this. will your readers believe this?
ending: wrap it up!
examine: check for all 3 parts
for prek and elementary years
keep verbal instructions short and simple, have students repeat directions back to you, give multiple examples, repeat main points several times, allow more patience than usual (useful in secondary as well), teach self monitoring strategies (Was I paying attention?), use external memory strategies (notetaking, assignment books, to do lists, electronic calendars), connect new material to previous knowledge- helps with study skills
hyperactivity is a relatively _______ term, seen as rebellious, lazy or fidgety children like in Huck finn
children diagnosed with ADHD is
1 in 10; its a worldwide problem with striking characteristics, rates in diff countries vary from 4 percent to 10 percent worldwide,
hyperactivity has 2 kinds of problems that may or may not occur together–
attention disorders and impulsive hyperactivity problems; about half children diagnosed have both conditions
hyperactive children have main problem
directing and maintaining attention, not simply controlling their physical activity
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
current term for disruptive behavior disorders marked by overactivity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention or impulsiveness; APA established it
indicators are
inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity
doesn’t pay close attention to class activities, details of work, teacher directions, class discussions, cant organize work, notebooks, desk, assignments, easily distracted and forgetful
fidgets and squirms, cant stay in assigned seat, cant move slowly, seems driven by a motor to go fast, talks excessively
blurts out answers, has trouble waiting for a turn, interrupts
ppl with adhd more likely to show this before age
7, although children show some forms of behaviors all the time; most diagnosed in elementary, but some as early as 3
boys are two to three times more likely than girls to have adhd, but gap narrowing because
girls symptoms aren’t as obvious or identified as often
evidence adhd doesn’t diminish in adolescence but can continue through
adulthood for at least half with it, adolescence can be especially difficult for students with this bc of increase stresses of puberty, transition from middle to hs and more demanding hw and social relationships
adhd kids with adulthood have 30 percent with no symptoms, 25 percent with persistent behavioral problems like drug or criminal behaviors and 25 percent develop depression
controversy on drug therapy for ADHD and increased reliance on it
pg. 141
Fabiano did 174 studies of 3000 participants in behavioral treatments for ADHD and findings clear and impressive that behavioral treatments
are effective for treating ADHD, results suggest less time debating on effectiveness, to instead dissemination, enhancing and improving programs in community, school, and mental health settings; behavior methods stressing balance bt accepting and changing ADHD symptoms and behaviors also effective in Sweden
even if students in class are on medication, its critical that they also learn the
academic and social skills they will need to survive, this wont happen by itself, even if behavior improves with medication (found in Australian study)
give kids with learning disabilities and attention deficits few problems or paragraphs at a time with clear consequences for completion so don’t get
overwhelmed with long assignments
use instruction in learning and memory strategies with motivational training
goal is to help students develop “skill and will” to improve their achievement; also taught to monitor their own behavior and encouraged to be persistent and see themselves as incontrol
Nylund’s SMART approach enlists the child’s strengths to conquer his/her problems to
put the child in control; sees enemies of learning as outside of child- Boredom, Trouble, as unruly spirits that need to be conquered so the child can accomplish and focus on solutions
SMART approach steps
Separating the problem of ADHD from the child
Mapping the influence of ADHD on the child and family
Attending to the exceptions to the ADHD story
Reclaiming special abilities of children diagnosed with ADHD
Telling and celebrating the new story
as a teacher, look for times when the student is engaged and make changes to teaching
example: when ms. baker moved Chris to front row, felt pressure to organize his messy desk and received an award
students with communication disorders bt 6 and 21 are the ____ largest group served by special education
these disorders could include
language, speech or both and make up about 19 percent of students receiving services and could come from many sources like a child with hearing impairment, injuries that cause neurological problems or children who are not listened to or have emotional problems
speaking involves movement so any impairment of motor functions involved with speech can cause
language disorders; and same with any problems with cognitive functions bc thinking and language development are so interwoven
speech disorder
inability to produce sounds effectively for speaking
around ___ percent of school age children have some form of speech impairment
two of most common are
articulation and fluency disorders (stuttering)
articulation disorders
any of a variety of pronunciation difficulties, such as the substitution, distortion, or omission of sounds; like a lisp(thumtimes for sometimes), substituting one sound for another (shairp instaed of chair), adding a sound (church air for chair) or omitting sounds (chai for chair); children are 6 to 8 yrs old before can successfully pronounce all English sounds in normal conversation
consonatnts l, r, y, s, v, and z and consonant blends sh, ch, ng, zh and th are last to be mastered
true; also can be dialect differences depending on geography “ideer” for idea if from New England
bt 3 and 4 is when ____ can appear
stuttering; don’t know causes, but may include emotional or neurological problems or learned behavior; if occurs over a year, go to speech therapist
when speaking to child with stuttor
pause often, communicate its okay to think and speak to child often, privately without hurrying, interrupting or finishing childs words and notice if it gets less or more frequent, avoid pressuring child to speak quickly and call on them early in discussion so tension wont build and ask a few word answer question, make sure they know its nothing to be ashamed of
voicing problems
inappropriate pitch, quality, loudness, or intonation
a student with these sound see a
speech therapist; recognizing the sounds is the first step; also pay attention to children who rarely speak-shy or difficulties with language?
