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English Literature Clep Prep

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Gulliver’s Travels
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In a pungent critique of humanity addressed to the mature imagination, the author comments on human nature by examining the life of the Lilliputians, Yahoos, and Houyhnhnms
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King Lear
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“Fool” attempts to comfort his old master and is distressed and puzzled by hs madness but also ironically emphasizes the folly and tragedy of the old man.
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Blank Verse
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Poetry that is not rhymed, but that has a regular rhythm.
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Romantic Literary Period
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The movement validated intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities: both new aesthetic categories.
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Three well-known 18th Century Novelists
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Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Tobias Smollett
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Popular Ballad
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An anonymous narrative poem focusing on the climax of a particularly dramatic event and employing frequent repetition, conventional figures of speech, and sometimes a refrain. Altered and transmitted in a musical setting.
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John Milton (1608-1674)
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Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse. The poem concerns the Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton’s purpose, stated in Book I, is to “justify the ways of God to men”
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Geoffrey Chaucer
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‘When that Aprill with his shoures soote The droughte of March hath perced to the roote”
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Dramatic Monologues
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Alfred Tennyson’s “Ulysses” and T.S. Eliot’s “the Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
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A Metaphysical Conceit
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Usually sets up an analogy between one entity’s spiritual qualities and an object in the physical world
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John Donne Exerpt
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“Our two souls therefore, which are one, Though I must go, endure not yet A breach, but an expansion Like gold to airy thinness beat”
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Duncan
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King Duncan is a fictional character in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. He is the father of two youthful sons (Malcolm and Donalbain), and the victim of a well-plotted regicide in a power grab by his trusted captain Macbeth.
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“Thou still unravished bride of quietness”
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The first line of “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1795 – 1821)
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“The Waste Land”
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T.S. Eliot, 1922
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“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1834
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“Songs of Innocence”
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William Blake, 1789
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“The Faerie Queene”
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Edmund Spencer, 1590
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“The Rape of the Lock”
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Alexander Pope, 1712
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“A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”
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The first novel of Irish writer James Joyce. It traces the intellectual and religio-philosophical awakening of young Stephen Dedalus. 1916
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Epiphany
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The word’s secular usage may owe some of its popularity to James Joyce, who expounded on its meaning in the fragment Stephen Hero and the novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
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Hesperus, Thetis, and Pheobus
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References to Greek mythology in Henry Fielding’s “Joseph Andrews”
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Vulgar
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Common
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The “Age of Johnson” was dominated by which style?
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Neoclassicism: of, relating to, or constituting a revival or adaptation of the classical especially in literature, music, art, or architecture
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“The Age of Johnson”
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Predominately Classical. The later half of the eighteenth century; dominated by Dr. Samuel Johnson. (d.1784) From that time the Classical spirit in English literature began to give place to the Romantic spirit.
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The Romantic Age
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Began in 1798 when Wordsworth and Coleridge published the famous Lyrical Ballads.
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Heroic Couplets
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a couplet of rhyming iambic pentameters often forming a distinct rhetorical as well as metrical unit. Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century first made extensive use of it. Origin unknown.
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Iambic Pentameters
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The name given to a line of verse that consists of five iambs (an iamb being one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed, such as “before”)
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Order of composition: “Hamlet, Beowulf, Paradise Lost”
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Beowulf (975-1025), Hamlet (1599-1602), Paradise Lost (1667)
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Elegiac
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(esp. of a work of art) having a mournful quality.
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“Lycidas”
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John Milton. A Lament for a friend drowned in his passage from Chester on the Irish Seas, also reveals personal concerns of Milton. 1637
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“The Canonization”
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John Donne. The intense relationship between the speaker and the lover leads the speaker to argue that they should be considered candidates for sainthood.
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Common trait of “Pamela, Tom Jones, Tristram Shandy, and Moll Flanders”
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They were all written in the 18th century
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Miss Malaprop
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a humorous aunt who gets mixed up in the schemes and dreams of young lovers in Richard Brinsley Sheridan’s 1775 comedy-of-manners “The Rivals”. Often uses the incorrect word to express herself, thus coining the literary term malapropism.
