8. Supply Chain definition
3 or more entities directly involved in the flow of products, services, finances information from source to customer. (p7)
8. Supply Chain Management – definition
systematic strategic coordination of traditional business functions and tactics across business functions within a company and within a supply chain (p6).
Includes all activities associated with inbound logistics, material flows and outbound logistics (p7)
9. Reverse logistics – definition
the movement/logistics processes from the operational site and then back through the maintenance and repair activities to the original producer or current vendor (third party support). It includes activities associated with maintenance, repair, support, disposal and recycling
10. Define system engineering
The application of scientific and engineering efforts to transform an operational need into a description of system performance parameters and a system configuration through the use of an iterative process of definition, synthesis, analysis, design, test, and evaluation, and validation; integrate related technical parameters and ensure the compatibility of all physical, functional, and program interfaces in a manner that optimizes the total definition and design; and integrate the reliability, maintainability, usability (human factors), safety, producibility, supportability (serviceability) disposability, and other factors into a total engineering effort to meet cost, schedule, and technical performance parameters. (p29)
21. Define Integrated Logistic Support (ILS)
Disciplined, unified and iterative approach to the management and technical activities necessary to integrate support considerations into system and equipment design, develop support requirements that are related consistently to readiness objectives, to design, and to each other; acquire the required support; and provide the required support during the operating phases at minimum cost. P7-8.
1. What is meant by a system?
– a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/system)
1. What are characteristics of a system? Give some examples.
.A system is a set of components and/or processes with an objective, organization, interactions, and interdependencies
2. What is meant by a system hierarchy?
The parent-child relationship of whole system and its component parts. (p30/163)
3. Describe the system life cycle and its phases.
conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, production and construction, utilization and support, retirement and disposal (p15)
4. How would you define logistics?
The detailed coordination of complex operations involving many people, facilities and supplies. (p4)
4. What are the basic elements of logistics?
identification/management of suppliers, procurement, order processing, and physical supply for materials from sources to producer, and physical distribution from source to user (p5)
5. How would you relate logistics to a system?
Logistics supports system design, development, production, operations and retirement, by ensuring maintability, repairability, supportability,
6. How does logistics fit into a system life cycle?
Blanchard refers to the top life-cycle in Fig 1.7 as the design, production and support of the prime mission-related elements of the system. He then refers to production capability as a second life cycle, and maintenance and support as a third life cycle, and recycling and disposal as a fourth life-cycle, represented by the lower tiers in Fig 1.7. Logistics issues of Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, Producibility, and Disposability should be addressed.
7. What are the basic differences between logistics as it is practiced in the commercial sector and in the defense sector? Identify some common functions.
commercial – profit, commercial contracting standards (cost efficiency)
defense – combat operations; Federal regulations (contracting) (not in book)
10. Describe the system engineering process. How does logistics relate to this process?
System engineering is an application of scientific and engineering efforts to transform an operation need into a system through top-down iterative process of analysis, allocation, synthesis, design, test and evaluation. Key process steps include defining requirements, functional and system analysis and optimization, test and validation of requirements, production, utilization and sustainment, upgrades, and retirement. Logistics are part of each of these key processes from design to disposal.
11. What is meant by performance based logistics (PBL)? Provide a few examples.
…specification of critical, mesurable logistics requirements starting early in the design phase traceable to system performance requirements
12. Define logistics engineering (LE).
Logistics engineering is one element of System engineering and is an application of scientific and engineering efforts to transform an operation need into a system through top-down iterative process of analysis, allocation, synthesis, design, test and evaluation and is focused on system design driven logistics and support requirements.
12. What factors are included in LE? Why are they important?
LE factors – initial definition of system support factors, mission and infrastructure related criteria, ongoing design evaluation, configuration-based resource requirements determination, ongoing assessment of support infrastructure (p27).
12. How does Logistics Engineering relate to System Engineering?
System engineering is an application of scientific and engineering efforts to transform an operation need into a system through top-down iterative process of analysis, allocation, synthesis, design, test and evaluation.
Logistics engineering is one element of this process.
