English 1301-329

Explicit argument
directly states its controversial claim and supports it with reason and evidence

implicit argument
may not look like an argument at all (bumper sticker, billboard, poster, photograph, cartoon) – persuades it’s audience towards a certain point of view
*dig deeper to find the argument*

2 necessary conditions needed to make an argument
1. a set of two or more conflicting assertions
2.the attempt to resolve the conflict through an appeal to reason
*In order to be effective, an arguer is obligated to clarify and support the reasons presented

Believing (Believing and Doubting Game)
As a believer, your role is to be wholly sympathetic to an idea.
-listen carefully and suspend all disbelief
-identify the way in which the idea may appeal to different audience and all the reasons for believing the idea
-can be difficult

Doubting (Believing and Doubting Game)
As a doubter, your role is to be judgmental and critical, finding fault with an idea
-find counterexamples and inconsistencies that undermine the idea you are examining
-can be threatening to doubt ideas you may instinctively believe

Rhetorical Context and Genre
A genre is a recurring type or pattern of argument such as a letter to the editor, a political cartoon, etc.
In an argument, helps determine the length, tone, sentence complexity, level of informality, use of visuals, kinds of evidence, depth of research, and the presence or absence of documentation

1st question of Rhetorical context
What genre of argument is this? How do the conventions of that genre help determine the depth, complexity, and even appearance of the argument?

2nd question of Rhetorical context
Who is the author? What are the author’s credentials and what is his or her investment in the issue?

3rd question of Rhetorical context
What audience is he/she writing for?

4th question of Rhetorical context
What motivating occasion prompted the writing? The motivating occasion could be a current event, a crisis, pending legislation, a recently published alternative view, or another ongoing problem.

5th question of Rhetorical context
What is the author’s purpose? The purpose could range from strong advocacy to inquiring truth seeker.

6th question of Rhetorical context
What information about the publication or source helps explain the writer’s perspective or the structure and style of the argument?

7th question of Rhetorical context
What is the writer’s angle of vision? By angle of vision, we mean the filter, lens, or selective seeing through which the writer is approaching the issue. What is left out from the argument? What does this author not see?

Rogerian listening
-emphasizes “empathic listening”
-the ability to see an issue sympathetically from another person’s perspective of “frame of reference”
-particularly effective when dealing with emotion- laden issue
-goal is increased mutual understanding and enlarged perspectives on reality for both writer and reader

Introduction (one of several paragraphs)
-attention grabber
-explanation of the issue
-writer’s thesis
-forecasting passage

Presentation of writer’s position
-main body of the essay (warrant & grounds)
-presents and supports each reason in turn
-each reason is tied to a value or belief held by the audience

summary of opposing views
summary of views differing from writer’s (should be fair and complete)

response to opposing views
-refutes or concedes to opposing views
-shows weakness in opposing views
-may concede to some strengths

-bring essay to closure
-often sums up argument
-leaving strong last impression
-often calls for action or relates topic to a larger context or issue

define rhetoric
the ability to discern the available means of persuasion in any given situation

communication triangle
message (logos): consistent and logical, best reasons for evidence and support (information, argument, evidence, structure)
writer or speaker (ethos): present yourself effectively , enhance my credibility and trustworthiness (credibility, authority, appearance, eloquence)
audience (paths): make the reader open to my message, appeal to readers values and interests (beliefs, knowledge, experience, values)

-the appeal to credibility
-be knowledgeable about your issue, be fair, build a bridge to your audience, and demonstrate professionalism

-focuses the attention on the quality of the message
-internal consistency and clarity of the argument itself and on the logic of its reason and support

-the appeal of beliefs and emotions
-arguers create pathetic appeals whenever they connect their claims to readers’ values, thus triggering positive or negative emotions depending on whether these values are affirmed to transgressed
-help readers walk in the writer’s shoes

-greek word for “right time” “season” or “opportunity”
-timing must be effectively chosen and its tone and structure in right proportion or measure

rhetorical situation (relationship between writer, text, and audience)
how they’re all connected & the relationship between all three of those

issue question
-invites at least 2 alternative answers
-relationship with your audience is to advocate to decision maker or jury for them to makeup its mind on something and is weighing different points of view

informations question
relationship with your audience is that of teacher to learner and your audience hopes to gain new information, knowledge, or understanding

genuine argument
require reasonable participants who operate within the conventions of reasonable behavior and potentially sharable assumptions that can serve as a starting place or foundation for the argument

one that is lacking one or both of the conditions for a rational argument
*no possibility for listening, learning, growth, or change
* one disputant makes assumptions that the other disputant cannot accept

rational arguments require two additional factors
1. reasonable participants who operate within the conventions of reasonable behavior
2. potentially sharable assumptions that can serve as a starting place or foundation for the argument

define reason
-a claim used to support another claim
-in speaking or writing, a reason is usually linked to the claim with connect words such as because, since, for, so, this, consequently, and therefore

formal logic
deal with symbolic assertion that are universal and unchanging

real world logic
-seldom prove anything
-they can only make a good case for something, a case that is more or less strong, more or less probable

-an incomplete logical structure
-its persuasiveness depends on an underlying assumption or belief that the audience must accept
-to complete one and make it effective, the audience must willingly supply a missing premise
-claim+ because+ reason

toulmin system
-differs from formal logic in that it assumes that (1) all assertions and assumptions are contestable by “opposing counsel” and that (2) all final ‘verdicts’ about the persuasiveness of the opposing arguments will be rendered by a neutral third party
-reminds us not to construct an argument that appeals only to those who already agree with us

