Please enter something

Educational Psychology Chapters 1-3

question

expert
answer

a person who is highly knowledgeable or skilled in a particular domain
question

effective teachers
answer

teachers who are able to produce more learning in their students than would be expected for the students’ background and ability
question

educational psychology
answer

the academic discipline that focuses on human teaching and learning
question

professional knowlege
answer

the body of information and skills that are unique to a particular area of study
question

pedagogical content knowledge
answer

an understanding of how to represent topics in ways that make them understandable to learners, as well as an understanding of what makes specific topics easy or hard to learn
question

general pedagogical knowledge
answer

a type of professional knowledge that involves an understanding of instructional strategies and classroom management that apply to all topics and subject matter areas
question

reflective practice
answer

the process of conducting a critical self-examination of one’s teaching
question

descriptive research
answer

research that uses tools such as tests, surveys, and observations to describe the status or characteristics of a situation or phenomenon
question

correlational research
answer

the process of looking for relationships between variables that enables researchers to predict changes in one variable on the basis of changes in another without implying that one variable causes the other
question

correlation
answer

a relationship, either positive or negative, between two or more variables
question

experimental research
answer

a type of research that systematically manipulates variables in attempts to determine cause and effect
question

qualitative research
answer

a type of research that attempts to describe a complex educational phenomenon in a holistic fashion using nonnumeric data
question

action research
answer

applied research designed to answer a specific school- or classroom-related question
question

theories
answer

sets of related patterns, derived from observations, that researchers use to explain and predict events in the world
question

delay of gratification
answer

the ability to forgo an immediate pleasure or reward in order to gain a more substantial one later.
question

self-regulation
answer

the ability to direct and control one’s own actions and emotions
question

case studies
answer

authentic stories of teaching and learning events in classooms
question

developmental differences
answer

changes in students’ thinking, personalities, and social skills that result from maturation and experience
question

developmentally appropriate practice
answer

instruction that matches teacher actions to the capabilities and needs of learners at different developmental levels
question

research
answer

the process of systematically gathering information in an attempt to answer professional questions
question

development
answer

the changes that occur in human beings as they grow from infancy to adulthood
question

physical development
answer

changes in the size, shape, and functioning of our bodies
question

personal,social,and emotional development
answer

changes in our personality, the ways we interact with others, and our ability to manage our feelings
question

cognitive development
answer

changes in out thinking that occur as a result of maturation and experience
question

maturation
answer

genetically controlled, age-related changes in individuals
question

neurons
answer

nerve cells composed of cell bodies, dendrites, and axons, which make up the learning capability of the brain
question

dendrites
answer

relatively short, branchlike structures that extend from the cell body of neurons and receive messages from other neurons
question

axons
answer

longer branches that extend from the cell body of neurons and transmit messages to other neurons
question

synapses
answer

the tiny spaces between neurons that allow messages to be transmitted from one neuron to another
question

equilibrium
answer

a cognitive state in which we’re able to explain new experiences by using existing understanding
question

schemes
answer

mental operations that represent our constructed understanding of the world
question

assimilation
answer

the process of using existing schemes to interpret new experiences
question

accomodation
answer

the process of creating new schemes or adjusting old ones when they can no loner explain new experiences
question

social experience
answer

the process of interacting with others
question

stages of development
answer

general patterns of thinking for children at different ages or with different amounts of experience
question

object permanence
answer

the understanding that objects exist even when out of sight
question

conservation
answer

the idea that the amount of some substance stays the same regardless of its shape or the number of pieces into which it is divided
question

centration(centering)
answer

the tendency to focus on the most perceptually obvious aspect of an object or event, neglecting other important aspects
question

transformation
answer

the ability to mentally record the process of moving from one state to another
question

reversibility
answer

the ability to mentally trace the process of moving from an existing state back to a previous state
question

egocentrism
answer

the inability to see objects and events from others’ perspectives
question

classification
answer

the process of grouping objects on the basis of common characteristics
question

seriation
answer

the ability to order objects according to increasing or decreasing length, weight, or volume
question

transitivity
answer

the ability to infer a relationship between two objects based on knowledge of their relationship with a third object
question

Neo-Piagetian theory
answer

a theory of cognitive development that accepts Piaget’s stages but uses the acquisition of specific processing strategies to explain movement from on stage to the next
question

sociocultural theory of development
answer

a theory of cognitive development that emphasizes the influence of social interactions and language, embedded within a cultural context, on cognitive development
question

cognitive tools
answer

the concepts and symbols (numbers and language) together with the real tools that allow people to think, solve problems, and function in a culture
question

internilization
answer

the process through which learners incorporate external, society-based activities into internal cognitive processes
question

private speech
answer

self-talk that guides thinking and action
question

zone of proximal development
answer

a range of tasks that an individual cannot yet do alone but can accomplish when assisted by the guidance of others
question

scaffolding
answer

assistance that helps children complete tasks they cannot complete independently
question

