Epidemiology Quiz 2

Epidemiologic measures provide the following types of information:
A. Frequency of disease or condition
B. Association between exposure and disease
C. Strength of relationship between exposure and disease
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
When the incidence rate of a disease increases, the prevalence will:
A. Increase
B. Decrease
C. Stay the same
D. None of the above
A. Increase
Those members of the population who are capable of developing a disease or condition are known as:
A. The population at risk
B. The immune function
C. Incident cases
D. Prevalent cases
A. The population at risk
Which factors can decrease an observed prevalence?
A. Decrease in incidence
B. Better reporting of diagnoses
C. Improved cure rates of disease
D. 1 & 3 only
D. 1 & 3 only
Epidemiologists can plot data and present it graphically through:
A. Pie charts
B. Line graphs
C. Bar graphs
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Assume the number of residents of AnywhereUSA who were diagnosed with asthma at any time during their life is A.

Assume the mid-year population of AnywhereUSA in 2010 is B.
Assume the number of new cases of asthma in AnywhereUSA in 2010 is C.

The prevalence of asthma (percent) in AnywhereUSA would be expressed as:
A. (C/B) x 100
B. (A/B) x 100
C. (C/A) x 100
D. (B/A) x 100

B. (A/B) x 100
Assume the number of residents of AnywhereUSA who were diagnosed with asthma at any time during their life is A.

Assume the mid-year population of AnywhereUSA in 2010 is B.
Assume the number of new cases of asthma in AnywhereUSA in 2010 is C.

The incidence rate of asthma (per 100,000) in 2010 would be expressed as:
A. (A/B) x 100,000
B. (C/A) x 100,000
C. (C/B) x 100,000
D. None of the above

C. (C/B) x 100,000
If A equals the number of deaths in 2009 and B equals the population at the midpoint of 2009 and C equals the number of persons aged 15-24, then the crude death rate per 100,000 population would be:
A. (B/C) x 100,000
B. (A/B) x 100,000
C. (C/B) x 100,000
D. (B/A) x 100,000
B. (A/B) x 100,000
Prevalence measures do not aid in:
A. Determining the risk of disease
B. Assessing variations in disease occurrence
C. The development of hypotheses
D. Describing the scope of health problems
A. Determining the risk of disease
Which of the following sources could be used for determining life expectancy?
A. National Health Interview Survey
B. Vital Statistics Cooperative Program
C. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
D. None of the above
B. Vital Statistics Cooperative Program
The purposes of state cancer registries are:
A. Surveillance
B. Calculating health care costs
C. Advancing prevention research
D. None of the above
A. Surveillance
The systematic and continuous gathering of information about the occurrence of diseases and other health phenomena is known as:
A. Chronic disease surveillance
B. Public health surveillance
C. Vital statistics
D. Syndromic surveillance
B. Public health surveillance
All of the following are considered vital events EXCEPT:
A. Deaths
B. Graduations
C. Divorces
D. Marriages
B. Graduations
Examples of reportable and notifiable diseases include:
A. Tetanus
B. Rubella
C. Measles
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Some examples of surveillance systems include those for:
A. Communicable and infectious diseases
B. Noninfectious diseases
C. Risk factors for chronic diseases
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Using health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response is known as:
A. Syndromic surveillance
B. Registries
C. Vital events
D. Public health surveillance
A. Syndromic surveillance
Death certificate data in the United States include which of the following:
A. Demographic characteristics
B. Date and place of death
C. Cause of death
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
The time period between initial exposure and a measurable response is known as:
A. Threshold
B. Inference
C. Latency
D. Mode
C. Latency
The web of causation model specifies a type of causal relationship that is:
A. Specific
B. Coherent
C. Consistent
D. Multifactorial
D. Multifactorial
The ability of a study to demonstrate an association if one exists is known as:
A. Estimation
B. Quantification
C. Inference
D. Power
D. Power
A type of correlative association between an exposure and effect is a:
A. Negative relationship
B. Positive relationship
C. Dose-response relationship
D. Threshold relationship
C. Dose-response relationship
With respect to derivation of hypotheses, a situation in which all of the factors in two or more domains are the same except for a single factor is known as:
A. Method of concomitant variation
B. Operationalization
C. Method of difference
D. All of the above
C. Method of difference
When the value of one variable increases and the value of a second variable increases, the association is:
A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Curvilinear
D. Nonlinear
A. Positive
When the value of one variable increases and the value of another variable decreases, the association is:
A. Negative
B. Discrete
C. Positive
D. Continuous
A. Negative
A type of variable that can have an infinite number of values within a specified range is:
A. Continuous
B. Concomitant
C. Positive
A. Continuous
The cycle of epidemiologic research includes which of the following categories:
A. Theory
B. Hypothesis
C. Operationalization
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
For which of the following criteria do epidemiologists need to observe the cause before the effect?
A. Temporality
B. Consistency
C. Coherence
D. Biological gradient
A. Temporality
The process of defining measurement procedures for the variables used in a study is:
A. Causal modeling
B. Operationalization
C. Dose-response assessment
D. Hypothesis formation
B. Operationalization
The process of passing from observations and axioms to generalizations is known as:
A. Inference
B. Point estimation
C. Power
D. None of the above
A. Inference
A graphic plotting of the distribution of cases by time of onset is a(n)
A. Dose-response curve
B. Threshold curve
C. Multi-modal curve
D. Epidemic curve
D. Epidemic curve
A range of values that with a certain degree of probability contain the population parameter is known as a:
A. Point estimate
B. Confidence interval
C. Ballpark estimate
D. Testing limit
B. Confidence interval
Hill’s criteria of causality include which of the following:
A. Temporality
B. Analogy
C. Strength of association
D. All of the above
D. All of the above