-sufficiency: how much evidence you need is a function of your rhetorical context
-typically: readers need to believe the evidence is typical and representative rather then extreme instances
-accuracy: accurate and up-to-date
-relevance: evidence will be persuasive only if the reader considers it relevant to the contested issue

8 kinds of evidence
-data from personal experience
-data from observation or field research
-data from interviews, questionnaires, surveys
-data from library or internet research
-statistical data
-hypothetical examples, cases, and scenarios
-reasoned sequence of ideas

how to create an effective ethos appeal
-be knowledgeable about your issue
-be fair
-build a bridge to your audience
-demonstrate professionalism

appealing to a neutral and undecided audience
-they distrust one-sided arguments that caricature other views
-best strategy- classically structured argument
-summarize opposing views

refuting opposing views
-refuting them or conceding to their strengths
-in refuting, you attempt to convince readers that its argument is logically flawed, inadequately supported, or based on erroneous assumptions
-you can rebut (1) the writer’s stated reason and grounds (2) the writers warrant and backing (3) or both

strategies for rebutting evidence
-deny the truth of the data
-cite counterexamples and counter testimony
-cast doubt on the representativeness or sufficiency of examples
– cast doubt on the relevance or recency of the examples, statistics, or testimony
-question the credibility of an authority
-question the accuracy or context of quotations
-question the way statistical data were produced or interpreted

conceding to opposing views
-sometimes have to concede rather than refute
-strategy of a concession argument is to switch from the field of values employed by the writer you disagree with to a different field of values more favorable to your position

10 areas to focus on for rhetorical analysis
-a kairotic moment and writer’s motivating occasion
-rhetorical context: writer’ purpose and audience
-rhetorical context: writer’ identity and angle of vision
-rhetorical context: genre
-logos of the argument
-ethos of the argument
-pathos of the argument
-writer’s style
-design and visual elements
-overall persuasiveness of the argument

use of type
size,boldface, italics, or all caps can direct a reader’s attention to an argument structure and highlight main points

use of space or layout
-page size and type of paper
-proportion of text to images
-use of highlighting elements
-proportion of text to white space
-arrangement of text on page
-use of headings and breaking text

use of color
-can move readers emotionally and imaginatively
-writers are especially controlled by genre conventions

use of images and graphics
-few simple images may be more powerful than complicated and numerous images
-(1) how you intend an image to work in your argument
-(2) how you will establish the relationship between the image or graphic and the verbal text

design elements for visual arguments
use of color, space and layout,type, images and graphics

-Currency: the timeliness of the information
-relevance: the importance of the information for your needs
-authority: the source of the information
-Accuracy: the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content
-purpose: the reason the information exists

topic sentence
a sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs

definition of plagiarism
the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit

types of plagiarism
unintentional: these occur because of a lack of understanding about plagiarism or a lack of knowledge and skills
intentional: these are committed deliberately, with full understanding of the offense

introduction technique
-attention grabber
-brief sentence on the controversial topic
-thesis statement

conclusion technique
-restate thesis
-make lasting impact

MLA formatting for works cited
-entries are arranged alphabetically by author, or by title if there is no author
-each entry includes the medium of publication of the source you consulted
-if there is more than one entry per author, the world are arranged alphabetically by title. for the second and all additional entries, type three hyphens and a period in place of the author’s name

definition of patch-writing
writing passages that are not copied exactly but that have nevertheless been borrowed from another source, with some changes

email guidelines
-clear and specific subject line
-give reason or message up front
-give reason or message up front
-use professional and straightforward tone and formal language
-use format that can be skimmed quickly, including bullets or numbers to emphasize question
-state your request briefly near end of message
-end with a friendly closing
-write concisely and keep paragraphs short
-avoid writing in all capital or lowercase letters
-proofread and be cautious in what you send
-make it clear where borrowed material begins and ends
-realize that sarcasm, irony, and excessive punctuation increase potential for misinterpretation

definition of visual rhetoric
strategies of persuasion through images

constructing visual arguments
-audience based appeals
-visual design
-use of images
-core of an argument

analysis of persuasive image
-point of view
-special effects
-presentation of images

taking the main points and going over them, but not including all the detail

taking a quote and changing words or putting it into your own words

direct quotation
exact words of someone else with correct citation and credit given to the author/speaker

formulating your research question
-narrower than research topic
-may yield an argument or position
-gives direction to research

developing a paper topic
-look over the prompt. know and understand the requirements and limitations on the topic selection
-brainstorm for topics that interest you
-think about the focus that you want to apply to your topic. start off with a general topic then work to narrow it
-think about and list the cliches that you have heard used in arguments about your topic. remember to avoid cliches. be original in your argument
-reflect on who will be your target audience. what do they know (if anything) about your topic and what position will they likely take on your topic?
-be informed on your topic…do the research. what types of resources might you consult that your readers will value?

drafting a thesis statement
-write a preliminary thesis,which includes your topic and your position. be specific and clear to the point and as concise as possible
-think about your position. what positions disagree with or contradict yours? list these opposing arguments
-what key terms need to be defined or clarified in your thesis
-once you have reviewed #1-3 guidelines, then revise your thesis. make sure that your thesis statement forecasts and argument in terms that your readers will understand. remember that it should act like a road map in your paper

successful organization of paragraphs
-need to include a topic sentence that signals to the reader what the paragraph will be about. this should be the first sentence of your paragraph
-between paragraphs, you need to make sure the paper flows. you should use transitions between paragraphs. look at your notes for the transitions that signal similarity, difference, and consequences