nativist theory
answer

a theory of language development that suggests all humans are genetically wired to learn language
question

language acquisition device (LAD)
answer

a genetically controlled set of processing skills that enables children to understand and use the rules governing language
question

overgenerilization
answer

a language pattern that occurs when a child uses a word to refer to a broader class of objects than is appropriate
question

undergeneralization
answer

a language pattern that occurs when a child uses a word too narrowly
question

semantics
answer

a branch of linguistics that examines the meaning of words
question

syntax
answer

the set of rules that we use to put words together into meaningful sentences
question

personal development
answer

age-related changes in personality and the ways that individuals react to their enviroment
question

social development
answer

the advances people make in their ability to interact and get along with others
question

moral development
answer

advances in people’s conceptions of right and wrong, and prosocial behaviors and traits such as honesty, fairness, and respect for others
question

temperament
answer

the relatively stable inherited characteristics that influence the way we respond to social and physical stimuli
question

mirosystem
answer

in Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory, the people and activities in a child’s immediate surroundings
question

mesosystem
answer

in Bronfenbrenner’s model, the interactions and connections between the different elements of children’s immediate settings
question

exosystem
answer

in bioecological theory, societal influences that affet both the micro- and mesosystems
question

macrosystem
answer

Bronfenbrenner’s fourth level, which includes cultural influences on development
question

parenting style
answer

general patterns of interacting with and disciplining children
question

attachment
answer

the strong emotional bond that forms between children and caregivers
question

school connectedness
answer

the belief by students that adults and peers in the school care about their learning as wells as about them as individuals
question

instrumental aggression
answer

an aggressive act aimed at gaining an object or privilege
question

physical aggression
answer

an aggressive act that can cause bodily injury
question

proactive aggression
answer

a deliberate aggressive act initiated toward another
question

relational aggression
answer

an aggressive act that can adversely affect interpersonal relationships
question

reactive aggression
answer

an aggressive act committed in response to frustration or another aggressive act
question

hostile attributional bias
answer

a tendency to view others’ behaviors as hostile or aggressive
question

bullying
answer

a form of peer aggression that involves a systematic or repetitious abuse of power between students
question

cyberbullying
answer

the use of electronic media to harass or intimidate other students
question

puberty
answer

the series of physiological changes that occur during adolescence and lead to reproductive maturation
question

identity
answer

individuals’ self constructed definition of who they are, what their existence means, and what they want in life
question

self-concept
answer

a cognitive assessment of their physical, social, and academic competence
question

crisis
answer

a psychosocial challenge that presents opportunities for development
question

sexual identity
answer

students’ self-constructed definition of who they are with respect to gender orientation
question

sexual orientation
answer

the gender to which an individual is romantically and sexually attracted
question

self-esteem
answer

an emotional reaction to, or an evaluation of, the self
question

ethnic identity
answer

an awareness of ethnic group membership and a commitment to the attitudes, values, and behaviors of that group
question

collective self-esteem
answer

individuals’ perceptions of the relative worth of the groups to which they belong
question

perspective taking
answer

the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others
question

social problem solving
answer

the ability to resolve conflicts in ways that are beneficial to all involved
question

social conventions
answer

societal norms and ways of behaving in specific situations
question

external morality
answer

a stage of moral development in which individuals view rules as fixed and permanent and enforced by authority figures
question

autonomous morality
answer

a stage of moral development characterized by the belief that fairness and justice is the reciprocal process of treating others as they would want to be treated
question

moral dilemma
answer

an ambiguous, conflicting situation that requires a person to make a moral decision
question

preconventional morality
answer

an egocentric orientation lacking any internalized standards for right and wrong
question

punishment-obedience
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions are based on the chances of getting caught and being punished
question

market exchange
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions based on an act of reciprocity on someone else’s part
question

conventional morality
answer

a moral orientation linked to uncritical acceptance of society’s conventions about right and wrong
question

interpersonal harmony
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions are based on loyalty, living up to the expectations of others, and social conventions
question

law and order
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions are based on following laws and rules for their own sake
question

postconventional morality
answer

a moral orientation that views moral issues in terms of abstract and self-developed principles of right and wrong
question

social contract
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions are based on socially agreed-upon principles
question

universal principles stage
answer

a stage of moral reasoning in which conclusions are based on abstract and general principles that transcend or exceed society’s laws
question

shame
answer

the painful emotion aroused when people recognize that they have failed to act or think in ways they believe are good
question

guilt
answer

the uncomfortable feeling people get when they know they’ve caused distress for someone else
question

empathy
answer

the ability to experience the same emotion someone else is feeling
question

theory of mind
answer

an understanding that other people have distinctive perceptions, feelings, desires, and beliefs
question

emotional intelligence
answer

the ability to understand emotions in ourselves and others
question

emotional self-regulation
answer

the ability to manage our emotions so we can cope with the environment and accomplish goals