English Final: the Toulmin Model

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Toulmin model:
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The toulmin model is interested in describing how to establish probability. It is NOT interested in seeking \”certainty\” or \”truth\” of the scientific discipline.
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What is the toulmin model good for?
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–writing essays, reports, letters of application, proposals, legal memos, OR ANY OTHER DOCUMENT INTENDED TO CONVINCE OTHERS – but will serve you BEST as a tool for analyzing the arguments of such documents mentioned
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6 parts of the Toulmin Model
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1. Claim 2. Support/ Data 3. Warrants – unspoken assumptions 4. Backing 5. Rebuttal 6. Qualifier
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1. The Claim
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the claim is 1st part of the toulmin model -synoymous with thesis, proposition, conclusion, main point The claim answers the question –What is the author trying to prove? What do I want to prove? The claim is sometimes stated in a sentence or sentences called the STATEMENTS OF CLAIM – structures entire paper Synonym with statement of claim- thesis statement, purpose statement, statement of focus, statement of proposition ****Whether implies or EXPLICITY stated, the claim organizes the ENTIRE argument and everything else in the argument related to it.
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2. Support
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Support is the second part in the Toulmin model –Support answers the question \”what additional info does the author supply me to convince me of this claim?\” Synonyms: data/ grounds, facts, and figures, premises There are two LEVELS of support: 1. Subclaims and 2. Specific Support
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— Subclaims
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-part of the toulmin model that offers supporting arguments for specific, related issues– Reasons for the claim claim -environment is most serious global problem subclaim- \”rain forests are being destroyed, causing global warming\” \”increaing poplation depleting…\” \”many important water sources are being polluted by industry\”
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—Specific Support
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– Specific support is evidence, opinions, examples, and factual information ABOUT a claim or subclaim that makes is possible for us to accept it Types of Support – Factual Support -Opinions -Examples -Images
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3. Warrants
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The warrant answers the question \”how do we get from here to there?\” \”what assumptions the author needs the sudience to share with in order for them to be persuaded by this argument. Example of a Warrant: Claim: The president is doing a bad job Subclaim: The economy is the worst it has been in years WARRANT: if the economy is the worst it has been, THEN the president is doing bad Contextual warrants -refer to a broader assumptions, beliefs, or values that influence how an audience will respond to a given arguement Apply if/ then to find warrants
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4. Backing
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Backing is the fourth part of the toulmin model and is additional evidence that backs up a warrant. –Backing is the additional evidence that backs up a warrant -Backing appeals to generally accepted knowledge and beliefs that are held by most individuals or groups of people who belong to a specific discipline or culture to look for backing, ID the warrant and then ask yourself is you believe it.
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5. Rebuttal
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Rebuttals establish what is wrong, invalid, or unacceptable about an argument and may present counterarguments or new arguments that represent entirely new perspectives or points of view on the issue –rebuttals demonstrate faulty/ unbelievable support or warrents common introductortory phrases are–> Some may disagree, others may think, commonly held opinions are
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6. Qualifiers
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Qualifers are the 6th part to the TOulmin model. –qualifiers show that the toulmin model is not expected to demonstrate certainty but establish PROBABLITIES -avoids language like always, never, the best, the worst, ect. USES: -sometimes, many, few, may be, might, proabably, possibly .

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