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Educational Psychology Learning Theories!! Essay

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What is learning? (Behaviorism)
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The outcome of learning is change in behavior Emphasizes the effects of external events on individual behavior
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What are the types of behaviorism?
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Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning
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What do the types of behaviorism look like?
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Classical Conditioning: unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response paired together to create new response Operant Conditioning: Shaping with positive or negative reinforcement, punishment
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Classical Conditioning
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unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response paired together to create new response
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Operant Conditioning
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Shaping with positive or negative reinforcement, punishment
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What is learning? (Information Processing Theory) Cognitive views? Definition? Emphasizes what?
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Cognitive views: focus on changes in thought Definition: relatively enduring change in mental structures that occur as a result of the interaction of an individual with the environment Emphasize mental processes underlying learning of new information
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What does learning look like in this model? (Memories/Information Processing Theory)
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-Sensory memory>Working Memory>Long-term memory -Declarative, Procedural, and Conditional Knowledge (ex. Episodic and Semantic)
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Cognitive Learning
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Learning takes places in the mind Individual Differences construct different understandings Wider range of research methods Introspection, Think-Aloud
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Behavioral Learning
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Learning is change in observable behavior Same environment= Same learning experience Research uses a controlled experiment
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Information Processing
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The mind’s activity of taking in, storing, & using information
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3 types of memory
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Sensory Memory Short-term Memory/Working Memory Long-term Memory
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Sensory Memory Capacity? Time to register in visual? Time to register in auditory? What does it hold?
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Unlimited capacity .5 seconds in visual to register 3 seconds in auditory to register Holds raw unprocessed information
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Perception and Attention
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People organize perceptions into coherent wholes
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Working Memory Keep information what to do what? Capacity?
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Place where we keep information activated Place where we bring information to process Limited Capacity Phonological Loop & Visuospatial Sketchpad Central Executive
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Retaining Information?
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Rehearsal, rote memorization Maintenance: mnemonics, practice Elaboration—linking to prior knowledge Chunking Organization Context (Sensation>Attention and Perception>Memory)
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Cognitive Learning as a teacher…
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Meaningful Learning Methods Make connection with new information & prior knowledge Elaborate prior knowledge Provide an organized structure of new content
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Long Term Memory What 3 type of Knowledge? (DPC) -2 types of D
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Memories Declarative Knowledge Episodic—memory of everyday events Semantic—memory of the meaning of things Procedural Knowledge Conditional Knowledge
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Episodic
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memory of everyday events
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Semantic
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memory of the meaning of things
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4 types of Declarative Knowledge (SESI) (IPT)
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Semantic Episodic Schemas Images
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Procedural Knowledge (IPT)
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Classical conditioning Schema/Scripts Productions
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Memory Recall (IPT)
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Cues Associations Recognition (muscle memory/automatic) Recall
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Forgetting Information (IPT)
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Interference Blockage Nonmeaningful learning Lack of Retrieval Cues Decay Disuse
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Multitasking (IPT)
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Brain struggles to focus on two things at once FOMO has led to more multitasking on social media The Marshmallow test
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Attracting Student’s Attention (IPT)
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Visual Signals Highlighting important words & information Calling students names randomly to answer questions Using interesting visual materials Promoting student curiosity
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Emphasize Prior Knowledge (IPT)
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Assess knowledge with Pre-tests Ask students what they already know KWL Chart Connect new information with prior knowledge Provide meaningful experiences to make connections
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Avoid Cognitive Overload (IPT)
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Too much information at one time Working memory capacity can become exhausted
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Using Higher Order Thinking Questions (IPT)
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Why questions Predict future outcomes Compare/Contrast Allow for proper wait time
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Keeping Students Organized (IPT)
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Provide students with Advanced Organizers Outlines for chapters or powerpoints Graphic Organizers Concept maps, KWL Chart Pictures
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What is Metacognition?
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Metacognition: Knowledge about the operations of cognition and how to use them to achieve a learning goal.
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3 Metacognition Skills: PME
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Planning—How am I going to do this? Monitoring—How am I doing? Evaluating—How did the process go? Do I need to change anything?
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Metacognition-Declarative Knowledge of PT&S variables
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Knowledge of Person variables Knowledge of task variables Knowledge of strategy variables
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Metacognition-Conditional
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When and why we use certain learning processes
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Metacognition-Procedural
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How to use various strategies for learning new material
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Age Trends in Metacognition Develops how? Elementary? Upper? High?
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Develops gradually Primary elementary: teach that describing, recalling, guessing, and understanding mean different things Upper Elementary/Middle: explain learning process High: push them to find best learning process
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What does learning look like? (Social Cognitive Theory)
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Learning is done through observation of a task and through doing the task.
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Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation
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Learning from observing the behaviors of others and observing the consequences of the behaviors of others
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What can impact our learning in SCT? SL RCM SE M SR
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Social Learning Reciprocal Causation Model Self-Efficacy Modeling Self-Regulation
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Social Learning
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Learn from observing the behaviors of others and observing the environmental outcomes of the behaviors of others (OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING ex. Bobo Doll)
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Reciprocal Causation Model (Environmental, Behavior, Personal)
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Interrelationship between students’ environment, personal beliefs, & their behavior Environment: social stimuli, such as parents, peers, & teachers Behavior: student response, can be emotional, physical, or both. Personal: Beliefs or attitudes that can affect learning
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Self Efficacy
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Confidence in one’s ability to execute a course of action and accomplish a task Plays a role in your expectations of success Impacted by Personal history, messages from others, models, personal feelings Can impact Selection, cognitive, motivational, and affective processes
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Self Efficacy focuses on?
