English Puritans

What is an important difference between the groups known as the Pilgrims and the Puritans
The Pilgrims wanted to separate from the established Church of England; the Puritans wished to purify the church from within

What metaphor did John Winthrop use to characterize the Puritan colony and to remind the Puritans that they would be an example to all
A city on a hill

Which was not a genre or type of text that appeared regularly in the body of literature that produced by sixteenth century Europeans involved in the exploration of America?
Theatrical pieces representing the political maneuverings of Europeans inside colonial outpost

Puritan Doctrine of election
the belief that god had chosen before birth the people he would save and the people he would damn

Allterative name of the Pilgrims in England
Scrooby Separatists

Which religious beliefs did the Pilgrims and the Puritans disagree?
God had given America to his people

How did english become the dominant language of classic American Literature?
Boston’s population growth, Harvard, and printing press gave New England and Edge

Pilgrims characterstics
-Small group of 100 people
-Travelled to America on the May Flower
-Plymouth Rock
-Poor Class
-Good Attitude

Puritan characteristics
-Larger Group
-Established Massachusetts Bay Colony
-Upper middle class and Educated
-Strict laws

Conceit
Elaborate or extensive metaphor

Puritan Plain Style Writing
The Puritan Plain Style is a type of writing in which uncomplicated sentences and ordinary words are used to make simple, direct statements. This style was favored by the Puritans who wanted to express themselves clearly, in accordance with their religious beliefs.
-Simplicity
-Lack of ornamentation
-Clarity and Accessibility
-Didactic Tone; overt message

Puritan Plain Style in Architecture
Quaker Meeting houses were similar to the Puritans- very exposed, simple and open. No carvings or alters inside and Quaker meeting houses didn’t even have a pulpit or seats.
Emphasized on an individual relationship to God.

Puritan Plain Style in Art
Things are 2 dimensional, flat and simple.
Painting is stark, hard to tell the difference between the background and the figure. The faces of those painted may be flat

Puritan Plain Style Life
This style was shown in Furniture, Building, Writing, Clothes
**They thought decoration was self-glorification, they wanted people plain to be good for God**

Why did Puritans use Plain Style
To make their message of God be clear and easy to understand for all

Children in the Puritan Religon
Children were considered “small sinful adults”
Paintings subsequently looked like disproportionate adults and creepy
Children were meant to be seen, not heard

Puritan Beliefs
-No Pope or Bishop is allowed to impose any law on a Christian without consent

Puritan Lifestyle
-Puritans did have some joys, but all came from their religious belief – no holidays or Christmas

Pilgrim Lifestyle
-Pilgrims weren’t farmers and they couldn’t fish. They were merchants, shopkeepers, etc.
-Natives helped the Pilgrims in the winter when they landed in Cape Cod

Roles of men and women in the first year of the pilgrim colony
Women and children stayed on the Mayflower for the first year. Men went on land to build and establish the community.

Two Sacraments they believed strongly in
Baptism
Communion/”Lord’s Supper”

Puritans and communion
Only people who told their ministers that they had converted were allowed to take communion
If you didn’t tell your conversion story, you wouldn’t be a part of the community.

Puritan Views on Children
Children were considered “small sinful adults”
Paintings subsequently looked like disproportionate adults and creepy. Children were meant to be seen, not heard.

Puritan Plain Style in Writing
Used simple metaphors to convey their religious ideals, some developed a more simplified literary style (William Bradford). No rhetorical flourishes, limited uses of figurative language, etc.

Poetry was not meant for a public audience but most writings were sermons, political discourse, or pamphlets. NOT THEATRICAL PIECES REPRESENTING THE POLITICAL MANEUVERINGS OF EUROPEANS INSIDE COLONIAL OUTPOSTS.

Anything that was scary was related to the Devil. Puritan characters were without rashness/color and were always civilized followers of God.

William Bradford’s “Of Plymouth Plantation”
Long been celebrated for the “plain style” he endorses in its first paragraph. His text was full of historical and religious content: history of the Pilgrims.

Plymouth Rock is often thought of as the first English settlement. All men came to shore and left women on the boat upon first arrival.

What is the most prominent “problem” of Bradford’s writing.
BIAS.

His desires to read God’s will colors his text and skews his understanding of non-Puritan people- making the non-Puritans heathens and viable for punishment from God.

Biased but still committed to making it historically accurate and detailed: included names, dates relationships, and people.

Talks about the troubles that plagued the community, especially with the natives.
Many explorer’s writings about the natives doesn’t refer to them as savages but Bradford did the whole time. He is immediately hostile about the Indians.

Why did Bradford write “Of the Plymouth Plantation: Book 1”?
First book was written about the Pilgrims’ voyage on the sea, when they were “Scrooby Separatists”, the Netherlands stories, etc.

Written ten years after the actual voyage

Written when Winthrop’s group arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who had some similarities, but they weren’t quite in the same groups.

***He writes this because he wants to keep his group together. Winthrop’s group was better funded so Bradford wanted to keep his Pilgrims their separate group.

Why did Bradford write “Of the Plymouth Plantation: Book 2”?
To draw more settlers. (This second book was like advertising and to keep people interested in them.)

Started in 1644 and completed in 1655. This is when Puritans lead by Oliver Cromwell transformed the political and religious situation in Old England.

He addresses this and advertises to keep their ideals and continue to bring them over. “There is a need for us, come to the new country to join us”

Defended the Pilgrims as the first settlers.

Bias
Writer’s own prejudices (positive and negative) into a piece of writing.

Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

Bradford’s Use of Bias
William Bradford puts this positive bias towards the Puritans. (Mostly) negative bias towards the Natives and sailors (non-Puritans).

“Everything is because of God’s providence” and certain adjectives used expressed the bias.

