Endocrine System: Biochemistry, Secretion and Transport of Hormones

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Peptides
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Insulin Glucagon Growth hormone vasopressin
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Amines
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Norepinephrine Epinephrine T3 T4
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Steroids
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Aldosterone Estradiol Testosterone cortisol
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Preprohormones
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Peptide hormones are synthesized as large precursor hormones called ___…..___.
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Secretory Vesicles, Exocytosis
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The hormones (or prohormones) are stored in ___…..___ and released from the cell by ___…..___.
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Medulla
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Catecholemines are produced in the ___…..___ of the adrenal gland.
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Amine, Tyrosine
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Catecholemines are classified as ___…..___ because they are derived from ___…..___.
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Ca, Exocytosis
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Stimulation of the chromaffin cells causes an influx of ___…..___ ions, which causes the vesicles to merge with the plasma membrane and release the hormone by ___…..___.
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Water-soluble
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Are catecholemines water-soluble or lipid-soluble?
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T3 and T4
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Thyroid hormones include two molecules called ___…..___and ___…..___.
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Tyrosine, 3, less
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T3 consists of two ___…..___ molecules plus __…..__ iodine molecules and is (less or more) abundant than T4
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Yes
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Are carriers required for the transport of thyroid hormones?
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Cholesterol
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All steroid hormones are derived from ___…..___
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Enzymes
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which steroid hormone is produced is determined by the ___…..___ present in the cell.
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Pregnenelone
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The common precursor molecule for all steroid hormones is ___…..___
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Diffusion, Do
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Steroid hormones enter the blood stream by ____…..______ and _____….._____ (do or do not) require a carrier.
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Slower
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. The rate of secretion of steroid hormones is (slower or faster) than catecholemines because steroid hormones are not __stored in secretory vesicles__________.
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stored in secretory vesicles
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The rate of secretion of steroid hormones is (slower) than catecholemines because steroid hormones are not __…..__________.
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Epinephrine and norepinephrine
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Preganglionic sympathetic fibers trigger the release of ___…..___ and ___…..___ (hormones)
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Adrenal Medulla
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Preganglionic sympathetic fibers trigger the release of __epinephrine_________ and __norepinephrine________ (hormones) from the ___….._____ _______ (gland), this is an example of neural regulation of hormone secretion.
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TSH
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Two examples of hormonal regulation of hormone secretion include: 1) the negative feedback of T3 & T4 to decrease __…..___ levels;
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ACTH and CRH
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) the negative feedback of cortisol which decreases both __…..____ and __…..___ levels.
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GIP and Parasympathetic
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Besides increased levels of plasma glucose and amino acids (humoral regulation), increased levels of both ___…____ (hormone) and the ____…..______ nervous system increase plasma insulin levels.
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Circadian
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Some hormones are released in rhythmic 24 hour patterns know as ___…..___ rhythms.
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Cortisol
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___…..___ is a hormone where stressful stimuli can override this pattern and increase the plasma hormone levels.
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Thyroid
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.In contrast, __…..__ hormones (amine hormones) are an example where large amounts of the hormones are bound to carrier proteins in the plasma forming a large circulating reservoir.Thus, acute changes do not produce large changes in the plasma level of this hormone.
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Liver and Kidney
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The __…..__ and __…..__ are the major organs that metabolize hormones.
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Peptide and Catecholamine
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___….. hormones___ and ___….. hormones__…..__ are rapidly metabolized
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Thyroid and Steroid
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while __….. hormones__ and __….. hormones__ take longer to metabolize.

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