Cognitive Psychology: Exam 2 Practice Questions – Flashcards

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An inability to form new LTM -He still has an intact STM
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According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as?
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Labeling familiar objects
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What are the three structural components of the modal model of memory?
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Sensory, STM, LTM
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A property of control processes in the modal model of memory is that they...
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May differ from one task to another
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Information remains in sensory memory for how long?
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Seconds or a fraction of a second
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Imagine you are driving to a friend's new house. In your mind, you say the address repeatedly until you arrive. Once you arrive, you stop thinking about the address and start to think about buying a housewarming gift for your friend. To remember the address, you used a _____ process in STM.
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Control
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When light from a flashlight is moved quickly back and forth on a wall in a darkened room, it can appear to observers that there is a trail of light moving across the wall, even though physically the light is only in one place at any given time. This experience is an effect of memory that occurs because of...
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Persistence of vision
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When a sparkler is twirled rapidly, people perceive a circle of light. This occurs because...
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The length of iconic memory (the persistence of vision) is about one-third of a second.
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Compared to the whole report-technique, the partial-report procedure involves...
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A smaller response set
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Using the partial report procedure in his "letter array" experiment, Sperling was able to infer that participants initially saw_____ of the 12 letters in the display
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10
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Brief sensory memory for sound is known as...
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Echoic memory
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Sperling's delayed partial report procedure provided evidence that...
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Information in sensory memory fades within 1 or 2 seconds
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Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT...
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Deciding which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention
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Peterson and Peterson studied how well participants can remember groups of three letters (like BRT, QSD) after various delays. They found that participants remembered an average of 80 percent of the groups after 3 seconds but only 10 percent after 18 seconds. They hypothesized that this decrease in performance was due to ____, but later research showed it was actually due to _____.
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Decay; Interference
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Jill's friends tell her they think she has a really good memory. She finds this interesting so she decides to purposefully test her memory. Jill receives a list of to-do tasks each day at work. Usually, she checks off each item as the day progresses, but this week, she is determined to memorize the to-do lists. On Monday, Jill is proud to find that she remembers 95 percent of the tasks without referring to the list. On Tuesday, her memory drops to 80 percent, and by Thursday, she is dismayed to see her performance has declined to 20 percent. Jill does not realize that she is demonstrating a natural mechanism of memory known as...
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Proactive interference
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If basketball legend Shaquille O'Neal wanted to remember his 16-digit credit card number, which of the following memory techniques would you recommend?
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He should think of the numbers as a sequence of basketball statistics.
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The effective duration of STM, when rehearsal is prevented, is...
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15-20 seconds
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A person with a reduced digit span would most likely have a problem with...
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STM
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If a person has a digit span of 2, this indicates that he has _____ memory.
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Poor STM
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The "magic number" according to Miller, is...
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7 plus or minus 2
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STM's capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)...
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Meaningful units
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Which of the following represents the most effective chunking of the digit sequence 14929111776?
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1492 911 1776
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The primary effect of chunking is to...
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Stretch the capacity of STM
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Chase and Simon's research compared memory of chess masters and beginners for the position of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that the chess master remembered positions better when the arrangement of the pieces was consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. The significance of this finding was that...
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Chunking requires knowledge of familiar patterns or concepts
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The conclusion from the experiment in which a chess master and a chess novice were asked to remember the positions of chess pieces on a chess board was that...
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Chess masters use chunking to help them remember actual game arrangements
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Coding refers to the way information is..
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Represented
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Funahashi et al.'s work on monkeys doing a delayed response task is an example of the...
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Physiological approach to coding
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If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using is...
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Semantic
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Recalling the sound of a song you heard on the radio yesterday would be an example of...
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Auditory coding the LTM
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Information is coded in STM exclusively through an auditory code.
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False
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Conduct an experiment where participants see a number of target letters flash briefly on a screen and are told to immediately write down the letters in the order they were presented. It is most likely that the target letter "P" will be misidentified as...
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C
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The code for short-term memory is most commonly based on the ____ of the stimulus.
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Sound
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Consider an experiment in which participants were asked to remember Chinese symbols called radicals (which have no sound) and symbols called characters (which consist of a radical plus another symbol). The fact that the participants were able to remember some of the radicals provides evidence for the operation of _____ coding.
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Visual
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Which of the following sets of results shows evidence of proactive interference with a three-trial recall task?
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80% 40% 30%
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Lamar has just gotten a new job and is attending a company party where he will meet his colleagues for the first time. His boss escorts him around to small groups to introduce him. At the first group, Lamar meets four people and is told only their first names. The same thing happens with a second group and a third group. At the fourth group, Lamar is told their names and that one of the women in the group is the company accountant. A little while later, Lamar realizes that he only remembers the names of the people in the first group, though he also remembers the profession of the last woman he met (the accountant). Lamar's experience demonstrates...
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A build-up and release of proactive interference
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Wickens et al.'s "fruit, meat, and professions" experiment failed to show a release from proactive interference in the fruit group because...
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The stimulus category remained the same
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Suppose you (a student) are asked by a teacher to learn a poem you will recite in front of your class. Soon after, both you and a classmate, J.P., are asked by another teacher to learn the lyrics to an unfamiliar song. When you and J.P. are later asked to remember the song lyrics, you have a much more difficult time recalling them than J.P. does. This impairment of your performance is most likely attributable to...
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Proactive interference
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Suppose you have been studying your French vocabulary words for several hours and are making many mistakes. You switch to reviewing the new terms for your upcoming biology test, and your performance is noticeably better. You are experiencing...
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Release from proactive interference
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Observations that participants could do two tasks at once, such as focusing on a digit-span task while comprehending a paragraph, challenged the conceptualization of...
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Short-term memory
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Working memory differs from short-term memory in that...
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Working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information
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The emphasis of the concept of working memory is on how information is...
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Manipulated
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Imagine yourself walking from your car, bus stop, or dorm to your first class. Your ability to form such a picture in your mind depends on...
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The visuospatial sketch pad
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Given what we know about the operation of the phonological loop, which of the following word lists would be most difficult for people to retain for 15 seconds?
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MAC, CAN, CAP, MAN, MAP
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The word-length effect reveals that...
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The phonological loop of the working memory model has a limited capacity
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The word-length effect shows that it is more difficult to remember..
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A list of long words than a list of short words
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A task with the instructions "Read the following words while repeating 'the, the, the' out loud, look away, and then write down the words you remember" would most likely be studying...
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The phonological loop
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Have you ever tried to think of the words and hum the melody of one song while the radio is playing a different song? People have often noted that this is very difficult to do. This difficulty can be understood as...
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Articulatory suppression
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Articulatory suppression causes a decrease in the word-length effect because...
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Saying "the the the" fills up the phonological loop
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Articulatory suppression does all of the following EXCEPT it...
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Interferes with semantic coding
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Which task should be easier: keeping a sentence like "John went to the store to buy some or-anges" in your mind AND...
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Pointing to the word "yes" for each word that is a noun and "no" for each word that is not a noun
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Which task should be easier? Keeping an image of a block letter "F" in your mind AND...
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Saying "yes" for each corner that is an inside corner and "no" for each corner that is an outside corner
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According to the model of working memory, which of the following mental tasks should LEAST adversely affect people's driving performance while operating a car along an unfamiliar, winding road?
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Trying to remember the definition of a word they just learned
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It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if...
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One is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological loop
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One function of the ______ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.
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The central executive
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Shanta has frontal lobe damage. She is doing a problem solving task in which she has to choose the red object out of many choices. She can easily complete this repeatedly, but when the experimenter asks her to choose the blue object on a new trial of the task, she continues to choose the red one, even when the experimenter gives her feedback that she is incorrect. Shanta is displaying...