language differences are not necessarily
language disorders, these are markedly deficient in their ability to understand or express language compared to other students of own age and cultural group- students who seldom speak, use few words or very short sentences or rely on hand gestures should be referred to a qualified school professional for testing
emotional and behavioral disorders
behaviors or emotions that deviate so much from the norm that they interfere with the child’s own growth and development and/or the lives of others-inappropriate behaviors, unhappiness or depression, fears and anxieties, and trouble with relationships
about one third of these students are arrested during school years and half are unemployed 3 to 5 years after leaving school, so you need to get them help because
early intervention is important
emotional disturbances (ED)
inappropriate behaviors like unhappiness or depression, fears and anxieties and trouble with realtionships
mental disorders
what APA and medical communities refer to these behavioral difficulties as
this is the 5th largest group (400,000) and has increased 20 percent since 1991 to 1992
more boys than girls diagnosed with these disorders
at least 3 times more; blacks overrepresented, make up 13 percent of population but 26 percent of students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders
range of possible emotional and behavioral disorders is wide; and students with other types of disabilities-learning, intellectual or ADHD
may have emotional or behavioral problems as they struggle in school
2 useful approaches are
applied behavioral analysis and direct teaching of self-regulation skills; also providing structure, organizational tools, and choices See examples on PAGE 145
teachers need to be careful on how disciplining kids with emotional and behavioral disorders
there have been courtcases-true
anxiety disorders
occur when students experience an overwhelming sense of fear or dread. like OCD where they worry excessively about a specific concern like germs or a phobia like spiders and wont go to school or posttraumatic stress disorder where students relive nightmares or flashbacks to traumatic events
disruptive behavior disorders
has attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorders
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
inattention, a high lvel of activity and impulsity, or a combo of these, often not considered disability
oppositional defiant disorder
(ODD) diagnosed when students are defiant with adult sand vindictive or blaming with peers to an excessive degree over a long period of time
conduct disorder
diagnosed when students fight, bully, display cruelty to animals or people, otherwise repeatedly break serious rules
eating disorders
most common eatin disorder is anorexia in which students believe overweight and refuse to eat even near starvation
mood disorders
affective disorders, includes depression and bipolar disorder or manic depression, in which studnets moods swing from extreme high (manic) to extreme lows (depression)
tic disorders
tics are involuntary, rapid, stereotyped movements of specific muscle groups. students with tics may blink their eyes or repeatedly sniff. the most well known tic disorder is Tourette syndrome, a disorder that ranges from mild to severe and includes both facial or other physical tics like vocal tics such as “barking” or profanity (came from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
depression often associated with
up to 10 percent of adolescents have attempted suicide at some point and even more have
considered it
native Americans and students in rural communities are ____ likely to commit suicide
all races and genders have general risk factors:
depression and substance abuse, history of suicide in family, under stress, impulsive or perfectionistic, belief going to better place after dying, and family rejection and conflict; having more than one risk factor is incredibly dangerous and some ADHD drugs increase risk of suicide
suicide is often a response to
life problems (often parents and teachers dismissed)
warning signs are
change in eating or sleeping, weight, grades, disposition, activity level, interest in friends and activities that were once friends, giving away prized possessions, say depressed or hyperactive things like “nothing matters anymore” “i wonder what dying is like” missing school, quit working, or plans on carrying out suicide and ideas
if suspect problem
talk to student directly and ask about concerns, often just want someone to care to ask ; may need to advocate with administrators, parents or other adults who dismiss warning sings and be aware of teenage suicides in clusters- when suicide on news teens more likely to copy the suicide
adolescents with or without emotional or behavioral problems may abuse drugs
abusing drugs especially dangerous for
African American males; 19 to 27 about 33 percent of young black men who abused drugs died by age 27 compared to 3 percent for white males
death rate for both black and white females who abused drugs was 1 percent
suicide is third leading cause of death for young people ages 15-24, sometimes children under 10 die by suicide
pg. 147! review myths
drugs confusing in our society when we are supposed to take them for sleep or when you buy them over counter for ailment or energy drink and coffee needed to wake us up, or happy people drink alcohol and smoke with no concern for health, “drink like a man!”