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“Ulysses”
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A novel that uses extensive parallels from classical Greek epic and adopts an anti-heroic modernity. James Joyce, 1918
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“Waiting for Godot”
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A 20th century absurdist play in which the characters talk largely in circles, the actions are inconclusive, and the lines “nothing to be done” and “it’d pass the time” are repeated. Samuel Beckett, 1953.
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Mill, Carlyle, and Tennyson all experienced and wrote about
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a personal crisis of faith
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Doris Lessing
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Novelist. Raised in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Known for stories about Africa and innovative novel “The Golden Notebook”
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Pastoral
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Literature that evokes a rural, simple, and idyllic life
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Personification
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Representing a non-human living thing, inanimate object, or idea as human, or attributing to it human traits and qualities, such as a physical body, emotions, desires, sensations, physical gestures and speech.
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William Shakespeare, “Henry IV”
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“By heaven, methinks it were an easy leap To pluck bright honor from the pale-faced moon”
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Irony
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Intended meaning is different from actual meaning
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Picaresque Novel
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An episodic narrative, usually told from the first-person point of view and detailing the misadventures, escapades, and pranks of a roguish but likable hero of humble means who survives by his wits
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Mary Shelley, “Frankenstein”
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“Remember that I am thy creature; I ought to be thy Adam; but I am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drivest from joy for no misdeed. Everywhere I see bliss, from which I alone am irrevocably excluded. I was benevolent and good — misery made me a fiend. Make me happy, and I shall again be virtuous.”
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“Visions of the Daughters of Albion”
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William Blake, 1793. Not Athurian Legend
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Serialized Novels
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19th century term. Novels published in parts over several weeks or months.
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Mean
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Middling
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“The Book of Margery Kempe”
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Margery Kempe (c. 1373 – after 1438) is known for dictating The Book of Margery Kempe, a work considered by some to be the first autobiography in the English language. This book chronicles, to some extent, her extensive pilgrimages to various holy sites in Europe and the Holy Land, as well as her mystical conversations with God. She is honoured in the Anglican Communion.
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“Anthem for Doomed Youth”
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Wilfred Owen, 1917
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“The Soldier”
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Rupert Brooke, 1914
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“Still Falls the Rain”
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Edith Sitwell, 1940
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Dystopian Novels
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Brave New World, Aldous Huxley,1932, 1984, George Orwell, 1949, A Clockwork Orange, Anthony Burgess, 1962
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“Lyrical Ballads”
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, 1798
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“The Vicar of Wakefield”
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Oliver Goldsmith, 1766
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“Oroonoko”
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Aphra Behn, 1688
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“The School for Scandal”
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Richard Sheridan, 1777
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“A Dictionary of the English Language”
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Samuel Johnson, 1755. Actual dictionary. Done with only clerical help; like a sir.
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Uriah Heep
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David Copperfield
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Little Nell
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The Old Curiosity Shoppe
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Pip (Phillip Pirrip)
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Great Expectations
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Richard Aldington
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Imagism
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Linton Kwesi Johnson
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Post-Colonialism
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William Blake
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Romanticism
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Ben Jonson’s “Volpone”
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(Italian for “sly fox”); a comedy first produced in 1606, drawing on elements of city comedy and beast fable. A merciless satire of greed and lust, it remains Jonson’s most-performed play,
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Sir Walter Scott
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Steeped in regional folklore as a child growing up in the Scottish Border Countries, he went on to become a poet, an editor of traditional ballads, and a novelist (wrote the first truly historical novels).
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“Politics and the English Language”
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George Orwell, 1946
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Dorothea Brooke is a character in
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“Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life” is a novel by George Eliot, the pen name of Mary Anne Evans, later Marian Evans. 1874
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“All art is quite useless”
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Oscar Wilde, “The Picture of Dorian Gray” 1891
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Aphorism
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A concise statement of a principle, a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment
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Ted Hughes
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Published “Birthday Letters”, a collection of poems inspired by his first marriage to Sylvia Plath. 1998
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Associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Movement
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Lord Byron, William Morris, John Ruskin
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Nadine Gordimer was born
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South Africa
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Edna O’Brien was born
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Ireland (duh)
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Alice Munro was born
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Canada (eh)
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Katherine Mansfield was born
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New Zealand