Envr chapt 18 test bank

1) The Maldive Islands are in immediate danger from global climate change because:
A) the coral reefs which are their major tourist attraction are dying.
B) the islands have a mean elevation of three feet above sea level.
C) the islands are constantly pounded by hurricanes generated by warmer sea water.
D) increased rainfall has flooded much of the agricultural land.

2) In Alaska, some coastal areas are under threat from climate change because
A) warmer air temperatures have drastically altered agricultural patterns.
B) much of the Aleutian archipelago has already been submerged.
C) summer sea ice and permafrost have melted, increasing wave action and soil instability.
D) traditional food fish have migrated elsewhere because of warmer ocean temperatures.

3) The current situations in the Maldives, Tuvalu, and parts of coastal Alaska have raised the
need to address
A) where to locate the refugees from climate change events.
B) how to generate lawsuits to blame those responsible for climate change.
C) making models to predict the results of climate change.
D) how to make fossil fuel electrical generating plants more efficient.

4) Which one of the following global climate changes is most associated with increased hurricane activity?
A) increased desertification in Africa
B) warmer oceans
C) melting polar ice caps
D) melting glaciers in Alaska

5) The destruction of the ozone layer primarily occurs in the
A) mesosphere.
B) thermosphere.
C) stratosphere.
D) troposphere.

6) Most of the weather of the world is based upon changes in the moisture, pressure, and/or temperature of the
A) mesosphere.
B) thermosphere.
C) stratosphere.
D) troposphere.

) The two highest levels of the atmosphere contain only small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, and ozone. These layers are the
A) mesosphere and thermosphere.
B) thermosphere and stratosphere.
C) stratosphere and troposphere
D) thermosphere and troposphere.

8) A university in Florida wishes to investigate the feasibility of using a large wind turbine on campus to power several buildings. Wind speeds throughout the year and potential storms and hurricanes must be considered to determine if and where a wind turbine might be installed. To consider these many factors, the university would most benefit from the work of
A) a physicist to measure changes in the stratosphere.
B) an environmental biologist to measure the biotic and abiotic factors in the region.
C) a meteorologist to study the regional climate.
D) a meteorologist to predict changes in the stratosphere.

9) Every day, tremendous amounts of the sun’s energy strikes the Earth. Why doesn’t the Earth overheat?
A) Much of the heat melts rocks, forming lava deep inside the Earth.
B) Most of the energy is used in photosynthesis, to help plants grow and survive.
C) The energy mostly is absorbed in various weather systems.
D) The energy is ultimately radiated back to space.

10) If the Earth had no atmosphere,
A) less of the sun’s energy would strike the Earth.
B) all regions of the Earth would be considerably warmer.
C) the Earth would experience much larger and more severe storms.
D) the biogeochemical cycles on Earth would be much different.

11) The thinning of the troposphere away from the equator is primarily a result of
A) land masses moving towards the poles.
B) shifting of the continental plates due to plate tectonics.
C) differences in solar energy striking the Earth.
D) the number of clouds in the mesosphere and thermosphere.

12) In a Hadley cell,
A) warm air rises and cool air falls.
B) cool air rises and warm air falls.
C) warm water rises and cool water falls.
D) cool water rises and warm water falls.

13) Winds we experience in our daily lives are mainly the result of
A) the rotation of the Earth.
B) changes in the direction of ocean currents and tides.
C) jet streams produced by Hadley cells.
D) the movement of air between lower pressure and higher pressure regions.

14) In the United States, summers are warmer than winters because
A) the Earth is much closer to the sun in summer.
B) the northern hemisphere is closer to the sun.
C) the sun’s rays shine more directly onto these regions in summer.
D) there are usually fewer clouds in the troposphere in the summer.

15) Examining your flight plans for a trip from Atlanta, Georgia, to Seattle, Washington, and back, you notice that the total time in the air for the flight to Seattle is much longer than the flight back to Atlanta. Then it occurs to you that this is probably because of the impact of
A) the jet stream.
B) several weather fronts along the way.
C) the mixing of the troposphere and stratosphere.
D) changes in time zones as you fly between the east and the west.

16) The jet streams in the United States generally flow from west to east because of
A) ocean currents off the Pacific and Atlantic coastlines.
B) convection currents between the troposphere and stratosphere.
C) rotation of the Earth.
D) high pressure systems generated by the sun striking the North American continent.

