English Literature Clep Answers

Flashcard maker : Richard Lattimore
Old English
A time in history where literature was written to foster bravery and promote heroic deeds.
Middle English
A time in history where literature was written to promote knightly ideals that stabilized social hierarchy.
Renaissance
A time in history where literature was written to entertain through stage plays, comedies, and histories.
Augustan Period
A time in history where literature was written for the emerging middle class. Manuscripts were made accessible through the invention of the printing press.
Romantic Period
A time in history where literature was written mainly in flowery poetry while promoting individualism.
Victorian Period
A time in history where literature was written for a secularized society.
Modern Period
A time in history where literature was written to produce literary “art”. New criticism established.
Postmodern Period
A time in history where literature was written for ideological aims.
Close Reading
Following a text closely and making your own decisions about that text.
Denotation
The accepted meaning of a word.
Connotation
The significance of a word through association.
Tone
The author’s mood in a text.
Diction
Choice of words or utterance.
Imagery
______ enables writers to show events and relationships.
Concrete Term
A term for anything tangible.
Figurative Language
Language that is meant to mean something other than what it literally means.
Metaphor
A term that is used figuratively to represent something that isn’t actually there.
Simile
A figurative comparison between two things.
Canon
English Standard. Helps preserve quality. Contains the greatest literary achievements in the western world.
Mystification
The process of denying political values by misrepresenting them as natural ideals.
Ode
A song made up of three parts: strophe, antistrophe, and epode.
Sappho of Lesbos
Teacher of a school for girls. Wrote love poetry to her favorite students.
Panegyric
Poem that praises others for their achievements.
John Keats
Wrote “Ode to a Nightingale” and “Ode on a Grecian Urn.”
Apostrophe
The direct address to something that is not alive.
Genre
Organizing and categorizing.
Pindaric Odes
Odes that focus of worldly achievement.
Structuralism
Organizing internally.
Signifier
A word that refers to something else.
Deconstruction
The view that language is “unstable”.
Trace
Things that are absent from, yet suggested by a text.
Differance
The belief that you can’t locate a fixed, stable meaning in any one place.
Aporia
The absence of meaning/many possible meanings.
Presence
The belief that stable meaning is located within a text.
Ideology
Shared made up beliefs.
Virginia Woolf
A woman who wrote about woman’s rights. Wrote stream of consciousness novels.
Multiculturalism
Different cultures within the society.
Abstraction
Anything that isn’t tangible.
Metonym
Uses an attribute of a thing to stand for the thing itself (Paw=cat, etc.)
Onomatopeoia
Words that sound like what they mean.
Prosody of Versification
Features that account for the sound and structure of a verse.
Meter
Rhythmic Structure.
Stanza
A repeaed pattern of lines and rhymes.
Rhyme Scheme
The pattern of rhymes in a stanza.
Assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds.
Alliteration
The repetition of consonant sounds.
Iambic Pentameter
A poem with 5 beats per line.
Iamb
A beat with non-stressed, then stressed syllables (U/)
Trochee
A beat with stressed, and then non-stressed syllables (/U).
Anapest
A beat with two non-stressed syllables, then one stressed (UU/).
Dactyl
A beat with one stressed syllable, and then two non-stressed (/UU)
Spondee
A beat with two stressed syllables (//)
Pyrrhic
A beat with two non-stressed syllables.
Caesura
A break in a line of verse.
Blank verse
Un-rhymed iambic pentameter lines.
John Milton
_____ wrote the famous epic poem “Paradise Lost”, which he wrote in blank verse.
Free verse
No fixed meter with some rhyming lines.
Sophocles
Wrote the plays Oedipus and Antigone.
Euripides
Wrote the plays Alcestic and Medea.
Aeschylus
Wrote Prometheus and Agamemnon.
Mimesis
Imitation of something else.
Catharsis
The purging of emotions by attending a tragedy play.