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Perseveration
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The episodic buffer directly connects to which two components in Baddley's model of memory?
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The central executive and LTM
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Models designed to explain mental functioning are constantly refined and modified to explain new results. Which of the following exemplifies this concept based on the results presented in your text?
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Replacing the STM component of the modal model with working memory
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Physiological studies indicate that damage to the area of the brain known as the _____ can disrupt behaviors that depend on working memory.
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Prefrontal cortex
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Research on monkeys has shown that the part of the brain most closely associated with working memory is the...
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Prefrontal cortex
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Funahashi and coworkers recorded neurons in the PF cortex of monkeys during a delayed response task. These neurons showed the most intense firing during...
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Delay
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Joey is participating in an experiment on memory. He is asked to read a sentence and then hold the last word in his memory while he reads the next sentence. The experimenter measures the maximum number of sentences Joey can read while doing this memory task. Joey is doing the task.
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Reading span
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A patient suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, such as "Jimmy G" who is described in your text, would be able to perform which of the following activities without difficulty?
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Identifying a photograph of his childhood home
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The inability to assimilate or retain new knowledge is known as...
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Anterograde amnesia
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Loss of memory for things that have happened in the past is known as...
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Retrograde amnesia
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Which of the following would most likely be a detailed long-term memory?
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I was talking to that girl just before class
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The primacy effect is attributed to...
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Recall of information stored in LTM
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The primacy effect (from the serial position curve experiment) is associated with...
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LTM
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Murdoch's "remembering a list" experiment described the serial position curve and found that memory is best for the ____ of a list.
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First five and the last five words
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You've now learned about the serial position curve. The relevant research in your text describes this curve using a free recall task (participants are free to recall words in any order they choose). Imagine that you conducted a "remembering a list" experiment using a serial recall task (participants must recall words in the same order they were presented). What would you predict for the results with the serial recall task?
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A diminished recency effect, relative to free recall
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When investigating the serial position curve, presenting the word list at a slower pace...
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Increases the primacy effect
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Regarding free recall of a list of items, which of the following will most likely cause the recency effect to disappear?
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Counting backward for 30 seconds before recall
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The recency effect occurs when participants are asked to recall a list of words. One way to get rid of the recency effect is to...
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Have participants count backwards for 30 seconds after hearing the last word of the list.
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An example of a dissociation is evidenced by a brain-injured patient who...
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Exhibits a recency effect but no primacy effect
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The dramatic case of the patient H.M. clearly illustrates that ____ is crucial for the formation of LTMs.
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The hippocampus
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Your book discusses the memory functioning of patient H.M. who underwent brain surgery to relieve severe epileptic seizures. H.M.'s case has been extremely informative to psychologists by demonstrating that...
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STM can operate normally while LTM is impaired
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Which of the following is NOT a conclusion from the case of H.M., who had an operation to help alleviate his epileptic seizures?
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LTMs are stored in the hippocampus
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Carrie answers her phone with "Hello?" A response, "Hi, Carrie!" comes from the other end of the line. Carrie responds back with "Hi, Dad!" Carrie processed "Hi, Carrie" using a(n)...
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Auditory code in LTM
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The predominant type of coding in LTM is...
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Semantic
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Neuropsychological evidence indicates that STM and LTM probably...
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Are caused by different mechanisms that act independently
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A study participant is given a list of words to remember. One week later, he recalls the list. Let's say that one of the list words was PEAR. Which of the following, none of which actually appeared on the list, would be most likely incorrectly recalled if the participant doesn't remember PEAR?
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APPLE
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We are conscious of ____ memories.
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Declarative
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Explicit memory is to _____ as implicit memory is to _____.
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Declarative; Nondeclarative
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Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?
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Semantic memory
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Two types of declarative memory are ____ and _____ memory.
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Episodic; Semantic
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One of the defining properties of the experience of episodic memory is that...
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It involves mental time travel
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Which of the following is an example of a semantic memory?
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I remember that the big island of Hawaii has many active volcanoes.
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The following statement represents what kind of memory? "The Beatles stopped making music together as a group in the early 1970s."
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Semantic
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Which of the following is NOT an example of semantic memory?
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I remember the day we learned about how talking on cell phones can impair driving ability
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"I remember being really excited last year, when my college team won the national championship in basketball." This statement is an example of _____ memory.
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Episodic
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K.C., who was injured in a motorcycle accident, remembers facts like the difference between a strike and a spare in bowling, but he is unaware of experiencing things like hearing about the circumstances of his brother's death, which occurred two years before the accident. His memory behavior suggests...
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Intact semantic memory but defective episodic memory
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Phoebe steps up to the golf ball and hits it down the fairway. She sees that the ball is heading towards someone, so she yells "Fore!" After her two partners hit their balls, they pick up their bags and start walking to the next hole. But Phoebe says, "Wait a minute, I haven't teed off yet." This behavior shows that Phoebe has a problem with ____ memory.
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Episodic
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Your text describes an "Italian woman" who, after an attack of encephalitis, had difficulty re-membering people or facts she knew before. She could, however, remember her life events and daily tasks. Her memory behavior reflects...
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Intact episodic memory but defective semantic memory
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A patient with impaired episodic memory would most likely have the greatest difficulty in...
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Remembering where a best friend had moved
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Knowing the capital of California, but not being able to remember when you first learned it, is an example of how...
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Episodic memory can be a "gateway" to semantic memory.
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Your text discusses how episodic and semantic memories are interconnected. This discussion revealed that when we experience events,
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The knowledge that makes up semantic memories is initially attained through a personal experience based in episodic memory
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Ming is taking a memory test. She is more likely to recall the name of a popular singer if she had...
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Attended the singer's concert last year with her boyfriend
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Imagine that the students described below are all taking a multiple choice test. Which student's behavior best describes an example of implicit memory?
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One student comes to a question for which he is unsure of the answer, but choice b seems familiar so he decides that it must be right.
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The defining characteristic of implicit memory is that...
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We are not conscious we are using it
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In the movie Groundhog Day, Bill Murray's character grows frustrated as he experiences the same day in his life over and over again. With each "passing" day, he is able to respond to people's actions more and more quickly because of
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Repetition priming
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Jocelyn is in an experiment where she is presented words representing categories. She is presented the word "furniture" in an earlier trial, which makes it easier for her later to recall the word "chair" because of the similarity of meaning. Jocelyn's memory enhancement for "chair" due to seeing the word "furniture" illustrates..
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Conceptual priming
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Memory enhancement due to repetition priming is a result of...
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The test stimulus being the same or resembling the priming stimulus
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Memory enhancement due to conceptual priming is a result of...
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The test stimulus being similar in meaning to the priming stimulus
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Which task below would most likely be used to test for implicit memory?
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Completing a word for which the first and last letter have been supplied
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An item on an implicit memory test would most likely resemble which of the following?
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"Fill in the following with the first word that comes to mind: T _ _ E."
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This multiple choice question is an example of a ____ test.
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Recognition
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Work with brain-injured patients reveals that _____ memory does not depend on conscious memory
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Implicit and procedural
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Which of the following involves procedural memory?
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Reading a sentence in a book
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The propaganda effect demonstrates that we evaluate familiar statements as being true...
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Simply because we have been exposed to them before
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Which of the following is most closely associated with implicit memory?
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The propaganda effect
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Why is classical conditioning considered a form of implicit memory?
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Because it is involves learning an association without being aware of the reasons behind it
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According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?
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50 First Dates
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Acquiring information and transforming it into memory is...
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Encoding
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Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by...
