Energy and Heat Transfer

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What is heat transfer?
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heat energy moving from a warmer object to a cooler object
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Define the 3 types of heat transfer.
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Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct touch of molecules. Convection is the transfer of heat through a liquid. Radiation is the transfer of heat through empty space.
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Give an example of each type of heat transfer.
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Conduction- hand getting hot from touching a stove Convection- water boiling in a pot Radiation- sun warming earth
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At what point can no more energy be removed from matter?
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0K
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What is the SI unit to measure heat?
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joules
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What is energy?
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the ability to do work or cause change
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What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy?
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potential energy is stored energy while kinetic energy is energy in motion
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What is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in an object called?
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temperature
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What is thermal expansion?
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the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature
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A change from one form of energy to another form of energy is called . . .?
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energy conversion or energy transformation
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What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?
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energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can change form, from one type of energy to another
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List the six types of energy.
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heat energy chemical energy electromagnetic energy nuclear energy mechanical energy electrical energy
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Define the six types of energy.
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heat energy- the internal motion of the atoms chemical energy- the potential energy stored in a chemical bond electromagnetic energy- the energy of light and other forms of radiation nuclear energy- energy stored in the nucleus of an atom mechanical energy- energy associated with the motion and position of an object electrical energy- the energy of electric charges
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Give an example of the six types of energy.
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heat energy- the sun chemical energy- evaporation electromagnetic energy- a light bulb nuclear energy- atomic bomb mechanical energy- speed of a car electrical energy- lightning
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What happens when the temperature reaches the melting point?
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the object will melt; the atoms in the object will move faster
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What happens when the temperature reaches the boiling point?
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the object will boil; the atoms in the object will move very fast
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What happens when the temperature reaches the freezing point?
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the object will freeze; the atoms in the object will barely be moving
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What is the addition or loss of thermal energy called?
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heat transfer
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Where does the energy in fossil fuels originally come from?
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the sun
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What is combustion?
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the process of burning fuel
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Describe the energy conversion used when natural gas is used to heat water.
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chemical energy to thermal energy
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Describe the energy conversion used when rubbing your hands together on a cold day.
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mechanical energy to thermal energy
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Describe the energy conversion used in this scenario: a car (heat) engine.
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thermal energy changes into mechanical energy
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Describe the energy conversion used in this scenario: your body temperature and ability to do work.
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chemical energy to thermal energy to kinetic energy
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Describe the energy conversion used when water runs over a waterfall.
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gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy
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Describe the relationship between the mass of an object and the amount of thermal energy an object has.
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mass is the amount of particles in a substance while thermal energy is the amount of energy in the particles in a substance
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What is the difference between conductors and insulators?
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conductors let heat easily pass through while insulators do not let heat easily pass through
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List 3 examples each of insulators and conductors.
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insulators- insulation, styrofoam, paper conductors- metal, wire, penny
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How would you calculate an object’s mechanical energy?
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kinetic energy + potential energy
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Define thermal energy.
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the total energy of particles in a substance

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