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Educational Psychology Chapters 11-15

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Albert Bandura
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Emphasized Social Learning Theory Found basic behaviorism to be too limited Much of what we learn is through the power of social modeling Explanations of learning included more attention to cognitive factors such as expectations and beliefs in addition to the social influences of models.
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Social Learning Theory
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Emphasized modeling and observing others being reinforced or punished for particular situations.
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Social Cognitive Theory
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Dynamic system that explains human adaptation, learning, and motivation. Retains an emphasis on the role of other people serving as models and teachers (social part), but includes thinking, believing, expecting, anticipating, self-regulating, and making comparisons and judgements (cognitive part).
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Self-Efficacy
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Our beliefs about our personal competence or effectiveness in a given area. “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives.”
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Teaching-Efficacy
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A teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn.
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Self-regulated learning
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Have a combination of academic learning skills and self-control that makes learning easier. They are motivated, they have the skill and will to learn. These people transform their mental abilities, whatever they are, into academic skills and strategies.
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Self-regulation
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The process we use to activate and sustain our thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach our goals.
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Intrinsic Motivation
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Motivation associated with actives that are their own personal reward. Natural human tendency to seek out and conquer challenges as we pursue personal interest and exercise our capabilities. We do not need incentives or punishments because the activity itself is satisfying and rewarding.
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Outcomes of intrinsic motivation
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academic achievement, creativity, reading comprehension and enjoyment, and using deep learning strategies.
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Extrinsic Motivation
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Motivation created by external factors such as rewards and punishments. When we do something in order to earn a grade, avoid punishment, please the teacher, or for some other reason that has very little to do with the task itself.
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outcomes of extrinsic motivation
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associated with negative emotions, poor academic achievement, and maladaptive learning strategies.
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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Ranging from lower level needs for survival and safety to higher level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization.
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Deficiency needs
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four lower level needs for survival, then safety, then belonging and finally self-esteem needs. Can be filled.
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Growth needs (being needs)
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intellectual achievement, then aesthetic appreciation, and finally self-actualization. Can never be completely filled.
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Attribution Theory
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how the individuals explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation.
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Expectancy X value theory
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explanations of motivation that emphasize individuals’ expectations for success combined with their valuing of the goal.
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Specificity learning goals
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provide clear standards for judging. If performance falls short we keep going.
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Difficulty learning goals
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provides a challenge, but not an unreachable one.
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Performance goal
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care about demanding their ability to others, they may be focused on getting good test scores and grads, or they may be more concerned with winning and beating other students. The evaluation of their performance by others, not what they learn, is what matters.
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Learning goals
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to improve, to learn, no matter how awkward you appear. When students set these goals the quality of their engagement in the task is higher. These students with these goals tend to seek challenges, persist when they encounter difficulties, and feel better about their work.
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Test anxiety
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a general uneasiness, a feeling of self-doubt, and a sense of tension. The effects of this on school achievement are clear. It can be both a cause and an effect on school failure. Students do poorly because they’re anxious and their performance increases their anxiety.
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Achievement motivation
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Individual’s need to meet realistic goals, receive feedback and experience a sense of accomplishment.
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Entity view of ability
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belief that ability is fixed characteristic that cannot be changed. Assumes the ability is a stable, uncontrollable trait. Some people have more ability than others, but the amount each person has is set.
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Incremental view of ability
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belief that ability is a set of skills that can be changed. Ability is unstable and controllable.
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Gaining cooperation
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means planning activities, having materials ready, making appropriate behavioral and academic demands on students, giving clear signals, accomplishing transitions smoothly, foreseeing problems and stopping them before they start, selecting and sequencing activities so that flow and interest are maintained.
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Effective classroom management
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techniques used to maintain a healthy learning environment, relatively free of behavior problems. Access to learning, more time for learning, management of self-management.
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Rules
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statements specifying expected and forbidden behaviors; dos and don’ts. These are often written down and posted in establishing them, you should consider what kind of atmosphere you want to create.
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Procedures
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Prescribed steps for an activity. Describe how activities are accomplished in classrooms, but they are seldom written down; they are simply they ways of getting things done in class.
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Negative consequences
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decisions about penalties must be made early on, so students know before they break a rule or use the wrong procedure what this will mean for them.
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Withitness
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communicating to students that you are aware of everything that is happening in the classroom. that you aren’t missing anything. Always scanning the room, making eye contact with individual students so the students know they are being monitored.
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Kounin’s strategies for effective classroom management
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withitness, overlapping activities, group focusing, and movement management.
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Overlapping activities
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keeping track of and supervising several activities at the same time.
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Group focusing
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keeping as many students as possible involved in appropriate class activities and avoiding narrowing in on just one or two students.
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Movement management
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means keeping lessons and the group moving at an appropriate (and flexible) pace, with smooth transitions and variety.
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Assertive discipline
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clear, firm, un hostile response style. Communicates to the students that you care too much about them and the process of learning to allow inappropriate behavior to persist. Clearly state what they expect. Teachers often look into a student’s eyes when speaking and address the student by name.
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Lesson plans
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as a group teachers develop, test, improve, and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version. Planning influences what students will learn, because planning transforms the available time and curriculum materials into activities, assignments, and tasks for students. Time is of the essence.
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Constructivist planning
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view that emphasizes the active role of the learning in building understanding and making sense of information. The planning is shared and negotiated. The teacher and students together make decisions about content, activities, and approaches. The teacher has over researches goals-“big ideas” of themes that guide planning.
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Constructivist assessment
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rather than saying “no” when a student does not give the exact answer being sought, the constructivist teacher attempts to understand the students current thinking. Through nonjudgmental questioning the teacher leads the student to construct new understanding and acquire new skills. Used as a tool to enhance both the student’s learning and the teacher’s understanding of the student’s current understanding.
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Wait time
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refers to the period of teacher silence that follows the posing of a question. As well as that following an initial student response.
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Leading group discussions
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conversation in which the teacher does not have the dominant role, students pose and answer their own questions. A teacher may pose questions, listen to student answers, react, and probe for more information.
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Timing errors
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do not wait too long before intervening
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Target errors
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avoid blaming the wrong student
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Formative assessment
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ungraded testing used before or dying instruction to aid in planning and diagnosis. Guide the teacher in planning and improving instruction and to help students improve learning.
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Summative assessment
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testing that follows instruction and assesses achievement. Occurs at the end os instruction. Let the teacher and students know the level of accomplishment attained. Provides a summary of accomplishment.
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Multiple-choice item writing
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Goal to writing test items is to design them so that they measure student achievement, not test-taking and guessing skills.
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Stem
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of a multiple choice item is the part that asks the question or poses the problem
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Alternatives
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the choices for a multiple-choice question
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Distractors
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wrong answers for a multiple-choice question
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Scoring essay questions
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A goal first step is to construct a set of strong criteria or a rubric and share it with students. Next you can assign points to the various parts of the essay
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Authentic assessment
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procedures that test skills and abilities as they would be applied in real-life situations
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Portfolio assessment
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a systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a students’s activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects.
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Reliability
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consistency of test results. scores are reliable if a test gives a consistent and stable “reading” of a persons ability from one occasion to the next, assuming the person’s ability remains the same.
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Validity
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Degree to which a test measures what is is intended to measure.
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Standard deviations
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Measure of how widely scores vary from the mean. The larger the standard deviation, the more spread out the scores are in the distribution. The smaller the standard deviation the more the scores are cluster around the mean.