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Repeating it over and over
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How would you describe the relationship between elaborative rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal in terms of establishing long-term memories?
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Elaborative is more effective than maintenance
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Elementary school students in the U.S. are often taught to use the very familiar word "HOMES" as a cue for remembering the names of the Great Lakes (each letter in "HOMES" provides a first-letter cue for one of the lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior). This memory procedure usually works better than repeating the names over and over, which provides an example of...
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Elaborative rehearsal
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According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information is...
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Encoded
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Which of the following scenarios best illustrates how effective or ineffective maintenance rehearsal is in transferring information into LTM?
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Serena's keys were stolen from her purse. She cannot give a detailed description of her keychain to the police, even though she used it every day for three years.
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According to the levels of processing theory, which of the following tasks will produce the best long-term memory for a set of words?
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Making a connection between each word and something you've previously learned
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Which statement below is most closely associated with levels of processing theory?
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Deep processing takes longer than shallow processing and results in better processing
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Shallow processing of a word is encouraged when
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Attention is focused on the number of vowels in a word
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Which of the following learning techniques is LEAST likely to lead to deep processing of the information?
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Bree has just bought a new car and is trying to learn her new license plate sequence. Every morning, for three weeks, she repeats the sequence out loud when she wakes up.
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The elaborative rehearsal task of learning a word by using it in a sentence is generally most effective if the generated sentence is...
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Complex
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Memory for a word will tend to be better if the word is used in a complex sentence (like "the bicycle was blue, with high handlebars and a racing seat") rather than a simple sentence (like "he rode the bicycle"). This probably occurs because the complex sentence...
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Creates more connections
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According to your text, imagery enhances memory because...
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Imagery can be used to create connections between items to be remembered
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Jeannie loves to dance, having taken ballet for many years. She is now learning salsa dancing. Although the movements are very different from the dances she is familiar with, she has found a successful memory strategy of linking the new dance information to her previous experiences as a dancer and to her own affection for dance. This strategy suggests reliance on...
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The self-reference effect
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In Slameka and Graf's (1978) study, some participants read word pairs, while other participants had to fill in the blank letters of the second word in a pair with a word related to the first word. The latter group performed better on a later memory task, illustrating the...
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Generation effect
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____ cues help us remember information that has been stored in memory.
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Retrieval
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Free recall of the stimulus list "apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants" will most likely yield which of these response patterns?
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"apple, cherry, plum, shoe, coat, lamp. chair pants"
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Jenkins and Russell presented a list of words like "chair, apple, dish, shoe, cherry, sofa" to participants. In a test, participants recalled the words in a different order than the order in which they were originally presented. This result occurred because of the...
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Tendency of objects in the same category to become organized
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Bransford and Johnson's study had participants hear a passage which turned out to be about a man on the street serenading his girlfriend in a tall building. The wording of the passage made it difficult to understand, but looking at a picture made it easier to understand. The results of this study illustrated the importance of _______ in forming reliable long-term memories.
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An organizational complex during learning
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The story in the text about balloons that were used to suspend a speaker in mid air was used to illustrate the role of ____ in memory.
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Organization
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Examples from your book describing real experiences of how memories, even ones from a long time ago, can be stimulated by locations, songs, and smells highlight the importance of ____ in LTM.
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Retrieval cues
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Mantyla's banana/yellow, bunches, edible" experiment demonstrates that, for best memory performance, retrieval cues should be created...
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By the person whose memory memory will be tested
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People often report an annoying memory failure when they walk from one end of the house to the other for something and then forgetting what they went to retrieve when they reach their destination. As soon as they return to the first room, they are reminded of what they wanted in the first place. This common experience best illustrates the principle of...
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Encoding specificity
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The principle that we learn information together with its context is known as...
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Encoding specificity
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Which example below best demonstrates state-dependent learning?
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Although Emily doesn't very often think about her first love, Steve, she can't help getting caught up in happy memories when "their song" (the first song they danced to) plays on the radio
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You have been studying for weeks for a nursing school entrance exam. You love the idea of becoming a nurse, and you have been enjoying learning about the material for your exam. Each night, you put on relaxing clothes and study in the quiet of your lovely home. Memory research suggests you should take your test with a _____ mind set.
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Calm
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Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval. This is called...
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Transfer-appropriate processing
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Transfer-appropriate processing is likely to occur if...
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The type of encoding and type of retrieval match
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According to levels of processing theory, deep processing results in better memory. However, studies have shown that shallow processing can result in better memory when the individual en-codes _____ and is tested _____.
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Auditorially, Auditorially
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According to memory research, studying is most effective if studying sessions are...
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Short and across several days
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Katie and Inez are roommates taking the same psychology class. They have a test in four days during a 10:00 - 11:00 AM class period. Both women intend to study for three hours, but because of different work schedules, Katie will study one hour for each of the next three days, while Inez will study three hours the day before the exam. What could you predict about their performances?
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Katie should perform better because of the spacing effect
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Students, beware! Research shows that _____ does not improve reading comprehension because it does not encourage elaborative processing of the material.
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Highlighting
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The author of your text makes a suggestion that students should study in a variety of places. This suggestion is based on research showing that people remember material better if they learned it in a number of different locations, compared to studying the same amount of time in one location. The suggestion solves a problem raised by...
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The encoding specificity principle
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The memory mechanism Hebb proposed is associated with...
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Both changes at the synapse and long-term potentiation
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Donald Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the...
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Neurotransmitters
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Hebb's idea of long-term potentiation, which provides a physiological mechanism for the long-term storage of memories, includes the idea of...
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Enhanced firing in the neurons
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The medial temporal lobe (MTL), involved in memory consolidation, includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the...
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Amygdala
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Your book explains that brief episodes of retrograde amnesia (e.g., the traumatic disruption of newly formed memories when a football player takes a hit to the head and can't recall the last play before the hit) reflect...
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A failure of memory consolidation
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Retrograde amnesia is usually less severe for _____ memories.
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Remote
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Grades amnesia occurs because...
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Emotional memories are more fragile than nonemotional memories
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From the behavior of H.M., who experienced memory problems after a brain operation, we can conclude that the hippocampus is important in...
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Long-term memory acquisition
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____ transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.
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Consolidation
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The standard model of consolidation proposes that the hippocampus is...
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Strongly active when memories are first formed and being consolidated but becomes less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.
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Lourdes and Kim have been studying for two hours for their chemistry exam. Both girls are tired of studying. Lourdes decides to watch a two-hour movie on DVD, while Kim decides to go to bed. What would you predict about their performance on the chemistry exam?
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Kim performs better because of reactivation
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Experimental evidence suggesting that the standard model of consolidation needs to be revised are data that show that the hippocampus was activated during retrieval of ____ memories.
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Recent and remote episodic memories
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According to the multiple trace hypothesis, the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of...
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Remote, episodic memories
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When cleaning her closet, Nadia finds her 20-year-old wedding photo album. As she flips through the pictures, she starts to cry joyful tears. Seeing the photos and rekindling the emotions of her wedding day most likely activated her...
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Amygdala
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Recent research on memory, based largely on fear conditioning in rats, indicates that...
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When a memory is reactivated, it becomes fragile, just as it was immediately after it was formed
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Treatment of PTSD has benefited from recent research on...
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Reconsolidation
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Your text's discussion of instances when people report a memory of being abused or witness abuse after years of having no memory for these events highlights the importance of considering...
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All of these (how visualization exercises during therapy may lead to false memories, that there is no test that can accurately discriminate between true and false memories, the specific situation under which a person recalls the past.)
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Which of the following is true of the cognitive interview technique?
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Police allow witnesses to talk with a minimum of interruption from the officer
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Which of the following is true of police lineups?
