ESL Praxis Study Guide

Direct Method
Students listen to dialogue, then answer a series of questions, visual aids & pantomime used

Direct Method
use target language in instruction to communicate and think in target language. Constant question and response with teacher and students.

Grammar-Translation
Taught in native language. Focus on memorizing vocabulary translating literature passages.

Grammar- Translation
develops appreciation of the target language as well as teaching the language. To read literature in target language, very teacher directed.

Audio-Lingual
Learn set patterns and then substitute in new words. Stress pronunciation and repetitive drills.

Audio- Lingual
Learn structural form of the language, acquire core sets of language habits. Teacher reinforces correct responses, teacher directed

Community Language Learning
Counselor facilitates and supports students in communicating with a group. Students choose what they want to learn.

Total Physical Response (TPR)
Use of acting out, games, and skill- kinesthetic

The Silent Way
Students take responsibility for their own learning. Teacher is silent most of the time. Speaks to give clues, not model language.

Suggestopedia
To learn at an accelerated pace for everyday communication. Immersion.

CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach)
teaches explicit learning strategies while language is taught through content. Great for middle school and high school teachers.

CALLA
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach.

Natural Approach
Krashen’s acquisition theories. Provide low risk context for natural acquisition occur. Teacher teaches in context (theme based)

SIOP Lesson Preparation
Should have clear content and language objectives. Contents appropriate to age and background. Supplement with materials, and meaningful activities.

SIOP Building Background
Links concepts to background knowledge and to past learning. Emphasize key vocabulary.

SIOP Comprehensible Unit
Use speech appropriate to students’ proficiency level. Have clear explanation of academic tasks.

SIOP Strategies
Opportunities for students to use learning strategies and provide scaffolding. Use a variety of question types to promote higher-order thinking.

SIOP Interaction
Frequent discussion among teacher/students, students/students about the key concepts. Group students to support lesson objectives, provide wait time for student responses.

SIOP Practice and Application
Provide hands-on materials or manipulatives. Activities to apply knowledge, activities that integrate all four language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening).

SIOP
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. A system for teaching language and content effectively.

Sheltered Instruction
the use of clear, direct, simple English and wide range of scaffolding strategies to communicate meaningful input in the content area to ELLs above the beginner level.

Scaffolding
Increased wait time, paraphrasing, use of visuals

English Immersion
almost 100% of class is taught in the target language

Two- Way Immersion/Dual Language
student population of 2 or more languages (50/50 L1, L2)

Transitional Bilingual
a bilingual program designed to move students to English proficiency as soon as possible. Then native language is discontinued.

Maintenance Bilingual
a bilingual program that strives for full bilingualism and bi-literacy. Native language instruction continues after English proficiency is attained.

Integrated Language Approach
Language is learned best when it is whole and in context. Focus on meaning and using language to communicate reading writing, speaking, and listening are all essential components.

Key Components of Effective ESL Instruction
1. Clearly defined language and content objectives
2. Building background knowledge
3. Comprehensible Input
4. Strategies
5. Opportunities for student interaction
6. Practice and Application
7. Effective lesson delivery
8. Review and Assessment of key vocabulary and key content objectives.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Stephen Krashen says reading material should be slightly above students’ independent reading level (i+1).

Linguistic Approach
based on letter-sound correspondence

Basal Reading Approach
skills are taught in a sequential order based on material contained in basal reader

Sight Word Approach
memorize words as a whole

Language Experience Approach
a reading strategy where students dictate stories to the teacher who records them, using students’ own vocabulary, grammar, and experiences to form the basic reading material.

IATEFL
International Association of Teachers of English as a foreign language

TESOL
Teachers of English Speakers of other Languages. They publish a research journal quarterly.

ACTFL
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages

NAFSA
National Association of International Educators

LFS
Limited formal schooling

BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

CALP
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

ESL
English as a Second Language

LEP
Limited English Proficiency

LES
Limited English Speaker

FES
Fluent English Speaker

NEP
Non-English Proficient

NES
Non-English Speaking

ELL
English Language Learner

ESOL
English to speakers of other Languages

IPT
Idea Proficiency Test

LAS
Language Assessment Scale

KELPA
Kansas English Language Proficiency Assessment

L1
First Language

L2
Second language

Implicit Instruction
wide reading is how most new words are acquired

Explicit Instruction
providing definitions and examples

Multiple Exposures
to vocabulary is critical

Cognates
Words with similar roots in L1 and L2. Should be pointed out to students (escuela and school)

False Cognates
words that sound similar, but have no meaning in common

Phonology
the study of sounds or a particular language and the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of the syllables

phoneme
the smallest linguistic unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning

morphology
the study of words and their internal organization

orthography
the study of sound and spelling English has a “deep orthography” with many rules and options for letter/sound correspondence

morpheme
the smallest grammatical unit that is indivisible without violating meaning or producing meaningless sounds-dog

bound morpheme
must be attached to a root word to have meaning (suffixes and prefixes)

free morphemes
base in rot words that can stand alone

syntax (grammar)
governs the form or structure of a language (sentences). Specifics what word combinations are acceptable and what ones are not.

pragmatics
the way language is used to communicate. The how, why, when, and where language is used.