13. Define design for supportability. When should it be considered? Why is it important?
Design for supportability is the degree to which a system can be effectively supported, both in terms of the built-in design characteristics of the prime mission-related elements of the system and the characteristics of the overall maintenance and support infrastructure.
It should be considered starting in the system design phase, preferably during concept design, and continued through early production or construction.
It is important as design decisions will affect future procurement, operating, support, and retirement costs.
14. Define/describe logistics and maintenance support infrastructure
the logistics and maintenance support infrastructure includes component, supplier and production facilities, depot, intermediate, and organizational level maintenance facilities and capabilities, and the provisioning of people, facilities, shops, special test and support equipment and all necessary elements to ensure system operation
15. Per fig 1/7 describe the relationships among the 4 life cycles.
The four lifecycles are related by iterative feedback and feed forward relationships:
• Design (“top life cycle”) – inclusion of reliability, supportability, maintainability, producibility, and disposability considerations
• Production (“second life cycle”) – inclusion of supply chain management issues;
• Maintenance and support (“third life cycle”) – maintenance and support infrastructure, including activities for recycling and disposal, and modernization, re-purposing and obsolescence issues; and
• Material recycling and disposal (“fourth life cycle”) – include reverse-flow logistic activities and issues with system and product retirement.
16. What is relationship between reliability (R) and maintainability (M) ?
Reliability is defined as the probability that a system will perform in a satisfactory manner for a given period of time, under specified operating conditions. It is expressed as R(t) = 1 – F(t), where F(t) is the probability of failure, the failure distribution function, or unreliability function.
Maintainability like reliability, is an inherent design property that is expressed as the probability that a system will be restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when maintenance is performed as prescribed (with right procedures and resources).
16. What is relationship between Reliability and human factors (HF)?
Human factors (HF) pertains to how human beings interact with a system, and includes operations, maintenance, repair, production, safety, and disposal. Humans are the operators and maintainers of systems, and their training and tasks must be considered and developed as part of system design and explicitly during supportability analysis. The HF design assumptions bound system probability of failure F(t) which defines reliability R(t) = 1-F(t)
16. What is relationship between Maintainability and human factors (HF)?
Maintainability like reliability, is an inherent design property that is expressed as the probability that a system will be restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when maintenance is performed as prescribed (with right procedures and resources). Maintenance are the actions defined by maintainability and includes all actions for restoring a system to a given (servicable) condition. Humans are the system maintainers, and their training and tasks must be considered and developed as part of system design and explicitly during supportability analysis. HF analysis of defined maintenance tasks will establish required skills, techniques, procedures, training, and expected times to repair.
16. What is relationship between Reliability and logistics?
Reliability is an inherent design characteristic of a system. Logistics is the detailed coordination of complex operations involving many people, facilities and supplies to support a system. Understanding requirements to restore a system to service defines logistics support requirements.
16. What is relationship between Maintainability and logistics?
Maintainability like reliability, is an inherent design property that is expressed as the probability that a system will be restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when maintenance is performed as prescribed (with right procedures and resources). Logistics is the detailed coordination of complex operations involving many people, facilities and supplies to support a system. Logistics ensures that the right people, procedures, and resources are available when and where needed to ensure maintainability.
16. What is relationship between human factors and logistics?
Human factors (HF) pertains to how human beings interact with a system, and includes operations, maintenance, repair, production, safety, and disposal. Humans are the operators and maintainers of systems, and their training and tasks must be considered and developed as part of system design and explicitly during supportability analysis. Logistics is the detailed coordination of complex operations involving many people, facilities and supplies to support a system. Logistics ensures that the right people, with the right skills and training, procedures, and resources are available when and meet HF requirements in the supportability analusis.
17. Difference between maintainability and maintenance.
Maintainability is the ability of an item to be maintained, whereas Maintenance constitutes a series of action to be taken to restore an item or retain it in an effective operational state.
18. Difference between maintenance concept and maintenance plan.
Maintenance Concept (MC) – a series of statements and/or illustrations defining criteria covering maintenance levels, major functions accomplished at each maintenance level, basic support policies, effectiveness factors and primary logistic support requirements.
Maintenance Level – Pertains to division of functions and tasks for each area where maintenance is performed
Maintenance Plan (MP) – Detailed plan specifying the methods and procedure to be followed for system support throughout its lifecycle and during the utilization phase.