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A sequential lineup increases the chances that the witness compares each person in the lineup to his or her memory of the event
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When presenting lineups to eyewitnesses, it has been found that a ____ lineup is much more likely to result in an innocent person being falsely identified.
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Simultaneous
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Much research has been dedicated to improving the reliability of eyewitness testimony. One finding reveals that when constructing a lineup, ____ similarity between the "fillers" and the suspect does result in missed identification of some guilty suspects but also substantially reduces erroneous identification of many innocent people.
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Increasing
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Research on eyewitness testimony reveals that...
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When viewing a lineup, an eyewitness's confidence in her choice of the suspect can be increased by an authority's confirmation of her choice, even when the choice is wrong
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Critics of eyewitness testimony could point to the ______ hypothesis to highlight the dangers of repeated questioning of eyewitnesses.
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Memory-trace replacement
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Your text's discussion of eyewitness testimony illustrates that this type of memory is frequently influenced by all of the following EXCEPT...
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Failing to elaboratively rehearse these kinds of events due to fear
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Stany and Johnson's 'weapons focus' experiment, investigating memory for crime scenes, found that...
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The presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.
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Which statement below is NOT true, based on the results of memory research?
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Although eyewitness testimony is often faulty, people who have just viewed a videotape of a crime are quite accurate in picking the "perpetrator" from a lineup
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Research on eyewitness testimony has shown that the more confident the person giving the testimony is of their memories...
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The more convincing the testimony is to a jury
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Lindsay and coworkers "slime in the first-grade teacher's desk" experiment showed that presenting...
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A photograph of the participant's first-grade class increased the likelihood of false memories
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The "wedding reception" false memory experiment shows that false memories can be explained as a product of familiarity and...
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Source misattribution
question
Lindsay's misinformation effect experiment, in which participants were given a memory test about a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer, showed that participants are influenced by MPI...
answer
Even if they are told to ignore the postevent information
question
In Lindsay's "misinformation effect" experiment, participants saw a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer. This slide presentation included narration by a female speaker who described what was happening in the slides as they were shown. Results showed that the misinformation effect was greatest when MPI presentation was...
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Auditory from a female speaker
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Kieran found that studying for his Spanish exam made it more difficult to remember some of the vocabulary words he had just studied for his French exam earlier in the day. This is an example of...
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Retroactive interference
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___ occurs when more recent learning impairs memory for something that happened further back in the past.
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Retroactive interference
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The misinformation effect can be explained by...
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All of these (the memory-trace replacement hypothesis, retroactive interference, source monitoring.)
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The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that the misinformation effect occurs because...
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MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during the original experiencing of an event.
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Loftus and Palmer's "car-crash slides" experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person's memory report. In this study, the MPI was (were) the word(s)...
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"smashed"
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The misinformation effect does not occur when...
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People are told explicitly that the postevent information may be incorrect false
question
The misinformation effect occurs when a person's memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented...
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After the event
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"S," who had a photographic memory that was described as virtually limitless, was able to achieve many feats of memory. According to the discussion in your text, S's memory system operated _____ efficiently than normal.
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Less
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The conclusion to be drawn from the man named Shereshevskii whose abnormal brain functioning gave him virtually limitless word-for-word memory is that having memory like a video recorder...
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None of the above
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Your text's discussion of false memories leads to the conclusion that false memories...
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Are a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system
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In discussing the survival value of the memory system, your text highlights the undesirability of...
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Photographic memory
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The sleep list experiment, in which many people misremember the word "sleep" as being part of a list of words, is an example of..
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A disadvantage of memory's constructive nature
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In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of..
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Constructive memory processes
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Jackie went to the grocery store to pick up yogurt, bread, and apples. First, she picked up a hand basket for carrying her groceries, and then she searched the store. After finding what she needed, she stood in a check-out line. Then, the cashier put her items in a plastic bag, and soon after, Jackie left the store. As readers of this event, we understand that Jackie paid for the groceries, even though it wasn't mentioned, because we are relying on a grocery store _____ that is stored in _______ long-term memory.
answer
Script; Sematic
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A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of...
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A sequence of events
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In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants "remembered" some things, like books, that weren't actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.
answer
Schemas
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Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make her some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen...
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Schema
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Arkes and Freedman's "baseball game" experiment asked participants to indicate whether the following sentence was present in a passage they had previously read about events in a game: "The batter was safe at first." Their findings showed inaccurate memories involved...
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Creations from inferences based on baseball knowledge
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The experiment in which participants first read sentences about John fixing a birdhouse and were then asked to identify sentences they had seen before, illustrated that memory..
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Involves making inferences
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____ occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or necessarily implied by the sentence.
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Pragmatic inference
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The experiment for which people were asked to make fame judgments for both famous and non-famous names (and for which Sebastian Weissdorf was one of the names to be remembered) illustrated the effect of _____ on memory.
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Source misattributions
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Jacoby's experiment, in which participants made judgments about whether they had previously seen the names of famous and non-famous people, found that inaccurate memories based on source misattributions occurred after a delay of...
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24 hours
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Unconscious plagiarism of the work of others is known as...
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Cryptomnesia
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Wei has allergy symptoms. He has gone to his regular doctor and an allergy specialist, but he wasn't given a prescription by either doctor. Instead, he was advised to buy any over-the-counter medicine. While he was in the specialist's waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, "My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I'll buy that one." Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?
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Source monitoring
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The repeated production technique used in memory studies involves
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The same participants remembering some information at longer and longer interval after learning the information
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Bartlett's experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the "War of the Ghosts" story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the...
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Constructive nature of memory
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In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment, participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on...
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Cultural expectations
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The "telephone game" is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a ______ process.
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Constructive
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According to the _____ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.
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Constructive
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The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the same information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the...
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Narrative rehearsal hypothesis
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Your text describes two experiments that measured people's memory for what they were doing when they heard about the terrorist attack on 9/11. Results of these experiments show that participants...
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Both believed their memories for the attack were accurate over a 52-week period and displayed memory for the flashbulb event that declined with time.
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Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants...
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Make more errors in their recollections
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A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that...
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Extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate
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Your text argues that proper procedure for measuring the accuracy of flashbulb memories is...
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Repeated recall
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Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
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It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
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Extrapolating from the cultural life hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?
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Graduating from college at age 22
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Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the...
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Cognitive hypothesis
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The observation that older adults often become nostalgic for the "good old days" reflects the self-image hypothesis, which states that...
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Memory for life events is enhanced during the time we assume our life identities
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Asking people to recall the most influential events that happened during their college careers show that ____ in people's lives appear to be particularly memorable.
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Transition points
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For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for...
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Adolescence and early adulthood
question
Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos...
answer
They took themselves
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question
answer
An inability to form new LTM -He still has an intact STM
question
According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as?
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Labeling familiar objects
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What are the three structural components of the modal model of memory?
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Sensory, STM, LTM
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A property of control processes in the modal model of memory is that they...
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May differ from one task to another
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Information remains in sensory memory for how long?
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Seconds or a fraction of a second
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Imagine you are driving to a friend's new house. In your mind, you say the address repeatedly until you arrive. Once you arrive, you stop thinking about the address and start to think about buying a housewarming gift for your friend. To remember the address, you used a _____ process in STM.
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Control
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When light from a flashlight is moved quickly back and forth on a wall in a darkened room, it can appear to observers that there is a trail of light moving across the wall, even though physically the light is only in one place at any given time. This experience is an effect of memory that occurs because of...
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Persistence of vision
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When a sparkler is twirled rapidly, people perceive a circle of light. This occurs because...