17) While enjoying a spring day off, a storm is expected. As the storm arrives and the rain begins to fall, you notice that the temperatures drop dramatically. Most likely, you have just experienced the arrival of a
A) cold front.
B) summer monsoon.
C) Hadley cell.
D) stratospheric event.

18) If you rode a helium balloon from the earth’s surface to the top of the stratosphere, you would notice that the temperatures
A) dropped steadily as you increased your altitude.
B) increased steadily as you increased your altitude.
C) dropped and then started to rise in the stratosphere about halfway up your trip.
D) rose and then started to drop in the mesosphere about halfway up your trip.

19) Most of the air pollution that we experience is located in the
A) mesosphere.
B) thermosphere.
C) stratosphere.
D) troposphere.

20) Hurricanes and tornadoes are events taking place in the
A) mesosphere.
B) thermosphere.
C) stratosphere.
D) troposphere.

21) Biomes are primarily identified by their
A) precipitation patterns and soil types.
B) temperature patterns and community structure.
C) soil types and community structure.
D) precipitation and temperature patterns.

22) If global climate change causes rain and temperature patterns to shift dramatically in a region,
A) plate tectonic action may dramatically change.
B) ocean levels could suddenly drop.
C) the region’s biomes may shift to other types.
D) the region’s biodiversity may suddenly increase.

23) The 2007 Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that global climate change is
A) certain and it is very likely that humans are to blame.
B) likely and it is possible that humans are to blame.
C) happening in some regions of the world and in some places people may be to blame.
D) still unclear and the evidence and the causes of change require additional studies.

24) Which of the following gases by virtue of its enormous amount in the atmosphere has the greatest impact on global climate change?
A) methane
B) nitrous oxide
C) carbon dioxide
D) nitrogen

25) Which of the following activities have contributed the greatest amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere over the past 100 years?
A) increased farming and production of grains
B) increased reliance upon coal, oil, and natural gas
C) deforestation of rain forests and other parts of the world
D) volcanic eruptions and widespread forest fires

26) Which one of the following best illustrates a type of mitigation in response to global climate change?
A) using natural gas instead of coal to generate electricity
B) constructing and using wind turbines to generate electricity
C) using scrubbers to remove sulfur from coal before burning it to generate electricity
D) using coal-generated electricity to power electric cars

27) Which one of the following best illustrates a type of adaptation to global climate change?
A) increasing the use of public transportation systems in cities
B) building taller levees to hold back storm surges along ocean coastlines
C) using solar and nuclear power to generate electricity instead of burning coal
D) widening the Panama Canal to allow larger ships to move from China to Europe

28) Which of the following illustrates a risk assessment of climate system change?
A) using natural gas instead of coal to generate electricity
B) using solar and nuclear power to generate electricity instead of burning coal
C) measuring the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
D) determining what sorts of crops will be better suited to the new climate

29) The global temperature pattern seen in this figure
A) reflects the results of the destruction of the ozone layer.
B) suggests that mitigation of carbon dioxide is urgently needed.
C) reveals a year-by-year increase in temperature every year since 1980.
D) shows no clear trend in temperature change for more than 120 years.

30) The general pattern in this figure reveals increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the past fifty years. Why is the red line wavy and the blue line steadily increasing?
A) The red line drops in the winter when photosynthesis decreases.
B) The red line increases in the summer when people are more likely to run their air conditioners.
C) The blue line reflects changes in temperature while the red line represents changes in carbon dioxide levels.
D) The red line reflects changes in the ocean levels that occur when carbon dioxide levels are higher.

31) Scientists use proxies to study climate to measure
A) current levels of carbon dioxide.
B) changes in temperature over the past 100 years.
C) changes in the ozone layer over the past 30 years.
D) climates hundreds and thousands of years ago.

32) Using ice core samples and analyses, researchers have discovered that over the past 800,000 years
A) glaciers were greatest when greenhouse gases increased the most.
B) the Earth has gradually been warming and sea levels have been rising.
C) there is a strong correlation between global temperatures and greenhouse gases.
D) atmospheric levels of methane and carbon dioxide have steadily been increasing.

33) You examine an ice core sample from 10,000 years ago when global temperatures were unusually high. Based upon past studies and insights from current GHG levels, we expect that atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide
A) and methane were unusually low.
B) and methane were unusually high.
C) were high but methane levels were low.
D) were low but methane levels were high.

