English 3 Unit 10 Vocabulary

the words surrounding unfamiliar words that help determine the meaning for the reader
context
the smallest unit of meaning in a word (prefix, root, suffix)
morpheme
Which of the following are major lexicographical works mentioned in this section?

a. Oxford English Dictionary
b. American Dictionary
c. Dictionary of Spoken English
d. Dictionary of the English Language

a b d
a word whose meaning is opposite the meaning of another word, e.g., tall/short
antonym
the history of a word’s development and changes in meaning
etymology
the study of the dictionary, its compilation and usage
lexicography
a dictionary listing synonyms and antonyms
thesaurus
complete, not condensed
unabridged
a group of grammatically related words containing a subject and a verb
clause
The making of dictionaries is _____.
lexicography
_____ is 12 volumes and considered the ultimate authority of the English language.
OED
Every word has only one correct spelling and pronunciation. T/F
false
The boldface entry indicates syllable divisions. T/F
true
The word etymology refers to the study of the dictionary. T/F
false
Dictionaries are tools for language studies. T/F
true
Dictionaries do not provide variant spellings of words. T/F
false
Often dictionaries include additional information on grammar and copyreading symbols. T/F
true
12-volume dictionary
OED
dictionary of synonyms and antonyms
Roget’s Thesaurus
catalog of nonstandard American language
Dictionary of American Slang
A shortened version of a novel or a dictionary is an unabridged version. T/F
false
Dr. Samuel Johnson compiled the first dictionary by using the historical method of research. T/F
true
What English dictionary is the ultimate authority on the etymology of a word?

1: Dictionary of American English
2: Dictionary of Modern English Usage
3: Oxford English Dictionary

3
Very often a reader can determine the meaning of a word by studying the word’s structure and _____.
context
The most reliable method of dictionary compilation is the _____.

1: historical method
2: literary method
3: usage method

1
A dictionary of synonyms and antonyms is called a(n) _____.
thesaurus
Select two men who contributed major efforts toward dictionary compilation.

a. Samuel Johnson
b. Eric Partridge
c. Armand Roget
d. Daniel Webster
e. Noah Webster

a e
Select three professions whose vocabularies use Greek and Latin words extensively.

a. acting
b. law
c. medicine
d. science
e. hospitality

b c e
A simple sentence is _____.

1: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses and one or more subordinate/dependent clause
2: a sentence containing one main/independent clause and one or more subordinate/independent clauses
3: a sentence containing one main/independent clause
4: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses

3
A compound sentence is _____.

1: a sentence containing one main/independent clause
2: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses and one or more subordinate/dependent clause
3: a sentence containing one main/independent clause and one or more subordinate/independent clauses
4: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses

4
A complex sentence is _____.

1: a sentence containing one main/independent clause
2: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses and one or more subordinate/dependent clause
3: a sentence containing one main/independent clause and one or more subordinate/independent clauses
4: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses

3
A compound-complex sentence is _____.

1: a sentence containing one main/independent clause
2: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses and one or more subordinate/dependent clause
3: a sentence containing one main/independent clause and one or more subordinate/independent clauses
4: a sentence containing two or more main/independent clauses

2
catalog of nonstandard British English
Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English
a one-volume dictionary printed in Oxford
Dictionary of Modern English Usage
A list of sources of information about a certain subject with critical or explanatory notes is called a(n) _____.

1: bibliography
2: annotated bibliography
3: explanatory bibliography

2
A special dictionary of synonyms and antonyms is a(n) _____.
thesaurus
_____ means not shortened or condensed; complete.
Unabridged
a word whose meaning is very similar to the meaning of another word
synonym
Under what circumstances should you not use context clues? Select all that apply.

a. when explanatory material appears as a direct explanation, as an appositive
b. if the word appears frequently and you wish to add it to your vocabulary
c. if the context clues are inadequate
d. when one or more synonyms restate the meaning of an unfamiliar word
e. if the surrounding words are unfamiliar

b c e
Choose two types of context clues.

a. direct explanation
b. homonym
c. synonym
d. thesaurus

a c
a group of grammatically related words without a subject or verb
phrase
a word that retains the characteristics of a verb but is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb
verbal
the use of grammatically similar elements to balance the construction of a sentence or phrase
parallel structure
An elliptical clause is one in which words have been omitted. T/F
true
Either a semicolon or a comma will adequately separate the parts of a compound sentence. T/F
false
Parallel structure concerns the balance of ideas and grammatical functions. T/F
true
The function of a noun determines its case. T/F
true
Many words in English have Greek or Latin morphemes. T/F
true
Which one cannot stand alone as a sentence?