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The length of iconic memory (the persistence of vision) is about one-third of a second.
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Compared to the whole report-technique, the partial-report procedure involves...
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A smaller response set
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Using the partial report procedure in his "letter array" experiment, Sperling was able to infer that participants initially saw_____ of the 12 letters in the display
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10
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Brief sensory memory for sound is known as...
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Echoic memory
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Sperling's delayed partial report procedure provided evidence that...
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Information in sensory memory fades within 1 or 2 seconds
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Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT...
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Deciding which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention
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Peterson and Peterson studied how well participants can remember groups of three letters (like BRT, QSD) after various delays. They found that participants remembered an average of 80 percent of the groups after 3 seconds but only 10 percent after 18 seconds. They hypothesized that this decrease in performance was due to ____, but later research showed it was actually due to _____.
answer
Decay; Interference
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Jill's friends tell her they think she has a really good memory. She finds this interesting so she decides to purposefully test her memory. Jill receives a list of to-do tasks each day at work. Usually, she checks off each item as the day progresses, but this week, she is determined to memorize the to-do lists. On Monday, Jill is proud to find that she remembers 95 percent of the tasks without referring to the list. On Tuesday, her memory drops to 80 percent, and by Thursday, she is dismayed to see her performance has declined to 20 percent. Jill does not realize that she is demonstrating a natural mechanism of memory known as...
answer
Proactive interference
question
If basketball legend Shaquille O'Neal wanted to remember his 16-digit credit card number, which of the following memory techniques would you recommend?
answer
He should think of the numbers as a sequence of basketball statistics.
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The effective duration of STM, when rehearsal is prevented, is...
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15-20 seconds
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A person with a reduced digit span would most likely have a problem with...
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STM
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If a person has a digit span of 2, this indicates that he has _____ memory.
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Poor STM
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The "magic number" according to Miller, is...
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7 plus or minus 2
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STM's capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)...
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Meaningful units
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Which of the following represents the most effective chunking of the digit sequence 14929111776?
answer
1492 911 1776
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The primary effect of chunking is to...
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Stretch the capacity of STM
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Chase and Simon's research compared memory of chess masters and beginners for the position of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that the chess master remembered positions better when the arrangement of the pieces was consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. The significance of this finding was that...
answer
Chunking requires knowledge of familiar patterns or concepts
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The conclusion from the experiment in which a chess master and a chess novice were asked to remember the positions of chess pieces on a chess board was that...
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Chess masters use chunking to help them remember actual game arrangements
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Coding refers to the way information is..
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Represented
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Funahashi et al.'s work on monkeys doing a delayed response task is an example of the...
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Physiological approach to coding
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If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using is...
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Semantic
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Recalling the sound of a song you heard on the radio yesterday would be an example of...
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Auditory coding the LTM
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Information is coded in STM exclusively through an auditory code.
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False
question
Conduct an experiment where participants see a number of target letters flash briefly on a screen and are told to immediately write down the letters in the order they were presented. It is most likely that the target letter "P" will be misidentified as...
answer
C
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The code for short-term memory is most commonly based on the ____ of the stimulus.
answer
Sound
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Consider an experiment in which participants were asked to remember Chinese symbols called radicals (which have no sound) and symbols called characters (which consist of a radical plus another symbol). The fact that the participants were able to remember some of the radicals provides evidence for the operation of _____ coding.
answer
Visual
question
Which of the following sets of results shows evidence of proactive interference with a three-trial recall task?
answer
80% 40% 30%
question
Lamar has just gotten a new job and is attending a company party where he will meet his colleagues for the first time. His boss escorts him around to small groups to introduce him. At the first group, Lamar meets four people and is told only their first names. The same thing happens with a second group and a third group. At the fourth group, Lamar is told their names and that one of the women in the group is the company accountant. A little while later, Lamar realizes that he only remembers the names of the people in the first group, though he also remembers the profession of the last woman he met (the accountant). Lamar's experience demonstrates...
answer
A build-up and release of proactive interference
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Wickens et al.'s "fruit, meat, and professions" experiment failed to show a release from proactive interference in the fruit group because...
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The stimulus category remained the same
question
Suppose you (a student) are asked by a teacher to learn a poem you will recite in front of your class. Soon after, both you and a classmate, J.P., are asked by another teacher to learn the lyrics to an unfamiliar song. When you and J.P. are later asked to remember the song lyrics, you have a much more difficult time recalling them than J.P. does. This impairment of your performance is most likely attributable to...
answer
Proactive interference
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Suppose you have been studying your French vocabulary words for several hours and are making many mistakes. You switch to reviewing the new terms for your upcoming biology test, and your performance is noticeably better. You are experiencing...
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Release from proactive interference
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Observations that participants could do two tasks at once, such as focusing on a digit-span task while comprehending a paragraph, challenged the conceptualization of...
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Short-term memory
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Working memory differs from short-term memory in that...
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Working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information
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The emphasis of the concept of working memory is on how information is...
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Manipulated
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Imagine yourself walking from your car, bus stop, or dorm to your first class. Your ability to form such a picture in your mind depends on...
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The visuospatial sketch pad
question
Given what we know about the operation of the phonological loop, which of the following word lists would be most difficult for people to retain for 15 seconds?
answer
MAC, CAN, CAP, MAN, MAP
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The word-length effect reveals that...
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The phonological loop of the working memory model has a limited capacity
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The word-length effect shows that it is more difficult to remember..
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A list of long words than a list of short words
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A task with the instructions "Read the following words while repeating 'the, the, the' out loud, look away, and then write down the words you remember" would most likely be studying...
answer
The phonological loop
question
Have you ever tried to think of the words and hum the melody of one song while the radio is playing a different song? People have often noted that this is very difficult to do. This difficulty can be understood as...
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Articulatory suppression
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Articulatory suppression causes a decrease in the word-length effect because...
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Saying "the the the" fills up the phonological loop
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Articulatory suppression does all of the following EXCEPT it...
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Interferes with semantic coding
question
Which task should be easier: keeping a sentence like "John went to the store to buy some or-anges" in your mind AND...
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Pointing to the word "yes" for each word that is a noun and "no" for each word that is not a noun
question
Which task should be easier? Keeping an image of a block letter "F" in your mind AND...
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Saying "yes" for each corner that is an inside corner and "no" for each corner that is an outside corner
question
According to the model of working memory, which of the following mental tasks should LEAST adversely affect people's driving performance while operating a car along an unfamiliar, winding road?
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Trying to remember the definition of a word they just learned
question
It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if...
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One is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological loop
question
One function of the ______ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.
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The central executive
question
Shanta has frontal lobe damage. She is doing a problem solving task in which she has to choose the red object out of many choices. She can easily complete this repeatedly, but when the experimenter asks her to choose the blue object on a new trial of the task, she continues to choose the red one, even when the experimenter gives her feedback that she is incorrect. Shanta is displaying...
answer
Perseveration
question
The episodic buffer directly connects to which two components in Baddley's model of memory?
answer
The central executive and LTM
question
Models designed to explain mental functioning are constantly refined and modified to explain new results. Which of the following exemplifies this concept based on the results presented in your text?
answer
Replacing the STM component of the modal model with working memory
question
Physiological studies indicate that damage to the area of the brain known as the _____ can disrupt behaviors that depend on working memory.
answer
Prefrontal cortex
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Research on monkeys has shown that the part of the brain most closely associated with working memory is the...