Linguistics
the study of language

phonetics
the study of sounds across languages

minimal pairs
a pair of words that differ by only 1 phoneme (dog/bog)

phones
the group of sounds that make up a phoneme

inflectional morphemes
affixes that can be added to a morpheme without changing its part of speech/suffixes

derivational morphemes
affixes that can be added to a morpheme to change its meaning and may change its part of speech

voicless stops
p, t, k

voiced stops
b, d, g

diagraph
two letter spelling for 1 phoneme

consonant diagraph
two consonants pronounced a a single sound (ch, sh, th, wh)

consonant cluster
a group of 2 or more consonant together with no intervening vowel (ex: pl, st. caught)

stops
formed by completely blocking the air and releasing it bilabials- stopped at lips

fricatives
produced by a constant flow of air through the vocal tract (f and v)

affricatives
produced by briefly stopping air and then releasing it with some friction (church)

nasals
sound comes through the nose (m)

liquids
make a smooth sound (l and r)

blends
two letters that are pronounced together with each letter retaining it pronunciation

aspiration
a strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or closure of some consonant sound formed by obstructing airflow

phoneme substitution
mispronouncing phonemes- usually with one articulated in a similar positioning of the mouth

over generalization
applying a rule of syntax to all situations “goed, “comed”, vs “went” and “came”

fossilization
the point past which language learners can not progress without exceptional effort

semantics
the study of word meanings, idioms, and non-literal expressions

rising intonation
usually used at the end of questions

homophones
two words with same pronunciation

allophones
all the phones that make up on phoneme

number agreement
using singular/plural form of nouns correctly

jargon
technical vocabulary associated with a special activity

discourse
larger units of language used in particular context

lexicon
the words and meanings in a language

pragmatics
the intent of language, what the speaker means to convey

register
the type of language used in a particular context (casual, professional)

idiom
a phrase that makes no sense taken literally. It was raining cats and dogs

code switching
alternating between two or more languages, dialects, or registers in a single conversation

negative transfer
applying rules of syntax from first language to the second language (ex: I saw the car blue)

silent period
understanding language before being able to produce. The first state of language acquisition

Invented spelling
using knowledge of letter names to try to spell words, best judgment of spelling (ex: elafunt for elephant)

Learning/Acquistion Hypothesis
Krashen’s theory in which learning is a conscious process; acquisition is a subconscious process. “Learned” language is quickly forgotten

Natural Order Hypothesis
features of speech appear in predictable order; sounds come first with some coming before others; statements before questions and positives before negative; order is determine by the language acquired, not the first language

Monitor Hypothesis
rules are used to double check what we say or write; requires time; focus on how something is said rather than the message itself; “middle of the road” is the best approach to monitoring

Input Hypothesis
input should be slightly beyond students’ current level (i+1) for acquisition to occur; pictures, gestures, tone of voice help make input comprehensible; frequently use key vocabulary words.

Affective Filter Hypothesis
nervousness, boredom, and anxiety have a negative affect on comprehension

Cummins
says it takes 5 to 7 years to learn academic English (new research suggest now 7-10 years)

Vgotsky
developed “zone of proximal development” theory. Must work at appropriate development level- not to hard or to easy- in order to learn

active voice
when the subject performs action in the sentence (John carried the papers to the desk)

passive voice
when the action is performed by an unknown agent (The papers were carried to the desk)

personal pronouns
takes the place of a name of a person, place, or thing

relative pronoun
used to relate to another noun in the sentence

indefinite pronouns
refer to an unknown person, place or thing

demonstrative pronouns
stand in place for a person, thing that must be pointed to (That car is the one I want)

Interrogative Pronouns
used to ask questions

reflexive pronouns
refer back to the person to whom the pronoun refers

ESL Placement Process
1. All students given home language survey
2. Students identified as ELL’s are assessed
3. Students who test NES or LES are recommend for ESL
4. Parent Permission is sent and outcome plan is written
5. Students continue in ESL until proficient
6. After exit, monitor for 2 years

Ethnocentrism
the tendency to evaluate other groups according to the values and standards of ones own ethnic group, especially with the conviction that one;s own ethnic group is superior to the other groups

Enculturation
the process of learning one’s culture

Melting Pot Theory
when people form other cultures assimilate to the point where their original identities and culture disappear- they become a uniform culture

Multiculturalism
cultures mix together in a culture of respect for diversity. Groups retain their culture identities

Castaneda v. Pickard
Segregation of ELL’s only permissible when the benefits of remedying language barriers outweigh adverse affects of segregation

Lao v. Nichols
can’t discriminate based on language and must provide appropriate educational accommodations to non English speakers.

United States code 1703
no state shall deny education opportunity b/c of race, color, or national origin by failure of an educational agency to provide services to overcome language barriers that impede participation of students in its instructional programs

Title VI- Civil Rights Act 1964
no person b/c of race, color, or national origin shall be excluded from participation nor denied benefits, or otherwise subject to discrimination if program receives federal funds.

Title VI
prohibits denial of equal access b/c of limited English proficiency. Specifically prohibits programs that don’t teach English as soon as possible.

Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974
required schools to design language programs to climate language barriers in schools

Plyer vs Doe
14th amendment prohibits states from denying a free public education to undocumented children. Prohibits schools from request of any documentation of legal status.

Title III
requires Ell’s to receive equal numbers of textbooks and other resources as their English speaking peers

NCLB
requires annual assessments of ELL’s in reading and math, requires annual assessments of ELL’s proficiency and progress in English and increases state and local accountability for LEP students’ progress.

Cummins’
had theories on BICS and CALP

Krashen
had theories on comprehensible input (i+1)

Behaviorism
learning is a process of stimulus and response. What is reinforced is repeated

Constructivism
students create their knowledge through real life experiences

TESOL standards
social language, academic language, sociocultural knowledge