34) In his movie, An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore warns of increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which suggest that
A) methane levels will soon rise, destroying the ozone layer.
B) global temperatures will also continue to rise.
C) the oceans of the world are losing carbon dioxide.
D) clouds are thinning and global precipitation is declining.

35) Evidence from proxies indicate eight major oscillations in global temperatures over the past 800,000 years, most likely the result of
A) rising and falling sea levels that greatly impact photosynthetic activity.
B) variations in solar activity that produce different levels of radiation.
C) Milankovitch cycles of periodic variations in Earth’s orbits around the sun.
D) lunar cycles in which the moon orbits at different distances from the Earth.

36) In general, temperatures along an ocean coastline vary less than temperatures 100 miles inland. This moderation of temperatures along coastlines is because
A) as the oceans evaporate it cools off the coastlines.
B) the sun shines more intensely away from the ocean coastlines.
C) ocean temperatures change more quickly than air temperatures.
D) ocean temperatures do not change as quickly as air temperatures.

37) In our world, something with the greatest heat capacity is able to
A) evaporate the most water from its surface.
B) retain its heat the longest.
C) insulate the best.
D) reflect the greatest amount of sunshine.

38) If the sun suddenly stopped shining, where would be the best outdoor location to stay warm with the least change in ambient temperature?
A) Atlanta, Georgia
B) on a beach in Hawaii
C) Kansas City, Kansas
D) the center of Brazil

39) London is located farther north than Toronto, yet average temperatures in January are higher in London than Toronto. London tends to be warmer in January because
A) Toronto gets more snow in January.
B) warm ocean currents flow past London.
C) people in London burn more fossil fuels.
D) it gets more sunshine than Toronto in January.

40) If you traveled along the North Atlantic Deep Water Current, you would most likely flow from waters near
A) South Africa to Iceland.
B) Brazil to Japan.
C) Iceland to California.
D) Brazil to South Africa.

41) Which of the following would most likely have the greatest impact on the ocean conveyor system in the Atlantic Ocean?
A) doubling the size of the Panama Canal
B) increased volcanic activities in the Pacific Ocean
C) complete melting of the polar ice cap
D) doubling the number of ships that cross from North America to Europe using fossil fuels

42) Natural climate variability ranging over months to decades is primarily the result of
A) intense global warming.
B) ocean-atmospheric interactions, especially the La Niña/El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO).
C) variations in the intensity of the sun and the Milankovitch cycle.
D) changes in the lunar orbit around the Earth.

43) The inside of a car or greenhouse would not heat up as much in the presence of sunshine if
A) air was circulated within the car or within the greenhouse.
B) infrared radiation passed through glass as easily as sunlight.
C) infrared radiation could not pass through glass as easily as sunlight.
D) sunlight could pass through glass more easily than through air.

44) When an automobile heats up in bright sunlight with windows rolled up, the glass in the car functions most like
A) rain in the atmosphere.
B) clouds in the atmosphere.
C) sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere.
D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

45) In the summer, some people place a windshield reflector in the front of their cars to reduce the buildup of heat inside the car. In the greenhouse effect, this would be most like
A) increasing sulfate aerosol and high clouds in the sky.
B) adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
C) decreasing the amount of ozone in the stratosphere.
D) increasing the amount of acid rain that is produced by burning coal.

46) Which one of the following has a net negative forcing effect on global climate?
A) ozone in the troposphere
B) industrial sulfate aerosols
C) carbon dioxide in the troposphere
D) low clouds in the troposphere

47) Which of the following has the highest albedo?
A) a green tent
B) a blacktop road
C) a healthy oak tree
D) snow on top of ice on a pond

48) Current data from satellite measurements of temperature in the troposphere, despite errors in early data, reveal
A) remarkable agreement with surface temperatures.
B) sharp differences with surface temperatures.
C) no correlation between temperature and levels of greenhouse gases.
D) a general cooling of global atmospheric temperatures.

49) Global warming is raising sea levels because of
A) melting ice and thermal expansion.
B) ocean basins compressed by continental drift.
C) greatly increased precipitation.
D) increased use of irrigation and drainage of wetlands on land.

50) The most dramatic temperature shifts in the past few decades have been
A) on land near the equator.
B) in the oceans nearest the equator.
C) in the north and south polar regions.
D) in the innermost regions of the North American and African continents.

51) Increasing levels of greenhouse gases have caused a
A) rise in ocean temperatures but a decrease in ocean pH.
B) rise in ocean temperatures and an increase in ocean pH.
C) decrease in ocean temperatures and a decrease in ocean pH.
D) decrease in ocean temperatures but an increase in ocean pH.