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Prefrontal cortex
question
Funahashi and coworkers recorded neurons in the PF cortex of monkeys during a delayed response task. These neurons showed the most intense firing during...
answer
Delay
question
Joey is participating in an experiment on memory. He is asked to read a sentence and then hold the last word in his memory while he reads the next sentence. The experimenter measures the maximum number of sentences Joey can read while doing this memory task. Joey is doing the task.
answer
Reading span
question
A patient suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, such as "Jimmy G" who is described in your text, would be able to perform which of the following activities without difficulty?
answer
Identifying a photograph of his childhood home
question
The inability to assimilate or retain new knowledge is known as...
answer
Anterograde amnesia
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Loss of memory for things that have happened in the past is known as...
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Retrograde amnesia
question
Which of the following would most likely be a detailed long-term memory?
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I was talking to that girl just before class
question
The primacy effect is attributed to...
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Recall of information stored in LTM
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The primacy effect (from the serial position curve experiment) is associated with...
answer
LTM
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Murdoch's "remembering a list" experiment described the serial position curve and found that memory is best for the ____ of a list.
answer
First five and the last five words
question
You've now learned about the serial position curve. The relevant research in your text describes this curve using a free recall task (participants are free to recall words in any order they choose). Imagine that you conducted a "remembering a list" experiment using a serial recall task (participants must recall words in the same order they were presented). What would you predict for the results with the serial recall task?
answer
A diminished recency effect, relative to free recall
question
When investigating the serial position curve, presenting the word list at a slower pace...
answer
Increases the primacy effect
question
Regarding free recall of a list of items, which of the following will most likely cause the recency effect to disappear?
answer
Counting backward for 30 seconds before recall
question
The recency effect occurs when participants are asked to recall a list of words. One way to get rid of the recency effect is to...
answer
Have participants count backwards for 30 seconds after hearing the last word of the list.
question
An example of a dissociation is evidenced by a brain-injured patient who...
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Exhibits a recency effect but no primacy effect
question
The dramatic case of the patient H.M. clearly illustrates that ____ is crucial for the formation of LTMs.
answer
The hippocampus
question
Your book discusses the memory functioning of patient H.M. who underwent brain surgery to relieve severe epileptic seizures. H.M.'s case has been extremely informative to psychologists by demonstrating that...
answer
STM can operate normally while LTM is impaired
question
Which of the following is NOT a conclusion from the case of H.M., who had an operation to help alleviate his epileptic seizures?
answer
LTMs are stored in the hippocampus
question
Carrie answers her phone with "Hello?" A response, "Hi, Carrie!" comes from the other end of the line. Carrie responds back with "Hi, Dad!" Carrie processed "Hi, Carrie" using a(n)...
answer
Auditory code in LTM
question
The predominant type of coding in LTM is...
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Semantic
question
Neuropsychological evidence indicates that STM and LTM probably...
answer
Are caused by different mechanisms that act independently
question
A study participant is given a list of words to remember. One week later, he recalls the list. Let's say that one of the list words was PEAR. Which of the following, none of which actually appeared on the list, would be most likely incorrectly recalled if the participant doesn't remember PEAR?
answer
APPLE
question
We are conscious of ____ memories.
answer
Declarative
question
Explicit memory is to _____ as implicit memory is to _____.
answer
Declarative; Nondeclarative
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?
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Semantic memory
question
Two types of declarative memory are ____ and _____ memory.
answer
Episodic; Semantic
question
One of the defining properties of the experience of episodic memory is that...
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It involves mental time travel
question
Which of the following is an example of a semantic memory?
answer
I remember that the big island of Hawaii has many active volcanoes.
question
The following statement represents what kind of memory? "The Beatles stopped making music together as a group in the early 1970s."
answer
Semantic
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of semantic memory?
answer
I remember the day we learned about how talking on cell phones can impair driving ability
question
"I remember being really excited last year, when my college team won the national championship in basketball." This statement is an example of _____ memory.
answer
Episodic
question
K.C., who was injured in a motorcycle accident, remembers facts like the difference between a strike and a spare in bowling, but he is unaware of experiencing things like hearing about the circumstances of his brother's death, which occurred two years before the accident. His memory behavior suggests...
answer
Intact semantic memory but defective episodic memory
question
Phoebe steps up to the golf ball and hits it down the fairway. She sees that the ball is heading towards someone, so she yells "Fore!" After her two partners hit their balls, they pick up their bags and start walking to the next hole. But Phoebe says, "Wait a minute, I haven't teed off yet." This behavior shows that Phoebe has a problem with ____ memory.
answer
Episodic
question
Your text describes an "Italian woman" who, after an attack of encephalitis, had difficulty re-membering people or facts she knew before. She could, however, remember her life events and daily tasks. Her memory behavior reflects...
answer
Intact episodic memory but defective semantic memory
question
A patient with impaired episodic memory would most likely have the greatest difficulty in...
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Remembering where a best friend had moved
question
Knowing the capital of California, but not being able to remember when you first learned it, is an example of how...
answer
Episodic memory can be a "gateway" to semantic memory.
question
Your text discusses how episodic and semantic memories are interconnected. This discussion revealed that when we experience events,
answer
The knowledge that makes up semantic memories is initially attained through a personal experience based in episodic memory
question
Ming is taking a memory test. She is more likely to recall the name of a popular singer if she had...
answer
Attended the singer's concert last year with her boyfriend
question
Imagine that the students described below are all taking a multiple choice test. Which student's behavior best describes an example of implicit memory?
answer
One student comes to a question for which he is unsure of the answer, but choice b seems familiar so he decides that it must be right.
question
The defining characteristic of implicit memory is that...
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We are not conscious we are using it
question
In the movie Groundhog Day, Bill Murray's character grows frustrated as he experiences the same day in his life over and over again. With each "passing" day, he is able to respond to people's actions more and more quickly because of
answer
Repetition priming
question
Jocelyn is in an experiment where she is presented words representing categories. She is presented the word "furniture" in an earlier trial, which makes it easier for her later to recall the word "chair" because of the similarity of meaning. Jocelyn's memory enhancement for "chair" due to seeing the word "furniture" illustrates..
answer
Conceptual priming
question
Memory enhancement due to repetition priming is a result of...
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The test stimulus being the same or resembling the priming stimulus
question
Memory enhancement due to conceptual priming is a result of...
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The test stimulus being similar in meaning to the priming stimulus
question
Which task below would most likely be used to test for implicit memory?
answer
Completing a word for which the first and last letter have been supplied
question
An item on an implicit memory test would most likely resemble which of the following?
answer
"Fill in the following with the first word that comes to mind: T _ _ E."
question
This multiple choice question is an example of a ____ test.
answer
Recognition
question
Work with brain-injured patients reveals that _____ memory does not depend on conscious memory
answer
Implicit and procedural
question
Which of the following involves procedural memory?
answer
Reading a sentence in a book
question
The propaganda effect demonstrates that we evaluate familiar statements as being true...
answer
Simply because we have been exposed to them before
question
Which of the following is most closely associated with implicit memory?
answer
The propaganda effect
question
Why is classical conditioning considered a form of implicit memory?
answer
Because it is involves learning an association without being aware of the reasons behind it
question
According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?
answer
50 First Dates
question
Acquiring information and transforming it into memory is...
answer
Encoding
question
Elaborative rehearsal of a word will LEAST likely be accomplished by...
answer
Repeating it over and over
question
How would you describe the relationship between elaborative rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal in terms of establishing long-term memories?
answer
Elaborative is more effective than maintenance
question
Elementary school students in the U.S. are often taught to use the very familiar word "HOMES" as a cue for remembering the names of the Great Lakes (each letter in "HOMES" provides a first-letter cue for one of the lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior). This memory procedure usually works better than repeating the names over and over, which provides an example of...
answer
Elaborative rehearsal
question
According to the levels of processing theory, memory durability depends on how information is...
