Environmental Science Chapter 11 Study Guide

What is a large area of land that is drained by a river known as?
watershed
What is an artificial lake that is created by building a dam?
reservoir
What is an accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chains called?
biomagnification
Where is fresh water used for irrigation?
agriculture
What is the continuous movement of water between the Earth and its atmosphere?
water cycle
What is a method of providing plants with water from sources other than precipitation known as?
irrigation
What is thermal pollution caused by?
point source pollutants
What is most of the United States’ water pollution caused by?
nonpoint source pollutants
What was designed to aid state and local efforts in cleaning polluted runoff water?
the 1987 Water Quality Act
What do some countries use to obtain fresh water because they do not have enough fresh water to support their population?
desalination
What makes up 71% of all the Earth’s water?
surface water
Where is most of the Earth’s fresh water found?
polar ice caps, frozen glaciers, North and South Poles
Where is most the Earth’s surface water found?
lakes, rivers, and streams
What does surface water that percolates through the soil form?
aquifers
What is the purpose of adding chlorine to water during the water treatment process?
to kill bacteria
What is fresh water used to do in industries?
to generate power, manufacture goods, and the disposal of wastes
How has many areas of the world that has not had adequate fresh water become habitable because of water management projects?
by diverting water to them
What are examples of nonpoint-source pollution?
acid rain, run offs, fertilizers, and pesticides
What type of water pollutants that have parasitic worms classified as ?
pathogens
Why is it difficult to clean polluted groundwater?
Acid is in the ground and the pollutants climb into the aquifers
Where does most of the pollution in the ocean come from?
Industries and rapid human population growth
What required all tankers in the US waterways be double hulled by the year 2015?
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
What is the largest watershed in the United States?
the Mississippi River
What is a tank of gasoline with a leak an example of?
Point-source pollution
Where do large cities get water for their households and industry from?
lakes and rivers
What is an inexpensive solution to providing everyone with more fresh water to use?
Water Conservation
Why has some communities banned detergents containing high levels of phosphates?
Because they cause fish to suffocate and die
What can happen as a result of plastic trash in the oceans?
turtles ingest it and it can cause internal blockages
What is hard to purify because the water collects in sand and rocks?
aquifers
What are some effectives approaches to prevent future shortages of usable water?
Education; enforcement of water reduction; laws
What are the effects of water pollution on ecosystems over time within food chains?
It can magnify
What is a common feature of thermal pollution and artificial eutrophication ?
they both decrease the amount of oxygen dissolved in them
What is an underground rock formation that holds water?
aquifer
What is an area of land through which water percolates to be stored as groundwater?
recharge zone
What kind of aquifer supplies about 1/3 of all the groundwater used in the US?
Ogallala
Where is the highest percentage of industrial water used?
Europe and the US
What is a landscaping method that involves designing a landscape that uses minimal water?
Xeriscaping
What do the fertilizers from farms, lawns, and gardens, which is the largest source of nutrients, cause?
Eutrophication
Why do we not run out of fresh water?
it is a renewable resource
Why do many people have difficulty getting enough water for drinking, cooking, and irrigating crops ?
the water is not evenly distributed
How is water used?
drinking, flushing, generating power, irrigating, and showering