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Environmental Science Chapter 11 Study Guide

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What is a large area of land that is drained by a river known as?
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watershed
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What is an artificial lake that is created by building a dam?
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reservoir
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What is an accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chains called?
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biomagnification
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Where is fresh water used for irrigation?
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agriculture
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What is the continuous movement of water between the Earth and its atmosphere?
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water cycle
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What is a method of providing plants with water from sources other than precipitation known as?
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irrigation
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What is thermal pollution caused by?
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point source pollutants
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What is most of the United States’ water pollution caused by?
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nonpoint source pollutants
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What was designed to aid state and local efforts in cleaning polluted runoff water?
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the 1987 Water Quality Act
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What do some countries use to obtain fresh water because they do not have enough fresh water to support their population?
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desalination
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What makes up 71% of all the Earth’s water?
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surface water
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Where is most of the Earth’s fresh water found?
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polar ice caps, frozen glaciers, North and South Poles
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Where is most the Earth’s surface water found?
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lakes, rivers, and streams
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What does surface water that percolates through the soil form?
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aquifers
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What is the purpose of adding chlorine to water during the water treatment process?
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to kill bacteria
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What is fresh water used to do in industries?
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to generate power, manufacture goods, and the disposal of wastes
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How has many areas of the world that has not had adequate fresh water become habitable because of water management projects?
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by diverting water to them
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What are examples of nonpoint-source pollution?
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acid rain, run offs, fertilizers, and pesticides
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What type of water pollutants that have parasitic worms classified as ?
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pathogens
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Why is it difficult to clean polluted groundwater?
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Acid is in the ground and the pollutants climb into the aquifers
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Where does most of the pollution in the ocean come from?
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Industries and rapid human population growth
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What required all tankers in the US waterways be double hulled by the year 2015?
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Oil Pollution Act of 1990
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What is the largest watershed in the United States?
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the Mississippi River
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What is a tank of gasoline with a leak an example of?
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Point-source pollution
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Where do large cities get water for their households and industry from?
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lakes and rivers
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What is an inexpensive solution to providing everyone with more fresh water to use?
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Water Conservation
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Why has some communities banned detergents containing high levels of phosphates?
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Because they cause fish to suffocate and die
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What can happen as a result of plastic trash in the oceans?
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turtles ingest it and it can cause internal blockages
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What is hard to purify because the water collects in sand and rocks?
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aquifers
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What are some effectives approaches to prevent future shortages of usable water?
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Education; enforcement of water reduction; laws
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What are the effects of water pollution on ecosystems over time within food chains?
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It can magnify
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What is a common feature of thermal pollution and artificial eutrophication ?
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they both decrease the amount of oxygen dissolved in them
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What is an underground rock formation that holds water?
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aquifer
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What is an area of land through which water percolates to be stored as groundwater?
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recharge zone
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What kind of aquifer supplies about 1/3 of all the groundwater used in the US?
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Ogallala
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Where is the highest percentage of industrial water used?
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Europe and the US
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What is a landscaping method that involves designing a landscape that uses minimal water?
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Xeriscaping
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What do the fertilizers from farms, lawns, and gardens, which is the largest source of nutrients, cause?
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Eutrophication
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Why do we not run out of fresh water?
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it is a renewable resource
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Why do many people have difficulty getting enough water for drinking, cooking, and irrigating crops ?
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the water is not evenly distributed
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How is water used?
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drinking, flushing, generating power, irrigating, and showering