answer
Encoded
question
Which of the following scenarios best illustrates how effective or ineffective maintenance rehearsal is in transferring information into LTM?
answer
Serena's keys were stolen from her purse. She cannot give a detailed description of her keychain to the police, even though she used it every day for three years.
question
According to the levels of processing theory, which of the following tasks will produce the best long-term memory for a set of words?
answer
Making a connection between each word and something you've previously learned
question
Which statement below is most closely associated with levels of processing theory?
answer
Deep processing takes longer than shallow processing and results in better processing
question
Shallow processing of a word is encouraged when
answer
Attention is focused on the number of vowels in a word
question
Which of the following learning techniques is LEAST likely to lead to deep processing of the information?
answer
Bree has just bought a new car and is trying to learn her new license plate sequence. Every morning, for three weeks, she repeats the sequence out loud when she wakes up.
question
The elaborative rehearsal task of learning a word by using it in a sentence is generally most effective if the generated sentence is...
answer
Complex
question
Memory for a word will tend to be better if the word is used in a complex sentence (like "the bicycle was blue, with high handlebars and a racing seat") rather than a simple sentence (like "he rode the bicycle"). This probably occurs because the complex sentence...
answer
Creates more connections
question
According to your text, imagery enhances memory because...
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Imagery can be used to create connections between items to be remembered
question
Jeannie loves to dance, having taken ballet for many years. She is now learning salsa dancing. Although the movements are very different from the dances she is familiar with, she has found a successful memory strategy of linking the new dance information to her previous experiences as a dancer and to her own affection for dance. This strategy suggests reliance on...
answer
The self-reference effect
question
In Slameka and Graf's (1978) study, some participants read word pairs, while other participants had to fill in the blank letters of the second word in a pair with a word related to the first word. The latter group performed better on a later memory task, illustrating the...
answer
Generation effect
question
____ cues help us remember information that has been stored in memory.
answer
Retrieval
question
Free recall of the stimulus list "apple, desk, shoe, sofa, plum, chair, cherry, coat, lamp, pants" will most likely yield which of these response patterns?
answer
"apple, cherry, plum, shoe, coat, lamp. chair pants"
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Jenkins and Russell presented a list of words like "chair, apple, dish, shoe, cherry, sofa" to participants. In a test, participants recalled the words in a different order than the order in which they were originally presented. This result occurred because of the...
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Tendency of objects in the same category to become organized
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Bransford and Johnson's study had participants hear a passage which turned out to be about a man on the street serenading his girlfriend in a tall building. The wording of the passage made it difficult to understand, but looking at a picture made it easier to understand. The results of this study illustrated the importance of _______ in forming reliable long-term memories.
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An organizational complex during learning
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The story in the text about balloons that were used to suspend a speaker in mid air was used to illustrate the role of ____ in memory.
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Organization
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Examples from your book describing real experiences of how memories, even ones from a long time ago, can be stimulated by locations, songs, and smells highlight the importance of ____ in LTM.
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Retrieval cues
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Mantyla's banana/yellow, bunches, edible" experiment demonstrates that, for best memory performance, retrieval cues should be created...
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By the person whose memory memory will be tested
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People often report an annoying memory failure when they walk from one end of the house to the other for something and then forgetting what they went to retrieve when they reach their destination. As soon as they return to the first room, they are reminded of what they wanted in the first place. This common experience best illustrates the principle of...
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Encoding specificity
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The principle that we learn information together with its context is known as...
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Encoding specificity
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Which example below best demonstrates state-dependent learning?
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Although Emily doesn't very often think about her first love, Steve, she can't help getting caught up in happy memories when "their song" (the first song they danced to) plays on the radio
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You have been studying for weeks for a nursing school entrance exam. You love the idea of becoming a nurse, and you have been enjoying learning about the material for your exam. Each night, you put on relaxing clothes and study in the quiet of your lovely home. Memory research suggests you should take your test with a _____ mind set.
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Calm
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Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval. This is called...
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Transfer-appropriate processing
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Transfer-appropriate processing is likely to occur if...
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The type of encoding and type of retrieval match
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According to levels of processing theory, deep processing results in better memory. However, studies have shown that shallow processing can result in better memory when the individual en-codes _____ and is tested _____.
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Auditorially, Auditorially
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According to memory research, studying is most effective if studying sessions are...
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Short and across several days
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Katie and Inez are roommates taking the same psychology class. They have a test in four days during a 10:00 - 11:00 AM class period. Both women intend to study for three hours, but because of different work schedules, Katie will study one hour for each of the next three days, while Inez will study three hours the day before the exam. What could you predict about their performances?
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Katie should perform better because of the spacing effect
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Students, beware! Research shows that _____ does not improve reading comprehension because it does not encourage elaborative processing of the material.
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Highlighting
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The author of your text makes a suggestion that students should study in a variety of places. This suggestion is based on research showing that people remember material better if they learned it in a number of different locations, compared to studying the same amount of time in one location. The suggestion solves a problem raised by...
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The encoding specificity principle
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The memory mechanism Hebb proposed is associated with...
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Both changes at the synapse and long-term potentiation
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Donald Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the...
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Neurotransmitters
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Hebb's idea of long-term potentiation, which provides a physiological mechanism for the long-term storage of memories, includes the idea of...
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Enhanced firing in the neurons
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The medial temporal lobe (MTL), involved in memory consolidation, includes all of the following structures EXCEPT the...
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Amygdala
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Your book explains that brief episodes of retrograde amnesia (e.g., the traumatic disruption of newly formed memories when a football player takes a hit to the head and can't recall the last play before the hit) reflect...
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A failure of memory consolidation
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Retrograde amnesia is usually less severe for _____ memories.
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Remote
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Grades amnesia occurs because...
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Emotional memories are more fragile than nonemotional memories
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From the behavior of H.M., who experienced memory problems after a brain operation, we can conclude that the hippocampus is important in...
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Long-term memory acquisition
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____ transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.
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Consolidation
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The standard model of consolidation proposes that the hippocampus is...
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Strongly active when memories are first formed and being consolidated but becomes less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.
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Lourdes and Kim have been studying for two hours for their chemistry exam. Both girls are tired of studying. Lourdes decides to watch a two-hour movie on DVD, while Kim decides to go to bed. What would you predict about their performance on the chemistry exam?
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Kim performs better because of reactivation
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Experimental evidence suggesting that the standard model of consolidation needs to be revised are data that show that the hippocampus was activated during retrieval of ____ memories.
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Recent and remote episodic memories
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According to the multiple trace hypothesis, the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of...
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Remote, episodic memories
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When cleaning her closet, Nadia finds her 20-year-old wedding photo album. As she flips through the pictures, she starts to cry joyful tears. Seeing the photos and rekindling the emotions of her wedding day most likely activated her...
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Amygdala
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Recent research on memory, based largely on fear conditioning in rats, indicates that...
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When a memory is reactivated, it becomes fragile, just as it was immediately after it was formed
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Treatment of PTSD has benefited from recent research on...
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Reconsolidation
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Your text's discussion of instances when people report a memory of being abused or witness abuse after years of having no memory for these events highlights the importance of considering...
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All of these (how visualization exercises during therapy may lead to false memories, that there is no test that can accurately discriminate between true and false memories, the specific situation under which a person recalls the past.)
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Which of the following is true of the cognitive interview technique?
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Police allow witnesses to talk with a minimum of interruption from the officer
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Which of the following is true of police lineups?
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A sequential lineup increases the chances that the witness compares each person in the lineup to his or her memory of the event
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When presenting lineups to eyewitnesses, it has been found that a ____ lineup is much more likely to result in an innocent person being falsely identified.