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Self-efficacy theory focuses on: One’s certainty about having the skills to attain a desired outcome (Efficacy/ Competence Beliefs) One’s expectations for success: a belief that behaviors will result in desired outcomes (Outcome Expectations)
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Self Efficacy comes from?
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Self-Efficacy comes from: Personal history of success/failures “I’ve done well in Math before” Messages from others (Verbal Persuasion) Encouragement from teacher “I know you can do this!” Models (vicarious learning) “If Jake can do it, I can, too” Personal feelings & reflections (Emotional Arousal) “I felt confident when I did the practice problems”
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Self Efficacy impacts: Selection Cognitive Motivational Affective
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The choices individuals make (Selection processes) The courses of action they pursue (Cognitive processes) How much effort people will expend on an activity (Motivational processes) How long they will persevere when confronting obstacles How resilient they will be in the face of adverse situations (Affective processes)
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Perceived Self-Efficacy
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Perceived self-efficacy (i.e., one’s self-efficacy beliefs) is a powerful predictor of success
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Teacher Efficacy (Personal vs Collective)
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Personal teacher efficacy A teacher’s belief in their teaching ability and ability to have positive effect on student learning Collective teacher efficacy Perceptions of all teachers in a school and their view of having a positive effect on student learning
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Modeling
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Children see, Children do (video) Children see GOOD, but also BAD The cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes originated from observing other’s behaviors and explanations Vicarious Learning Fits with Vygotsky’s view that learning occurs by taking in what is “out there”
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Modeling Effects
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-Inhibitory Effects (Answers question, gets called “nerd”, gets upset) -Disinhibitory Effects (Substitute Teacher, kid pushes boundaries, gets away with it, other kids want to also) -Response Facilitation Effects (Students pack bags to let teachers know that it is time to go)
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Factors affecting the success of modeling (ARPM)
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Learner Process: -Attention -Retention -Production -Motivation Model Characteristics: -Power and Prestige -Competence -Similarity -Coping
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Self-Regulation:Zimmerman
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The ability to control all aspects of one’s learning, from advance planning to evaluating performance afterwards
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Phases of Self-Regulation (3:F;TA/P;SR)
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Forethought Phase -Planning -Task Analysis -Self-Beliefs Taking Action/Performance Phase -Self-Control -Self-Monitoring Self-Reflection Phase -Self-Evaluation -Self-Imposed Contingencies
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How does Self-Efficacy affect aspects of Self-Regulation? (5 ways: TAMPU)
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Thoughts Approach to task Motivation Perseverance Use of learning skills
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What are the 3 parts of the reciprocal causation model and how are they related?
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Environment, Behavior, & Personal with double arrows between each.
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If you believe you have the ability to complete a task you have high__________.
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Self-Efficacy
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A learner that is in control of all aspects of their learning has ______________ skills.
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Self-Regulation
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What is constructivism?
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Constructivism says that “humans construct knowledge & meaning from their experiences” Constructivism: meaningful learning is the active creation of knowledge structures. Cognitive/Individual Social
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What is learning? (Constructivism) Learning is… Student…… 3 types
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Learning is the active creation of knowledge structures -Student centered and being involved, teacher provides materials and guides) Cognitive, Social, and Critical Constructivism
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What does impact learning from a constructivist point of view?
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Problem Solving Transfer (Near, Far, General)
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Problem Solving (Constructivist)
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The identification and application of knowledge and skills that result in goal attainment. 1) Well-structured problem 2) ill-structured problem 3) Issues
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How can you help students become good problem solvers?
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1) realize the problem exists 2) Understand the nature of the problem 3)Compile relevant information 4) Formulate and carry out a solution 5) Evaluate the solution
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Transfer (Constructivism)
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Extending what has been learned in one context to new context(s) General transfer Specific transfer -Near transfer -Far transfer
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General Transfer (Constructivism)
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prior learning aids subsequent learning due to the use of similar cognitive strategies
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Specific Transfer (Near and Far)
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Near: knowledge and skills in a particular context allow you to learn new information in similar context -Tested in same way content was taught Far: knowledge and skills in a particular context allow you to learn new information in a different context. -Using fractions in different context such as in kitchen with recipe
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Factors affecting positive transfer
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Level of student’s previous knowledge High meaningfulness of original learning Similarity between original context & new context(s) Metacognitive skills Transfer instruction
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Fostering Creativity (Constructivism)
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Creativity is valued Focus attention on internal rather than external rewards (i.e. intrinsic motivation) Promote mastery of subject area Ask thought provoking questions Freedom & security to take risk (create a safe environment) Provide time for creativity Class brainstorming activities
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Convergent Thinking is….. Divergent Thinking is…
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Intelligence (Single answer) Creativity (Many answers)