19. Define total productive maintenance (TPM). What are included elements, how is it measured?
integrated, top-down, system lifecycle approach to maintenance with the objective of maximizing productivity
Aims to maximize overall equipment effectiveness
Establishes a complete preventive maintenance program for the entire life cycle of equipment
Is implemented on a team basis and includes various departments
Involves every employee from top management to the workers on the floor
Is based on the promotion of preventive maintenance through motivational management
20. Fig 1.16 identify and describe logistics functions/activities associated w/ each block.
Logistics activities related to figure 1.16 are explicit in figure 1.9:
(ref: Blanchard, Benjamin S. (2004) Logistics Engineering and Management. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey
22. Define supportability analysis (SA). What is included? When is SA accomplished in system (LC)? How does SA relate to system analysis?
Supportability analysis (SA), also called logistics supportability analysis, is an iterative analytical process by which the logistics support necessary for a new (or modified) system is identified and evaluated.
SA applies selected quantitative methods to
1. Aid in the initial determination and establishment of supportability criteria as an input to design
2. Aid in the evaluation of various design alternatives
3. Aid in the identification, provisioning and procurement of elements of maintenance and support
4. Aid in the final assessment of the system support infrastructure.
SA is accomplished early in the system design as requirements are being developed and is part of the logistics engineering of the system.
SA provides feedback and is part of the system analysis during system design.
23. Define agile logistics. Why is it important?
Agile logistics are systems that provide support as missions, priorities and requirements change. It is important because requirements are constantly changing.
24. Define concurrent engineering. How does it relate to SE and logistics?
A concept that refers to the participation of all the functional areas of the firm in the system engineering.
25. How does design for producibility (or lack of) affect logistics and system support?
Producibility is a measure of the ease of producing a product. It affects production and defines needs for special equipment,skills, materials, facilities, and processes which are provided by logistics and system support. A good design for producibility will affect the quality, cost and efficiency of the product.
26. How does design for disposability (or lack of) affect logistics and system support?
Disposability relates to the disposal or recycling of a system without causing an effect on the environment. Like producibility, it defines needs for special equipment,skills, materials, facilities, and processes which are provided by logistics and system support. A good design will affect the cost and ability to dispose of a system.
27. Define total quality management TQM. How does it relate to logistics and system support?
Total integrated management approach that addresses system/product quality during all phases of the lifecycle and at each level in the overall system hierarchy
28. Define configuration management CM. Why is it important for logistics?
A management approach used to
identify the functional and physical characteristics of an item in the early phase of its lifecycle,
control changes to those characteristics, and
record and report change processing, and implementation status
29. Define system effectiveness. What factors are included?
System effectiveness is the ability of a system to perform its intended functions(s). Factors and measures of effectiveness include SYSTEM PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS (range, speed, power, etc), AVAILABILITY (operational readiness) and DEPENDABILITY (supportability, maintainability, reliability). (p42)
30. Define life cycle cost LCC. What is included? When should LCC be applied in the system life cycle?
Life cycle cost (LCC) is the total cost of a system and includes all costs associated with development (design and development), acquisition (production and construction), sustainment (operations and maintenance), and system disposal (retirement and phase-out).
LCC should be analyzed early in the design and development phase to have the greatest effect on overall cost effectiveness..
31. Identify several new technologies and describe/provide examples of how these technologies will enhance logistics/system support.
RFID tags and GPS provide in transit asset visibility – you know where items are in storage or in transit; Asset management software with asset location allows real-time understanding of stock inventories, usage and resupply requirements. Electronic data interchange standards allow efficient information transfer. Small batch production processes such as 3-D printing and digital design and manufacturing tools allow repair part production closer to point of use without requiring lifetime buys and the incurred lifetime support costs.
Primary objective – Customer satisfaction
More emphasis on iterative practice of continuous improvement as applied to engineering, production, and support processes.
Individual understanding of processes, the effects of variation, the application of process control methods, etc.
Emphasizes a total organizational approach, involving every group in the organization
28. CM involves four functions
a) Configuration Identification b) Configuration Control c) Configuration Status Accounting d) Audits