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Simultaneous
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Much research has been dedicated to improving the reliability of eyewitness testimony. One finding reveals that when constructing a lineup, ____ similarity between the "fillers" and the suspect does result in missed identification of some guilty suspects but also substantially reduces erroneous identification of many innocent people.
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Increasing
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Research on eyewitness testimony reveals that...
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When viewing a lineup, an eyewitness's confidence in her choice of the suspect can be increased by an authority's confirmation of her choice, even when the choice is wrong
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Critics of eyewitness testimony could point to the ______ hypothesis to highlight the dangers of repeated questioning of eyewitnesses.
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Memory-trace replacement
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Your text's discussion of eyewitness testimony illustrates that this type of memory is frequently influenced by all of the following EXCEPT...
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Failing to elaboratively rehearse these kinds of events due to fear
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Stany and Johnson's 'weapons focus' experiment, investigating memory for crime scenes, found that...
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The presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.
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Which statement below is NOT true, based on the results of memory research?
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Although eyewitness testimony is often faulty, people who have just viewed a videotape of a crime are quite accurate in picking the "perpetrator" from a lineup
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Research on eyewitness testimony has shown that the more confident the person giving the testimony is of their memories...
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The more convincing the testimony is to a jury
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Lindsay and coworkers "slime in the first-grade teacher's desk" experiment showed that presenting...
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A photograph of the participant's first-grade class increased the likelihood of false memories
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The "wedding reception" false memory experiment shows that false memories can be explained as a product of familiarity and...
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Source misattribution
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Lindsay's misinformation effect experiment, in which participants were given a memory test about a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer, showed that participants are influenced by MPI...
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Even if they are told to ignore the postevent information
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In Lindsay's "misinformation effect" experiment, participants saw a sequence of slides showing a maintenance man stealing money and a computer. This slide presentation included narration by a female speaker who described what was happening in the slides as they were shown. Results showed that the misinformation effect was greatest when MPI presentation was...
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Auditory from a female speaker
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Kieran found that studying for his Spanish exam made it more difficult to remember some of the vocabulary words he had just studied for his French exam earlier in the day. This is an example of...
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Retroactive interference
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___ occurs when more recent learning impairs memory for something that happened further back in the past.
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Retroactive interference
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The misinformation effect can be explained by...
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All of these (the memory-trace replacement hypothesis, retroactive interference, source monitoring.)
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The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that the misinformation effect occurs because...
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MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during the original experiencing of an event.
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Loftus and Palmer's "car-crash slides" experiment described in the text shows how a seemingly minor word change can produce a change in a person's memory report. In this study, the MPI was (were) the word(s)...
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"smashed"
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The misinformation effect does not occur when...
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People are told explicitly that the postevent information may be incorrect false
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The misinformation effect occurs when a person's memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented...
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After the event
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"S," who had a photographic memory that was described as virtually limitless, was able to achieve many feats of memory. According to the discussion in your text, S's memory system operated _____ efficiently than normal.
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Less
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The conclusion to be drawn from the man named Shereshevskii whose abnormal brain functioning gave him virtually limitless word-for-word memory is that having memory like a video recorder...
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None of the above
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Your text's discussion of false memories leads to the conclusion that false memories...
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Are a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system
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In discussing the survival value of the memory system, your text highlights the undesirability of...
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Photographic memory
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The sleep list experiment, in which many people misremember the word "sleep" as being part of a list of words, is an example of..
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A disadvantage of memory's constructive nature
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In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of..
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Constructive memory processes
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Jackie went to the grocery store to pick up yogurt, bread, and apples. First, she picked up a hand basket for carrying her groceries, and then she searched the store. After finding what she needed, she stood in a check-out line. Then, the cashier put her items in a plastic bag, and soon after, Jackie left the store. As readers of this event, we understand that Jackie paid for the groceries, even though it wasn't mentioned, because we are relying on a grocery store _____ that is stored in _______ long-term memory.
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Script; Sematic
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A script is a type of schema that also includes knowledge of...
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A sequence of events
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In the experiment in which participants sat in an office and then were asked to remember what they saw in the office, participants "remembered" some things, like books, that weren't actually there. This experiment illustrates the effect of _____ on memory.
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Schemas
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Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make her some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen...
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Schema
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Arkes and Freedman's "baseball game" experiment asked participants to indicate whether the following sentence was present in a passage they had previously read about events in a game: "The batter was safe at first." Their findings showed inaccurate memories involved...
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Creations from inferences based on baseball knowledge
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The experiment in which participants first read sentences about John fixing a birdhouse and were then asked to identify sentences they had seen before, illustrated that memory..
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Involves making inferences
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____ occurs when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly stated or necessarily implied by the sentence.
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Pragmatic inference
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The experiment for which people were asked to make fame judgments for both famous and non-famous names (and for which Sebastian Weissdorf was one of the names to be remembered) illustrated the effect of _____ on memory.
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Source misattributions
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Jacoby's experiment, in which participants made judgments about whether they had previously seen the names of famous and non-famous people, found that inaccurate memories based on source misattributions occurred after a delay of...
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24 hours
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Unconscious plagiarism of the work of others is known as...
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Cryptomnesia
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Wei has allergy symptoms. He has gone to his regular doctor and an allergy specialist, but he wasn't given a prescription by either doctor. Instead, he was advised to buy any over-the-counter medicine. While he was in the specialist's waiting area, he read a magazine where he saw three ads for an allergy medicine called SneezeLess. A week later, in a drug store, Wei says to his brother, "My doctor says SneezeLess works great. I'll buy that one." Wei and his doctor never discussed SneezeLess. Wei has fallen victim to which of the following errors?
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Source monitoring
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The repeated production technique used in memory studies involves
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The same participants remembering some information at longer and longer interval after learning the information
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Bartlett's experiment in which English participants were asked to recall the "War of the Ghosts" story that was taken from the French Indian culture illustrated the...
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Constructive nature of memory
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In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment, participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on...
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Cultural expectations
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The "telephone game" is often played by children. One child creates a story and whispers it to a second child, who does the same to a third child, and so on. When the last child recites the story to the group, his or her reproduction of the story is generally shorter than the original and contains many omissions and inaccuracies. This game shows how memory is a ______ process.
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Constructive
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According to the _____ approach to memory, what people report as memories is based on what actually happened plus additional factors such as other knowledge, experiences, and expectations.
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Constructive
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The idea that we remember life events better because we encounter the same information over and over in what we read, see on TV, and talk about with other people is called the...
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Narrative rehearsal hypothesis
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Your text describes two experiments that measured people's memory for what they were doing when they heard about the terrorist attack on 9/11. Results of these experiments show that participants...
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Both believed their memories for the attack were accurate over a 52-week period and displayed memory for the flashbulb event that declined with time.
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Experiments that argue against a special flashbulb memory mechanism find that as time increases since the occurrence of the flashbulb event, participants...
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Make more errors in their recollections
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A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that...
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Extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate
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Your text argues that proper procedure for measuring the accuracy of flashbulb memories is...
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Repeated recall
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Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
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It is memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
question
Extrapolating from the cultural life hypothesis, which of the following events would be easiest to recall?
answer
Graduating from college at age 22
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Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. These results support the...
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Cognitive hypothesis
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The observation that older adults often become nostalgic for the "good old days" reflects the self-image hypothesis, which states that...
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Memory for life events is enhanced during the time we assume our life identities
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Asking people to recall the most influential events that happened during their college careers show that ____ in people's lives appear to be particularly memorable.
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Transition points
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For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for...
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Adolescence and early adulthood
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Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos...
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They took themselves