52) Current levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are
A) remaining high but steady.
B) nearly 400 ppm, higher than they have been in 800,000 years.
C) fluctuating greatly but are starting to increase again after a downward trend in the 1990s.
D) decreasing because surplus carbon dioxide is being absorbed by the arctic permafrost.

53) Which of the following represents an alarming positive feedback loop of global warming?
A) Increasing temperatures raise humidity, which further increases temperatures.
B) Decreased pH of the ocean increases the rate at which carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere.
C) Increased use of fossil fuels adds ozone to the stratosphere, which traps more heat.
D) Increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases photosynthesis, which further increases carbon dioxide atmospheric levels.

54) Which one of the following has been declining globally over the past several decades?
A) nitrous oxide levels in the troposphere
B) methane levels in the troposphere
C) mean global temperature
D) pH of the world’s oceans

55) Rising GHGs in the 21st century most confidently predict
A) increases in global temperatures and sea levels.
B) decreases in polar temperatures but increases in sea levels.
C) decreases in sea levels but increases in polar temperatures.
D) increases in ocean pH and increases in sea levels.

56) The best computer models of global climate change indicate that in the next 50 years
A) all of the rainforests will be destroyed.
B) growing seasons will get shorter.
C) the world will warm up by 2-3°C.
D) regions of drought will instead experience flooding.

57) In North America, Halifax, Nova Scotia, will likely experience the least warming in the next 50 years due to global climate change because of
A) ocean thermal buffering.
B) increased rainfall.
C) warm polar melt water in the Atlantic Conveyor Current.
D) changing albedo of the soils in the area.

58) Farmers in North America in the next 50 years will likely experience
A) shorter growing seasons.
B) less predictability in the weather and more extreme weather events.
C) generally more precipitation.
D) generally less precipitation.

59) If the world cooperated and stabilized the atmospheric levels of GHGs,
A) global temperatures would quickly level off within a year.
B) sea levels would continue to rise for hundreds of years because of their long residence times.
C) rain forests would quickly start to recover and regrow.
D) weather would quickly become predictable.

60) Which of the following U.S. national parks would be mostly eliminated by a 1-meter rise in sea level?
A) Glacier National Park
B) Yellowstone National Park
C) Everglades National Park
D) Yosemite National Park

61) Additional increases in ocean levels beyond those already expected may be most affected by
A) increased evaporation of the oceans.
B) greater than expected melting of polar ice.
C) greater than expected melting of ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica.
D) the formation of additional glaciers in regions where temperatures will decline.

62) Which of the following states will most likely experience the greatest warming in the next 50 years?
A) Florida
B) Hawaii
C) Alaska
D) Illinois

63) If any component of the atmosphere causes an increase in the retention of energy, it
A) will leave the planetary albedo unaffected.
B) has a positive value of radiative forcing.
C) has a negative value of radiative forcing.
D) will help mitigate global warming.

64) Which of the following has a negative effect on radiative forcing?
A) methane
B) nitrous oxide
C) sulfate aerosols
D) carbon dioxide

65) Non-condensing GHGs are of greatest concern because they
A) take many decades to be removed from the atmosphere.
B) deplete stratospheric ozone.
C) react very quickly with other atmospheric gases.
D) react with one another to produce even more potent GHGs.

66) The sharp decrease in atmospheric 14C in the past decade is directly related to
A) a drop in global photosynthesis.
B) increasing methane levels.
C) decreasing temperatures in the troposphere.
D) increase in fossil fuel use.

87) Outcomes of the Kyoto Conference of 1997 were that
A) all of the developed nations have significantly reduced GHG emissions.
B) developing nations refused to sign the GHG protocol.
C) the largest GHG emitters—India, China, and the United States—did not participate.
D) Japan, Canada, and Russia met their GHG reduction pledges.

88) At the 2009 Copenhagen climate conference,
A) more than 180 nations signed non-binding GHG reduction pledges.
B) binding resolutions signed by all attending nations.
C) timetables were agreed upon for GHG reductions.
D) most nations boycotted the meetings under pressure from fossil fuel companies.

89) As of 2012, the United States
A) has passed comprehensive legislation for GHG reduction.
B) has many state and local GHG reduction policies, but no national policy.
C) Congress has formally acknowledged that global climate change is a hoax.
D) ships most of its sequestered CO2 to developing nations for storage.