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English Literature Terms S1

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True Rhyme (Masculine/Exact)
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Identical sounding final syllables preceded by different consonant sounds. EX: Edi-tiON, les-sON and rAZE, malAISE
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Slant Rhyme (Half)
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Different final vowel sounds, but followed by same consonant sounds: StuNT, PiNT & TouGH, StaFF
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Eye Rhyme
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Look like they should rhyme, but don’t: StONE & nONE
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Feminine Rhyme (double)
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Ed[IT](ION) & Pet[IT](ION)
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Triple Rhyme
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Last 3 syllables rhyme: B(AT)[TER](ING) & Sh(AT)[TER](ING)
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Assonance
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Opposite of slant: Slant: Ba(le) & To(ll) Assonance: B(a)le & T(a)ke
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End Rhyme
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The similar sound occurs at the end of two or more lines of verse
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Internal Rhyme
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Repetition of sound which occurs within a line of verse
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Rhyme Scheme
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Pattern or sequence in which rhyme occurs
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Iamb(-ic)
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a metrical foot consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable ov-ER
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Pentameter
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a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet, or (in Greek and Latin verse) of two halves each of two feet and a long syllable. Iambic Trochaic etc
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Sonnet
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a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line. (R+J Prologue)
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Prologue
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a separate introductory section of a literary or musical work. “this idea is outlined in the prologue”
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Scan
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when you scan—you read a line of poetry, counting its feet, finding the stresses, all in the name of sussing out which meter it follows (if any). So, what it sounds like it is.
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Syllable
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a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word; Ex: there are two syllables in water and three in inferno.
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Foot
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A combination of feet makes up a line of meter. Ex: iambic pentameter, which contains five iambs, all in a row.
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Blank Verse
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verse without rhyme, especially that which uses iambic pentameter.
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Hypermetric
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Line of literature with more than 10 syllables
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Quatrain
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a stanza of four lines, especially one having alternate rhymes. Ex: AAAA, AABB, ABAB, and ABBA.
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Couplet
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two lines of verse, usually in the same meter and joined by rhyme, that form a unit. Ex: She was a little tense The notice made no sense
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Poetry
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literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the USE of DISTINCTIVE STYLE and RHYTHM
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Prose
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written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure; “a short story in prose” (Shakespeare used it for unimportant characters)
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Early Modern English
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Thee, Thou, etc. Shakespeare wrote his plays in this
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Context
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the parts of a written or spoken statement that precede or follow a specified word or passage and can influence its meaning or effect.
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Paraphrase
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A restatement of speech or writing that retains the basic meaning while changing the words; more understandable (Right side of Romeo and Juliet)
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Connotation
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refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly Ex: A dove implies peace or gentility. Home suggests family, comfort and security.
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Diction
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style of writing determined by the choice of words by a writer Ex: “Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed Your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu.” It is more formal to use “adieu” than to say “goodbye”.
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Conflict
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involves a struggle between two opposing forces usually a protagonist and an antagonist Ex: Romeo vs. Tybalt
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Characterization
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writer reveals the personality of a character; direct characterization & indirect characterization. DC Ex: He was a very rich, cruel boy. IC Ex: The boy scoffed hotly and kicked over the poor man’s donations cup, then sauntered away with a smirk.
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Rhythm/Meter
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Rhythm is the pattern of stresses in a line of verse. Ex: Anything we say, even this sentence right now. Meter is a unit of rhythm in poetry; the pattern of the beats. Ex: Iambic Pentameter
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Contraction
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shortening of a word by omitting sounds, syllables or letters from the middle of the word Ex: Giv’n = Given & O’er = Over
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Elongation
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To stretch out a word by adding another syllable
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Quoting Poetry/Quoting
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If the piece of poetry quoted is multiple lines long; Show where the poem’s line breaks fall by using slash marks. Quoting & Slash Ex: “For never was a story of more woe/ Than this of Juliet and her Romeo” (5.3.309-310).
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Pronoun Antecedent
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Words like “his” or “her” are pronouns used to refer to what is called their antecedent. “Pronouns” in that very sentence was an antecedent to the word “their” Ex: “…Juliet and her romeo.” Juliet is the antecedent of her
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Inversion
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normal order of words is reversed in order to achieve a particular effect of emphasis or meter Ex: “Here by the rose-tree They planted once Of Love in Jeopardy An Italian bronze.” They once planted an italian bronze here [out] of love by the rose tree. or Confusing inversion is. Understand it I do not.
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Archaic Words
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e’en, e’er, ere, o’er, etc. Words no longer in use everyday
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Words with different meanings than we use now
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Words we still use with different meaning
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Ellipsis
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leaving out important words while leaving the line or passage still comprehensible
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Citing Shakespeare
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Indicate act, scene, & line instead of pg. nbrs
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Mood
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Feeling/atmosphere created in a scene
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Wordplay
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Using words in clever or witty ways
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Puns
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Type of wordplay; Did you hear about the guy whose whole left side was cut off? He’s all right now.
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Embedded Stage Directions
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Notes in the script
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Simile
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Comparison using “like” or “as”
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Oxymoron
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A figure of speech in which contradictory terms appear together: open secret larger half clearly confused act naturally alone together Hell’s Angels found missing liquid gas civil engineer deafening silence seriously funny living dead Microsoft Works military intelligence jumbo shrimp
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Allusion
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reference to work of literature, art, mythology, etc
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Verbal Irony
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Over exaggeration, Sarcasm; Saying something, but meaning something completely different/opposite Ex: In Beauty and the Beast, an animated Disney movie, Belle refuses to marry Gaston by saying “I just don’t deserve you!”
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Situational Irony
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Outcome completely opposes intended outcome Ex: A fire station burns down. The marriage counselor files for divorce. The police station gets robbed. Posting on Facebook complaining how useless Facebook is.
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Dramatic Irony
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When the audience knows something the character “doesn’t”
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Theme
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Statement/truth about life/human condition
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Quoting from a Book or Play in MLA Format:
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Book Ex: Sustainable weight loss is only possible through “continued dieting, regular exercising and vigilant monitoring of body weight” (Spools 289). Play Ex: Claudius alludes to the story of Cain and Abel when describing his crime: “It hath the primal eldest curse upon’t, / A brother’s murder” (3.3.37-38).
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MLA Essay Format:
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Exposition (W/ Thesis) CD CM Counterclaim Rebuttel Best Evidence Conclusion
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Anon Art Aught
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Immediatly Are Anything
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Ay Cell Choler
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Yes Room Angry
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Corse Cousin E’en
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Corpse Close relative even
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e’er ere fickle
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ever before indecisive
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Fortnight Fortune Happy
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2 nights Lady Fortune Blessed
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Hast Hence Hie
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has from this time Go
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Hither Marry Naught/Nought
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here exclamation of surprise Nothing
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Nice O’er Shrift
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Trivial Over confession
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singeth soft speak’st/speakest
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sings quiet speaks
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stars Still ‘Tis/Tis
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Fate? Always This
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Twas Thither Watch
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It was there guards of the town
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whither would zounds
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where wish an oath