1: independent clause
2: subordinate clause

2
An introductory phrase or clause is generally followed by a(n) _____.
comma
A subject complement is also known as a(n) _____.
predicate noun
Jargon should usually be avoided in exposition. T/F
true
Dialect refers to regional differences in speech and language. T/F
true
Nonstandard English is the “norm” of English usage. T/F
false
Contractions should be used in formal expository writing. T/F
false
The best practice is to avoid “I” and “you” in expository essays. T/F
true
The final step before stapling or binding your paper is _____.

1: read the directions
2: proofread the entire paper
3: put your name on every page
4: draw illustrations

2
nonfiction that explains or describes a given subject
exposition
the vast majority of writing ever done; not verse or poetry
prose
the level of English used in business letters, essays, and most other expository writing
Standard English
the controlling or central idea of a paper
thesis
the controlling idea of a paragraph
topic sentence
a word, phrase, or paragraph joining one idea to another
transition
The major difference between a research paper and an essay is _____.

1: length
2: tone is more serious
3: use of outside sources

3
A list of potential sources of information for a paper is a(n) _____.

1: annotated bibliography
2: library
3: source list
4: working bibliography

4
An index to hundreds of popular magazines found in the library is the _____.

1: card catalog
2: Book Review Index
3: Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature
4: vertical file

3
Check the steps in preparing to write a research paper.

a. pick a limited topic
b. proof read
c. brainstorm
d. prepare a working outline
e. obtain potential sources
f. make bibliography cards

a c d e f
Paraphrased material should be enclosed in quotation marks.T/F
false
The information in your notes serves as support for your general idea. T/F
true
Works Cited means a listing of _____.
sources
Crediting sources of information in the paper itself is called parenthetical credits. T/F
false
the misrepresentation of another’s work or ideas as being one’s own
plagiarism
Critical analysis involves analysis of _____.

a. characters
b. ideas
c. style
d. tone

a b
What are the four major methods of analyzing a character?

a. by what the reader says about the character
b. by what the other characters say about the character
c. by what the character says
d. by the characters name
e. by what the author says about the character
f. by what the other characters do
g. by what the character does

b c e g
Clear, explanatory prose is called _____.
exposition
The author’s ideas, or his message, are his _____.
theme
A story in which a character represents an idea rather than an individual is called a(n) _____.
allegory
A critical analysis does not use secondary sources. T/F
false
Direct quotations in a critical analysis do not have to be documented. T/F
false
A casebook is a collection of primary and secondary materials. T/F
true
a story whose actions and characters are symbols representing other values, ideas, or meanings
allegory
Either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun may introduce a(n) _____.
subordinate clause
An analytical statement or survey of the main ideas to be discussed in a paper is called a(n) _____.
thesis statement
Exposition, narration, description, and persuasion are all types of _____.
subjective prose
Which are types of modifying phrases?

a. adjective
b. adverb
c. appositive
d. conjunctive
e. predicative
f. prepositional

a b f
What features of a research paper will not be required in an essay?

a. works cited
b. thesis statement
c. parenthetical citations
d. direct quotes
e. conclusion

a c d
Drama probably began as a part of primitive religious rites. T/F
true
The kinds of plays written in ancient Greece were _____.

a. comedy
b. mystery
c. tragedy
d. victory

a c
A well-known playwright of great skill in English literature was _____.

1: Harriet Beecher Stowe
2: Neil Simon
3: William Shakespeare

3
The greatest period for English drama was during the _____.

1: Middle Ages
2: 16th and 17th centuries
3: 20th century

2
The church sponsored drama in Europe in the Middle Ages. T/F
true
Mystery, morality, and miracle plays developed during the Renaissance. T/F
false
The drama of ancient Rome was religious in nature. T/F
false
Renaissance plays established drama as a literary form. T/F
true
The golden age of American drama was or is _____.

