Enlightenment & French Revolution Study Guide

Enlightenment
Period when people tried to explain humanity through reason/thinking

Montesquieu
Separation of powers

Voltaire
Believed in religious freedom

Rousseau
This French Philosophe developed the ideas of the “general will” and advocated Democracy

Baron d’ Holbach
First person to argue for atheism

Mary Wollstonecraft
Enlightenment philospher who believed in womans rights

Adam Smith
Suggested “Invisible Hand”

Invisible Hand
Describes supply and demand in an economy

Maria Theresa
Absolutist leader of austria

Seven Years’ War
England gained control of canada and india

Enlightened Absolutism
Idea that only an absolutist monarch believes in england and canada

Joseph II of Austria
Protect Rights- reforms undone after death

Frederick William the Great
Mostly enlightened- Loved Welfare to much

Catherine the Great
Fear of nobles kept her truly enlightened

Hanoverian dynasty
English Kings, Georges, Came from Germany

Estates General
Parliament/congress of france

Declaration of Man and Citizen
French bill of rights- gives rights of french during french revolution

Reign Of Terror
Violent period of french revolution

Robespierre
Head of commitee of public safety

Napoleon
Conquered most of uerope before his exile in 1815

Napoleonic Code
Granted europeans basic enlightenment rights for the first time

Coup d’ etat
a military takeover of the government

What was an Enlightenment Salon?
Entertain guests by talking about philosophy

IDEAS- Montesquieu
Problem: As governments get bigger, they get more ruthless. Solution: Checks and Balances

IDEAS- Voltaire
P: What if you belong to an unpopular religion?
S: Religious Toleration

IDEAS- Rousseau
P: people controlled themselves, they were happy
S: “General Will” They will vote for what’s best for them

IDEAS- Baron d’ Holbach
First atheist

IDEAS- Mary Wollstonecraft
P: women have a lower place in society
S: equality for women

IDEAS- Adam Smith
Amount of labor put into something, countries rich because of labor.

What was the Pragmatic Sanction, how did it lead to the seven years’ war?
A deal agreement: Austria- Maria Theresa despute of territory/fighting overland.

What were the results of the seven years’ war?
England controls india/ England gains control of Canada

Describe an “Enlightened absolutist” Monarch.
People rule countries by both things: Protect rights by absoultist power

RULE- Joseph the II of Austria
All reforms that he’s supposed to do. all of the enlightened things/ almost everybody hated him

RULE- Frederick William II
He loves violent walfare/ prussian enlightened absolute monarch

RULE- Catherine the great of russia
She would be enlightened but she’s scared of the nobles

Who were the Hanoverians? Why did they play a limited role in English affairs?
German Kings of england
They didn’t speak english

What problem led to the need to call the Estates General?
Bank Ruptcy- High bread prices

Clergy
Church people; population- 1 to 3%; 10% of wealth

Nobles
Pay no taxes; Population- 2 to 5%; 30% of wealth

Pheasants
Population- 97%; 60% of wealth

What was the argument that led to division within the estates general?
Do we vote by state or do we vote by arguement?

How did the states general respond when the king locked them out of their chambers?
swear tennis court oath; national assembly

What is Bastille? Why did the peasants storm it?
Old prision/political enemies of the king.
They wanted gun powder

What caused the great fear? What did the Peasants do in response the the great fear?
Rumor is stronger than anything else at times/ foreign invasion form malitia

From documents/eras/events/people did the ideas for the declaration of man and citizen come?
Declaration of independence
USA constitution
Enlightenment ideals

What were the women in the women’s march seeking? What was the result of the march?
They wan’t food- royal family moves to paris

What was the declaration of pillnitz? How did france respond?
Europian countries declared they will support the king of france/declared war

Why did they kill the king?
Other countries told them not to but they got scared

Why was the committe of public safety formed?
Thought spies were in the country

Describe the reign of terror?
Executing people left and right

Who was Marat? What role did he play in the reign of terror?
He got a disease from living in the sewer, had to sit in a bath for hours on end everyday, Newspaper, came up with reign of terror

What errors by robespierre led to his downfall?
Outlaws religion
Sets himself up like he’s a god
Says he has a list but did nothing with it

Describe the government of directory
Corrupt/terrible

How did napoleon seize control of the government?
He overthrew the government. His army took over

How was Napoleon’s relationship with the Catholic Church?
He gets to hire all priests-has some control, church can fire

How did the rule of Napoleon and his civil code change life in Western Europe?
for most people its the very first time they had rights and they liked it.

Why did Napoleon lose power?
Forbiding trade with england

What happend in “100 days?”
Napoleon came back and tried to rule agian

With what kind of government did france end up?
Munarchy agian

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