Hamartia
The flaw of the protagonist.
Allegory
An extended metaphor used in a dramatic narrative.
Masques
Shows with music, dancing, and a little plot (The very first musical theater or opera).
George Bernard Shaw
Wrote satirical drama informed by socialist ideas. Wrote “Mrs. Warren’s Confession”.
Plot
Pattern of events.
Characterization
Personality
Perspective
Position of the narrator.
Epic Simile
Extended comparison.
Rhetoric
The art of persuasion.
Accismus
The pretended refusal of something that you want.
Anacoluthon
A sentence that changes structure in the middle.
.Anadiplosis
A repetition of a word at the end, and at the beginning of a sentence.
Chiasmus
A verbal pattern in two parts.
Hyperbole
A grand exaggeration.
Polyptoton
A construction that brings together different grammical forms.
Syllepsis
The use of a single word in two sentences at once.
Hagiography
The study of sounds.
Essay
A way of organizing information. Originated from Michael de Montaigne
Typology
The study of biblical symbolism.
Geoffery Chaucer
Wrote the Canterbury Tales. Emphasized syllabic meter.
Edmund Spencer
Wrote the Faerie Queen (written about queen Elizabeth).
Deism
The belief that God watches us from afar.
Secularization
During the 19th century people looked for ways to get rid of the presence of God in their lives. (people choose to ignore Him). This is known as….?
Oral Poetry
People used _____ to tell stories before people began writing stories down.
Vunerable Bede
Wrote “Ecclesiastical History of the English People” telling about the first english poet, Caedmon.
Kenning
A figurative stock phrase used to describe things in Old English.
Snorri Sturluson
Wrote Heinskringia about norse mythology. Developed kennings.
Kend Heiti
A literal interpretation of an object instead of figurative (kenning).
Bard
Old English minstrel.
Sir Thomas Malory
Wrote LeMorte d’Arthur and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Wrote some of the best Arthurian romances in the middle ages.
The Canterbury Tales
A story about a group of pilgrims all over England gathering to travel to the cathedral where Thomas Becket was murdered. Along the way, the pilgrims tell tales that reflect Christian values and morals.
Cycles
The combination of different author’s books into one work.
The Divine Comedy
A story written by Dante. The story illustrates Virgil the poet guiding the writer to hell, while the writer’s love, Beatrice tries to guide him to heaven.
Ovid
Wrote “Metamorphosis” where a god tries to pursue a mountain nymph.
Florentine Petrarch
Created a model for writers to express their goals and love.
Spenserian Stanza
When a line of poetry lasts one iamb longer.
Metaphysical
The bizarre use of a metaphor.
Cavalier
Smooth elegance.
John Dome
Writes with outrageous challenges about wisdom, love, and morality.
Corpus
The body of Shakespeare’s work.
First Folio
The first collection of Shakespeare’s work.
Jonathan Swift
Satirist. Wrote “Tale of the Tub”, and “Gulliver’s Travels”.
Verisimilitude
The semblance of truth.
Epistolary Novel
A novel made up of correspondence between characters.
Samuel Richardson
Created the “epistolary novel”. Wrote “Pamela, virtue rewarded”.
William Wordsworth
Helped give english romanticism secure footing with his lyrical ballads. Writes about nature and humanity. Redefined the purpose of poetry.
George Gordan Lord Byron
Wrote satires about romance and prosperity like “Jon Juan”.
Ann Radcliffe
Wrote the gothic novel “Mysteries of Udolpho”.
Bildungsroman
A novel that traces a child’s development to maturity (like David Copperfield or Great Expectations).
Stream of Consciousness Novel
A novel tracing a character’s thoughts and feelings.
Samuel Becket
Wrote “Waiting for Godot”.
Pluralism
The view that there is more than one way of thinking.
Relativism
The belief that there is no set of underlying truth.
Theodor Adorno
_______ Believes that mass culture has a bad indluence on the society.

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