Monitoring the Future survey by University of Michigan indicate
9.5 percent of 8th graders, 18.5 percent 10 graders, 23.8 percent 12 graders report using illicit drugs in past 30 days with marijuana as most popular
marijuana use has increased among teens
1 percent of 8th graders, 3 percent of 10th graders, 6 percent of 12th reporting they use marijuana daily
patterns for other drugs are inconsistent
older use of ecstacy, cigarettes and horeoin, but alchohol, cocaine, Vicodin and sedatives is down. younger use inhalants like glues, paitn thinners, nail polish remover, aerosol sprays because inexpensive and available-most don’t realize injury or death is possible with these
15 percent of hs boys and 2 percent of girls have used some form of spit or type of smokeless tobacco which can cause cancer of
the mouth, throat, larynx, espophagus, stomach, pancreas, receding gums and gum disease, nicotine addiction, and possibly heart disease and stroke
Fletcher found that disengagement from school and poor teacher-student relations were associated with drug use and other risky health behaviors, study found disconnect with school predicted drug use 2 to 4 years later
instead of DARE programs which have little positive effect and encourage experiementation, we should form positive relationships and connect students to caring adults and peers is critical in creating a protective environment
other drugs use as leveled off include
pg 148 and chart
intellectual disability or mental retardation(-considered offensive and stigmatizing)
significantly below-average intellectual and adaptive social behavior, evident before age 18 (cognitive impairment, general learning disability, cognitive disability)
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)
originally American Association on Mental Retardation, their definition of intellectual disability is “a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. originates before age 18”
IQ score below 70, problems with adaptive behavior, day-to-day independent living, and social functioning help determine
if a child is intellectually disabled. just one test score isn’t the only thing needed to diagnose because some are only disabled “6 hour retarded child” for only part of the day they attend school
only about 1 percent of the population fits into the AAIDD’s definition of disability in both
intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
group divided into levels
mild (IQ 50-69), moderate (35-49) severe (20-34) and profound levels (IQ below 20); but IQ ranges not perfect indicators
AAIDD now recommends a classification scheme based on the amount of support that a person requires to function at his/her highest level like
intermittent-needed during stressful times; limited-consistent support, but time-limited such as employment training;
extensive-daily care such as living in a group home; pervasive-constant high-intensity care for all aspects of living
as regular teacher probably will work with children needing
intermittent or limited support; the other two most likely wont happen unless your school has full inclusion program
in early grades, just may learn more slowly than peers or
need more time and practice to learn or difficulty transferring learning from one setting to another or putting small skills together to accomplish more complex task; difficulties with metacognitive skills and executive functioning required to plan, monitor, and redirect attention and learning strategies, structured and complete teaching and guidance makes sense
learning goals bt ages 9 to 13 of kids with intellectual disabilities include basic
reading, writing, and arithmetic, learning about the local environment, social behavior, personal interests
for middle and hs focus is on
vocational and domestic skills, literacy for living (reading signs, labels, newspaper ads, completing job application), courtesy, punctuality (job related behavior), health self care and citizenship skills
transition programming
gradual preparation of students with special needs to move from high school into further education or training, employment, or community involvement; growing emphasis on this; laws require schools design IEP (individualized educational program for every child with disabilities) and an ITP (individualized transition plan) may be part of the IEP for students with intellectual disabilities
celebral palsy
condition involving a range of motor or coordination difficulties due to brain damage (like from birth or infancy)
overly tight or tense muscles, characteristic of some forms of cerebral play; most common form of cerebral palsy
many children with cerebral palsy also have
secondary handicaps; these re the greatest concern and generally what the regular teacher can help with most; ex:many children with this also have visual or speech problems and 50 to 60 percent have mild to severe intellectual disabilities, but many students with this are average to well above average in measured intelligence
a cluster of behaviors that occurs in response to abnormal neurochemical activities in the brain
disorder marked by seizures and caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain; have recurrent seizures, but not all are result of this
seizures can also be caused by
high fevers, infections, or withdrawal from drugs and take many forms in length, frequency, and movements involved
generalized seizures (Grand mal)
a seizure involving a large portion of the brain; have jerking movements that ordinarily last 2 to 5 minutes with possible loss of bowel or bladder control and irregular breathing followed by a deep sleep or coma; once back in consciousness may be weary, confused, and need extra sleep
most seizures can be controlled by
major danger to a student having a seizure is being injured from
striking a hard surface during the violent jerking; a teacher needs to take action so student wont be injured