1: the colonial period
2: the period, characterized by romantic literary plays and vernacular plays, that followed the Revolution
3: the period of drama and symbolism between 1865 and 1914
4: the period from 1914 to 1940, which included the growth of “little theater” and styles that included symbolism and expressionism
5: the contemporary period, which focuses on realism

4
Check the eight kinds of theater in America today.

a. little theater
b. legitimate theater
c. miracle plays
d. morality plays
e. regional theater
f. motion pictures
g. university theater
h. Broadway
i. repertory theater
j. symbolism
k. expressionism
l. television

a b e f g h i l
Realism, symbolism, and expressionism developed in America in the _____.

1: colonial period
2: twentieth century
3: period following the Revolution

2
A play’s overall statement is its _____.
theme
An author gives unspoken written information about his play through using _____.
stage directions
What terms are used to describe characters, based upon whether they change during the course of the play?

a. absolute
b. dynamic
c. static
d. temporary

b c
Which are areas that the modern playwright is interested in exploring?

a. social problems
b. the human condition
c. light-hearted romance
d. a wide variety of human experience

a b d
Good drama _____.

a. celebrates life
b. criticizes life
c. denies life
d. interprets life
e. reflects life

b d e
The Bridge of San Luis Rey, The Skin of Our Teeth, and Our Town

1: all plays written by Wilder which earned over $1 million in revenue
2: the entire body of works by Wilder
3: works by Wilder for which he won Pulitzer Prizes

3
A story that has the quality of being representative of people in any age of history is considered _____.
universal
the turning point of a play or novel
climax
plays in which the hero (or protagonist) overcomes the forces opposing him
comedy
a character that changes in the course of the play
dynamic character
information printed in italics and enclosed within the text of a play in parentheses, giving directions for character movement, etc.
stage directions
a character that does not change during the course of a play
static character
plays in which the hero is defeated by the forces opposing him
tragedy
the quality of being shared and understood by all
universality
a language used by a people of a certain country or locality; informal speech
vernacular
Which of the following distinguishes poetry from prose?

1: form
2: compressed meaning
3: rhythm
4: all of the above

4
Which of the following poems is an example of compressed meaning?

1: the epic
2: the elegy
3: W.H. Auden’s “In Time of War”
4: all of the above

3
Which of the following words is an example of onomatopoeia?

1: kick
2: loud
3: trunk
4: buzz

4
Which of the following best describes a lyric poem?
songlike
Which of the following best describes a narrative poem?

1: songlike
2: written about love or hate
3: tells a story
4: all of the above

3
Unrhymed iambic pentameter is called _____.
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
blank verse
words that appear to rhyme because of similar spellings but really do not
eye rhyme
poetry with no recognizable form or meter
free verse
words with very similar but not exact corresponding sounds
imperfect rhyme
a device for measuring the sounds of poetry
metrical foot
words whose sounds correspond exactly
perfect rhyme
Poets create compressed meaning by _____.

1: choosing their words carefully
2: using connotations
3: using poetic diction
4: writing to a familiar audience

2
An example of personification is _____.

1: the light of distant skies
2: to where life shrinks
3: the desert eagle wheels and screams

2
Which of these is not a universal experience discussed in this lesson as a poetic subject?
fear
Whitman celebrated faith in people in his poem,_____
Song of Myself
Select the American poets who wrote about God-centered faith.

a. Auden
b. Bryant
c. Eliot
d. Longfellow
e. Whitman

a c d
celebrated in Emerson’s “Give All to Love”
romantic love
belief in the promise of America
hope
belief in something without proof
idealistic love
caring for your fellow man
brotherly love
a writer or a reader giving words more than their literal dictionary meanings
connotation
a writer’s use of comparisons to enhance and improve writing, not to be taken literally
figurative language
a direct comparison stating that one thing is another
metaphor
a figure of speech that gives human characteristics to inanimate objects or ideas
personification
a comparison of two unlike things using the words as or like
simile
The first American novel was written by _____.

1: Charles Brockden Brown
2: William Hill Brown
3: Samuel Richardson

2
Charlotte Temple is an example of a _____.

1: historical novel
2: picaresque novel
3: sentimental novel

3
The first American picaresque novel was _____.

1: Modern Chivalry
2: Weiland
3: The Power of Sympathy

1
The supernatural played a part in the works of _____.
Hawthorne
The sea was a universal stage for the stories of _____.
Melville
The man who introduced the sea, the forest, and American history into the American novel was _____.
Cooper
Cooper’s first novel was a romantic history called ______.
The Spy
Hawthorne’s best-known novel is ______.

