Ciccarelli Psychology, Chapter 5 Study Plan

question

Albert Bandura
answer

Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
question

Observational Learning
answer

_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
question

memory
answer

Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
question

Involuntary and Voluntary
answer

What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
question

Digestive systems
answer

Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’
question

Maturation
answer

Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called
question

be repeated
answer

The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it is likely to
question

successive approximations
answer

Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as
question

fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
answer

In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
question

latent learning
answer

Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called
question

learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map.
answer

In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that didn’t receive reinforcement for solving the maze had
question

heard the sound of the metronome.
answer

In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
question

obtaining food.
answer

It is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with
question

jumped over the fence when the shock started.
answer

n Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone
question

insight.
answer

In Köhler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then learned to fit two sticks together. This was an example of
question

unconditioned stimulus.
answer

A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an
question

biological preparedness.
answer

Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of
question

the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.
answer

The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves
question

Extinction
answer

_________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
question

They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done.
answer

In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewarded?
question

punishment by removal
answer

Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
question

operant conditioning.
answer

A teacher has decided to give ‘caught being good’ tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using
question

stimulus generalization.
answer

The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is
question

conditioned emotional response.
answer

Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of
question

did not demonstrate a conditioned response upon hearing ticking sounds similar to the metronome.
answer

Pavlov’s dogs exhibited stimulus discrimination when they
question

imitation
answer

Three-year-old Ellie sees her big brother go across the monkey bars. Ellie tries to do the monkey bars but her arms are not strong enough to hang or long enough to reach the next bar. According to Bandura, Ellie is lacking which element of observational learning?
question

a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
answer

If your professor gives pop quizzes, this is an example of
question

aggression in children.
answer

A recent study suggests a link between spanking and
question

Martin Seligman
answer

Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
question

teaching rats to learn how to obtain food.
answer

One of B. F. Skinner’s famous experiments involved
question

Pavlov
answer

_____ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time.
question

reinforcement
answer

In operant conditioning, _______ is the key to learning.
question

have found support for the concept of animal insight.
answer

Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees
question

partially reinforced.
answer

A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is
question

jumped over the fence when the shock started.
answer

In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone
question

all responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.
answer

The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that
question

the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura’s study.
answer

The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by
question

but it is essentially the same response.
answer

The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response,
question

pay attention to what is happening.
answer

Observational learning cannot take place if the learner does not first
question

it is difficult to get rid of a well-established response.
answer

Punishment is more difficult than reinforcement because
question

unconditioned response.
answer

An unconditioned stimulus is always followed by a(n)
question

up to 6 hours
answer

Experiments have shown that laboratory rats will experience conditioned taste aversion for a food they swallow _____ before becoming nauseated.
question

unconditioned response.
answer

In Pavlov’s studies, the salivation of dogs in response to food in their mouths is the
question

a token economy.
answer

In order to increase reading among her class, Mrs. Gomez, a second-grade teacher, has students record their reading by placing stickers on a large chart. For every ten stickers, students receive a new book. Mrs. Gomez is using
question

stopping at a stop sign while driving your car
answer

Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
question

Grounding a teenager
answer

_______ is an example of punishment by removal.
question

negative reinforcement.
answer

Following a response with the removal of something unpleasant is called
question

Vicarious conditioning
answer

______ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
question

on a ratio schedule of reinforcement.
answer

When a behavior is reinforced according to the number of responses required, it is
question

began to solve the maze immediately.
answer

In Tolman’s study on rats, the second group, who did not get reinforced with food until the tenth day, then
question

by having a sudden perception of relationships.
answer

Kohler believed that Sultan the chimp had solved the problem of reaching the banana
question

cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone.
answer

Köhler determined that insight
question

latent learning.
answer

The learning/performance distinction is a kind of
question

One-year-old baby Jesse could not walk two months ago but now he can.
answer

Which of the following is an example of maturation?
question

operant
answer

Voluntary behavior, to Skinner, was ______ behavior.
question

successive approximations.
answer

In conditioning, the concept of shaping is achieved by reinforcing
question

positively correlated with
answer

Aggression in children is ________ violence on TV.
question

would not attempt to escape when escape was possible.
answer

In Seligman’s study, dogs that had been harnessed and had learned there was nothing they could do to escape a shock
question

relatively permanent
answer

In defining learning, _____ refers to the fact that when people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they’ve learned, and that change remains even if the behavior doesn’t.
question

primary reinforcer.
answer

In order to be effective, a secondary reinforcer must be paired with a
question

unpleasant thing; pleasant, or desirable thing
answer

In negative reinforcement, a(n) _________ is removed; in punishment by removal, a(n) ________ is removed.
question

spontaneous recovery.
answer

After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of:
question

come before the UCS.
answer

For classical conditioning to be successful, the CS must
question

treating children with disorders such as autism.
answer

A typical use of applied behavior analysis is
question

John Watson.
answer

One of the first psychologists to conduct studies in an attempt to explain human behavior was
question

Ivan Pavlov
answer

________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
question

several times
answer

The neutral stimulus must be paired with the unconditioned stimulus _______ in order to result in successful conditioning.
question

Fixed Ratio
answer

Number of times that you must make the response before you are being reinforced
question

Fixed Interval
answer

Set number of interval of time that must pass before you can make the response and get reinforced
question

Variable Ratio
answer

The number of times you must make the response before you are reinforced varies from trial to trial

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member