if a child has a seizure
stay calm and reassure the test, don’t try and restrain a child’s movements bc you cant stop it once it starts, lower child gently to the floor away from furniture or walls, move hard objects away, loosen scarves, tires or anything restraing breathing, turn child’s head gently to the side and put a soft coat or blanket under his/her head, never put anything in their mouth, don’t attempt artificial respiration unless student doesn’t start breathing again after it stops, find out from parents how they deal with seizures
it is ____ true people with seizures can swallow their tongues
get medical help right away if the student
has another seizure following and the student doesn’t regain consciousness in between, if pregnant or has medical ID that doesn’t say “epilepsy, seizure disorder”, if there are signs of injury, or if it goes on for more than 5 minutes
absence seizures (petit mal)
a seizure involving only a small part of the brain that causes a child to lose contact briefly; student loses contact briefly by staring, failing to respond to questions, dropping objects or miss whats happening for 1 to 30 seconds and can easily go undetected
consult the school psychologist or nurse if
child in class appears to daydream frequently, doesn’t know whats going on at times, or cant remember what has just happened when you ask
major problem for students with absence seizures is that they
miss the continuity of the class interaction (seizures can occur as often as 100 times a day); students can find lessons confusing and question the students to make sure they are following and be prepared to repeat yourself periodically
health problems affect students learning in great part because
students miss school and leads them to be at lost in instructional time and missed opportunities for friendships
a chronic lung condition affecting 5 to 6 million children in US and more common in poverty
a chronic illness in children that often can be controlled with medication; making progress in preventing it in children in US
Type 2 diabetes
chronic condition that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar (glucose); can affect almost every organ in the body (heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, kidneys); most children can prevent it or manage it by eating healthy foods, being physically active, and maintaining a healthy body weight
when diet and exercise modifications not enough children will need
medications like insulin to manage their blood sugar
in dealing with kids with health conditions teachers should
talk to parents to find out how problems are handled, what signs are that a dangerous situation might be developing and what resources are available for the student; also keep records of any incidents bc may be useful in student’s medical diagnosis and treatment
1 child in 1000 in US have a _______ impairment that sped services are needed
low vision
vision limited to close objects (most classified in above mentioned group needing special services); can read with aid of magnifying glass or large-print books
1 in every 2500 students is
educationally blind
educationally blind
needing braille materials in order to learn; must use hearing and touch as their predominant learning channels
students having trouble seeing may display these signs and they should be reported to a qualified school professional
hold books very close or very far, squint, rub eyes frequently or complain that their eyes burn or itch, eyes may be swollen, red or encrusted, also may misread material on board, describe their vision as blurred, sensitive to light or hold heads at odd angle, may be irritable when doing deskwork or lose interest if they have to follow activity across the room
special materials and equipment tha thelp are
large print books, software converting printed material to speech or braille, personal organizers that have talking appointment books or address books, special calculators, an abacus, 3 maps, chars, models, and special measuring devices
the ______ of print is more important than the size so watch out for ________
quality; blurry copies and hard to read handouts
consistency matters in classroom
a place for everything and everything in its place; arrangement of room is important; leave plenty of space for moving around room and monitor possible obstacles and safety hazards like trash cans in aisles and open cabinet doors
if rearrange room give students with visual problems a chance to
learn the new layout and make sure students have a buddy for fire drills and other emergencies
deaf/hard of hearing (not hearing impaired because object this label)
people who cannot hear
number of deaf students has been _______over the past 3 decades
sings of hearing problems are
turning one ear toward the speaker, favoring one ear in conversation, and misunderstanding conversation when the speaker’s face cant be seen, not following directions, seeming distracted or confused at times, frequently asking people to repeat what they have said, mispronouncing new words or names, being reluctant to participate in class discussions, frequent earaches, sinus infections or allergies
oral approach (lip reading)
involve speech reading and training students to use whatever limited hearing they may have
manual approach
sign language and finger spelling
research shows that children who learn some ______ method of communicating perform better in academic subjects and are more socially mature than students only exposed to oral
today the trend combines
both approaches
people who are deaf are part of a different culture with different language
true; the goal is to help deaf children become bilingual and bicultural to enable them to function effectively in both cultures; technology and many avenues of communication through email and internet have expanded communication possibilities for all people