1: The Last of the Mohicans
2: The Scarlet Letter
3: Seven Years Before the Mast

2
Melville’s most famous work is _____.

1: his exploration of long-term guilt, The Scarlet Letter
2: the Leatherstocking Tales, five books about a frontier character
3: the story of Captain Ahab and the white whale, Moby Dick

3
champion of realism
William Dean Howells
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
bestseller of nineteenth century
Main Traveled Roads
Hamlin Garland
Stephen Crane
The Red Badge of Courage
Henry James was a good storyteller. T/F
false
Mark Twain wrote only one kind of novel. T/F
false
Huckleberry Finn is a book with universal meaning. T/F
true
James’s real concern was the art of writing fiction. T/F
true
Tom Sawyer was Twain’s first published fiction. T/F
false
a figure of speech using words that carry the opposite meaning of what is literally said
irony
one of the three basic elements of a novel, produced by the author’s combination of setting, atmosphere, and tone
mood
figures of speech that are, on one level, themselves and yet underneath carry secondary extended meanings
symbols
Realism lead to what in the twentieth century?
naturalism
The pioneer work for stream-of-consciousness was _____.
Ulysses
Social history entered American fiction through the work of _____.
Ellen Glasgow
Warren’s political novel with deeper universal meaning is _____.

1: All The King’s Men
2: Ulysses
3: Ethan Frome

1
The regional writer who created an entire make-believe county in his books was _____.

1: Robert Penn Warren
2: John Steinbeck
3: William Faulkner

3
The turning point of a novel is its _____.
climax
Using simple description to draw characters is the technique of _____.
exposition
Atmosphere, tone, and setting combine to create the _____.
mood
The three basic elements necessary for every novel are _____.

a. characterization
b. mood
c. plot
d. setting
e. tone
f. validation

a b c
In which part of the United States is To Kill a Mockingbird set?

1: New England
2: the Midwest
3: the Eastern Seaboard
4: the South

4
Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird _____.

a. is historical fiction
b. is regional
c. is of poor quality because it is too autobiographical
d. contains universal themes

b d
What are eight of the different kinds of nonfiction being written today?

a. newspapers
b. diaries
c. formal essays
d. novels
e. poetry
f. letters
g. short stories
h. journals
i. biographies and autobiographies
j. drama
k. informal essays
l. historical novels
m. magazine articles

a b c f h i k m
There are approximately 500 daily newspapers in circulation in the United States today. T/F
false
Giving human characteristics to objects or ideas is _____.
personification
Writing that paints word pictures for the reader is _____.
description
Similes, metaphors, and personification are all kinds of _____.
figurative language
The first formal English essays were written by _____.
Francis Bacon
The essay was first popularized as a literary form by _____.

1: Joseph Addison and Richard Steele
2: Francis Bacon
3: Daniel Defoe
4: Samuel Johnson
5: Jonathan Swift

1
Benjamin Franklin was the first American essayist. T/F
false
A sermon is an oral form of the essay. T/F
true
Oliver Wendell Holmes’s essays were known for their wit and humor. T/F
true
Early American essayists did not follow the Addison-Steele pattern. T/F
false
Poe and Irving were two famous fiction writers who also published essays. T/F
true
A True Relation
John Smith
The History of Plymouth Plantation
William Bradford
“A Progress to the Mines”
William Byrd, II
Two of the most popular forms of nonfiction today are _____.

a. almanacs
b. magazines
c. newspapers
d. novels

b c
Sports Illustrated is classified as a(n) _____ magazine.
specialized
Probably the best known of all anthology magazines is _____.

1: New England Journal
2: Reader’s Digest
3: US News and World Report

2
A persuasive newspaper article that states an opinion is a(n) _____.
editorial
Nonfiction topics are_____.

1: limited to four categories
2: unlimited but focus on four broad categories
3: limited to personal experience, politics, and biography
4: unlimited but focus on serious subjects

2
the writer paints word pictures
description
the use of obvious exaggeration for a particular effect
hyperbole
nonfiction that attempts to convince a reader of a certain viewpoint
propaganda
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