Bradford’s Use of Positive Bias
“Squanto is a special instrument sent of God”
Even though the sailor was mean, when he was sick, the Pilgrims helped him.

Bradford’s Use of Negative Bias
It pleased God to smite the sailor with a grievous disease
All other people besides Pilgrims were sinners
Savage barbarians

Anne Bradstreet’s Unique Perspective
Her revelation to God was unlike anyone else’s

A lot of her writings were mediations where she struggles with her faith and religion

“Why would God destroy everything we’ve worked to create even though I’ve been doing everything Puritans need to”

(Towards the end, she’d realize it was because she needed to focus on the afterlife.)

***Because she was an educated woman she works through the logic of these issues.

Anne Bradstreet’s Topics
She discusses tension in finding God in all things and what she was supposed to be thinking as a Puritan (MISTRESS).

Lot’s of passion for her husband and children (odd) and about women and women’s rights in the New World (ANNE).

Questioned religion, established cultural concepts (like a woman’s place in the world).

How to Read Anne Bradstreet’s Poems
Persistently used iambic pentameter (unstressed, stressed)
10 syllables long, each line.

Rhyming couplets (like Shakespeare)

Double-check denotations of her words’ alternative and connotative understanding of a word or phrase may clarify or deepen meaning of her feelings and ideas.

Examine her use of irony and subtle sarcasm and critique.

Uses metaphysical conceits (extended metaphor) EXAMPLE: Sun as her husband.

Prologue
A separate introductory section of a literary or musical work.

Edward Taylor’s Writing Style
Wrote in a conceit (an extended metaphor, something is compared to something else for the whole poem).

Taylor’s “Prologue”
Author compares himself to a crumb of dust- done to make himself seem like a small part of the world.
EXAMPLE: “I’m just this crumb of dust, looks at all of these wonderful things you have created for us, God.

Self Deprecating piece

Biblical reference
“From dust you are to dust you shall return”
(Ash Wednesday in Catholic religion).

Author compares his works/poems to God’s gems
(Uses the image of Pen, Gold, Liquid)
EXAMPLE: “I can write all of the things I want, but none of it matters unless I’m glorifying you”

Author touches on the idea of God working through Taylor to create masterpieces that glorify God.
EXAMPLE: “Use me as your instrument”

Religious leaders’ roles are to share the message God gave them. Basically, “you get all of the supplies for the pen ready, and we’ll make sure everything I write is great towards you.”

He says that he is just a crumb of dust, but if God hands him a pen then he will Glorify Him

Taylor has a very deferential tone with this piece. Wants to take the backseat for God and let him go first

Prologue’s Basics
Speaker: Taylor (humble, deferential, not questioning, his spirituality is very clear and upfront).

Audience: God, The Common People, Himself (he’s trying to ground himself and serve it as a preparation for writing these poems and meditations, also reads before he preaches).

Purpose: Glorify God, center himself, and he wants the common people to follow Taylor’s example of glorification towards God .

Huswifery
Housekeeping, used here to mean weaving and considered the significance of the sacrament of communion.

Taylor’s “Huswifery”
Had to have a public sharing of your conversion story to enter the church proceedings- had to cleanse your soul in order to receive communion.

References Matthew 22:12 to establish that the wedding garment is a sign of the regenerate Christian.
STORY: Jesus gives a parable of a wedding and no guests could show up. He invites everyone in town to partake in the feast which has people needing to dress up.
Everyone dresses up, but one man. The dad of the wife says “you’re not prepared, you can’t enter the feast”.
MEANING: In order to be received into heaven you should clean your soul; the clothes relating to the preparation of the faith.

Taylor wants himself to be known as this spinning wheel for God (God’s instrument).

God is the weaver, the one working the loom and weaving the cloth. Taylor is asking God to make the cloth heavenly and beautiful (WEDDING GARMENTS FOR THE CLEANSING OF THE SOUL–ONCE YOU HAVE THE GARMENTS YOU CAN ENTER).

LINE: “Clothe him in understanding, will, conscience, memory, words, and actions”

Basically, God should guide him and his personality and THEN his ways will be glorified and glorify God.

Anne Bradstreet’s “Puritan Ideals” Persona
Mistress Bradstreet

Anne Bradstreet’s “Real” and “Fire-y” Persona
Anne

Puritanism (CAN WE FIND A STRAIGHTFORWARD DEF?)
a group of English Protestants that formed in the 16th century to bring about religious reform. The Puritans wanted to “purify” the church by following intensely strict religious principles, which earned them the name Puritan.

Pilgrims (CAN WE FIND A STRAIGHTFORWARD DEF?)
a person who journeys, especially a long distance, to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion
(In the specific case of the ones in America: one of the band of Puritans who founded the colony of Plymouth, Mass., in 1620.)

What group believed America was given to them by God?

Metaphysical Poetry
Metaphysical matters include divinity, art, and love, topics frequently undertaken by metaphysical poets. With strikingly unusual comparisons and irony, metaphysical poets tackle serious subjects in ways that jar our imaginations and challenge traditional ways of thinking.

Anne Bradstreet’s “Upon the Burning of Our House” Persona
The tone of this piece was largely Mistress speaking through.

Anne Bradstreet’s “A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment” Persona
Fiercely Anne- very passionate. One line of religious ideal towards end.

Anne Bradstreet’s “Before the Birth of One of Her Children” Persona
Raw Anne- some points of biblical reference.

Covenant of Grace
Puritans. Adam may have broken the first covenant, but Jesus made a new one with his followers that was sealed with his Crucifixion. Promised people eternal life.

Covenant of Works (NEED MORE INFO)
Adam broke it when he ate from the Tree of Knowledge.