autism/autism spectrum disorders
developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction and affects the child’s educational performance, generally evident before age 3 and ranging from mild to major (1990 added to IDEA list of disabilities qualifying for special services)
pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)
a term favored by the medical community to describe autism spectrum disorders
number of children with autism varies greatly, but are increasing dramatically
true (.25 percent of all children 3 to 21 have autism); others 1 percent of all children ages 3 to 17
1 in every 310 _____ and 1 in every 70 _____ have it
girls; boys
children with autism don’t
form connections with others, avoid eye contact, or don’t share feelings like enjoyment or interest in others, communication is impaired
about half of kids with autism are
nonverbal; have no or very few language skills and others make up their own language; insist on regularity and sameness in environments where change is very disturbing-may repeat behaviors or gestures, have restricted interests (watch same DVDover and over), may be sensitive to light, sound, touch or other sensor information; sound may be painful or slight flickering of fluorescent lights may seem like constant bursts giving severe headaches ; may be able to memorize, but when situation changes or questions asked different way may get confused
Asperger syndrome
one of the disabilities in autism spectrum; have many of characteristics as Autism
people with Asperger syndrome have greatest trouble in
social relations; also language is affected, may mixed up pronouns I and you for example. speech may be fluent but unusual
autism have moderate to severe intellectual disabilities while Asperger syndrome have
average to above average intelligence
children with autism and Asperger syndrome lack
theory of mind(understanding you and other people have minds, thoughts, emotions)
students with autism have difficulty explaining
their own behaviors, appreciating other people might have different feelings and predicting how behaviors might affect emotions; student might not understand why others bored of his constant repetition of stories or obscure facts he finds fascinating or may stand too close or too far when interacting making others uncomfortable
early and intense INTERVENTIONS that focus on communication and social relations are very
important for children with autism spectrum disorders; poor eye contact and odd seeming mannerisms tend to increase over time without interventions
some may be in inclusive settings, others in specialized classes and some in a
combination of the two, and collaboration among teachers and the family is important;
strategies include
smaller classes, offering structured environments,finding a class buddy to give support, maintaining a safe home base for times of stress, ensuring consistency in instruction and transition routines, implementing assistive technologies and visuals may be part of a collaborative plan
educational goals through adolescence and transition to adulthood are
instruction and guidance in life, work, and social skills
“wait to fail” model
when students in early grades continue to fall more and more behind until they are qualified for IDEA category and receive an individualized educational program and finally get appropriate help
response to intervention (RTI)
a process to make sure students get appropriate research-based instruction and support as soon as possible and that the teachers are systematic in documenting what interventions they have tried with these students so this info can be used in planning; reauthorization of IDEA in 2004; before they’ve fallen too far behind
educators now use RTI instead of ___ scores and student achievement to identify students with learning disabilities
IQ; however, RTI has been criticized for not being a valid or reliable way to assess kids with learning disabilities because it doesn’t provide a comprehensive and thorough picture of the student’s strengths and weaknesses, including documenting other problems that may be present
common way of reaching RTI goals is to use 3-tiered system (sometimes 4)
first is a strong, well-researched way of teaching all students and students who struggle with thi are moved to second tier and receive extra support and additional small group instruction ad then if some student still make limited progress, they move to third tier for one-to- one intensive help and perhaps a special needs assessment (quality classroom assessments, small group instruction, one-to-one)
2 advantages
students get extra help right away and info gained based on their responses to different interventions can be used for IEP planning if students reach the 3rd tier
gifted and talented students
very bright, creative, and talented students
growing recognition that public schools are poorly serving them
true; more than onehalf of all gifted students don’t achieve in school at a level equal to their ability; found at least a dozen states don’t let kids start kindergarten early even if reading at high level and 30 states only allow 11th and 12th graders to take college courses
Renzulli and Reis’ three-part conception of giftedness
above-average general ability, high level of creativity, and a high level of task commitment or motivation to achieve
college of William and Mary’s Center for Gifted education makes distinctions based on IQ with
gifted at 130, highly gifted above 145 and exceptionally above 160 and profoundly gifted above 175
work of gifted isn’t just learning quickly with little effort, it’s
original, extremely advanced for their age, potentially of lasting importance; could read fluently, play musical instrument like skillful adult, become fascinated with algebra when friends have trouble with addition; attention to children’s culture, language and special needs
Terman studied over a thousand gifted males and females with IQ scores with 140 or above and found they were
larger, stronger, and healthier than the norm; often walked sooner and more athletic and more emotionally stable than their peers and better-adjusted adults than average individual; less delinquency, emotional difficult, divorce, drug probs and so on; this is just of academically gifted though, also could have selected students who were better adjusted initially
origins of gifts study by Bloom
they master a tip hours after given to them and practice for hours, families of prodigies are child-centered to supporting development of child’s gifts (like rising before dawn to drive their child or moving the family), and kids continue to work harder and then family sacrifices more-upward spiral of investment and achievement;; you also need the nature and genetics too (investment came after parents saw high levels of achievement)
extraordinary abilities in math, music and visual arts may have
unusual brain organization (advantages and disadvantages)
giftedness in math, music, and arts appear to be associated with
superior visual-spatial abilities and enhanced development of the right side of the brain; likely not to have right hand dominance and have language related problems ; gifted kids “not made from scratch”
gifted adolescent girls may be more
depressed, while both boys and girls may be more bored, frustrated and isolated
they worry about bigger concepts like social issues or mozarts and may be
impatient with friends, parents or even teachers that don’t share same abilities; most common word gifted children experience is “waiting”
gifted students may be seen as
showoffs; sensitive to expectations and feelings of others and vulnerable to criticisms and taunts, may seem stubborn and uncooperative (very goal-focused) and keen sense of humor may be used as a weapon against teachers and other students
adjustment problems are greatest with the highest range of
academic ability
chance of any teacher encountering student in highest iQ range is 1 in
80 over an entire 40 year career
some kids like to hide their abilities, _____ especially
recognizing gifts and talents by students who may
prefer to work alone, have a keen sense of justice and fairness, be energetic and intense form strong commitments to friends- often older students- and struggle with perfectionism
group achievement and intelligence tests tend to
underestimate the IQs of very bright children, group tests aren’t appropriate for making placement decisions, but okay for screening
WISC-IV (individual iq test) that includes evaluations of verbal comprehension and working memory are
best predictors of achievement in reading and math for gifted students
psychologists recommend a case study approach
true; meaning gathering many kinds of info about student in different contexts like test scores, grades, examples of work, projects,portfolios, letters, or ratings from community or church members self ratings,nominatins from teachers or peers, science projects, exhibitations (things where a judge required)
creativity tests and tests f self regulation skills may identify some children not picked up by other measures like
minority students who may be at a disadvantage with other types of tests; may be kids both gifted and learning disabled (180,000)
two groups underrepresented in gifted education programs
girls and students in poverty
moved quickly through the grades or through particular subjects
giving the students additional, more sophisticated and more thought-provoking work but keeping them with their age-mates in school
curriculum compacting
assessing students’ knowledge of the material in the instructional unit, then teaching only for those goals not yet reached; using this allows teachers to eliminate about half of the usual curriculum content for some gifted students without any loss of learning and time saved came be used for learning goals like enrichment, sophistication and novelty
educators think differently about all of these approaches
most studies indicate that gifted children that begin each level of school early(primary, elementary, middle, high, college or graduate) early do as well as or better than
nongifted students progressing at the normal pace; social and emotional adjustment doesn’t seem to be impaired; gifted tend to prefer older playmates (Colangelo, Assouline and gross put in two volumes A Nation Deceived: HOw Schools Hold Back America’s Brightest Children) from university of Iowa
alternative to skipping grades is accelerating students in
one or 2 particular subjects and allowing concurrent enrollment in advanced placement or college courses, but being kept with peers; but those who are extremely intelligently advanced, best and practical to accelerate their education
teaching methods should be
abstract thinking (formal operational thought), creativity, reading of high level and original texts, independence, not just learning facts
cooperative learning with mixed ability groups is _____ promising
NOT; gifted tend to learn more when work in groups with high ability peers (less bored when like themselves- but academic self concept decreases because little fish big pond)
teacher must be
imaginative, flexible, tolerant, and unthreatened by capabilities of these students; challenge and support can be critical although it can be challenging; don’t want to force or take away the joy, don’t give heavy doses of pressure or external rewards-hurts intrinsic motivation; answers to teach them may come from other teachers, professors, internet, museums, colleges, local artists, independent research, advance a grade etc
first step if a student in your class might benefit from special services is
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