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Educational Psychology Ch. 10

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Interdisciplinary Science
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Based on research in: Psychology, education, computer science, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, neuroscience, ect.
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Deep Learning
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Achieved by… – relating new material to what they already know – integrating knowledge in expanding conceptual systems – finding patterns and underlying principles – evaluating and integrating new ideas into their thinking – Understanding that knowledge is socially constructed – Reflecting on learning processes
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Assumptions of Learning Sciences
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– Experts have deep knowledge beyond facts and procedures – Learning comes from the learner’s participation and construction of knowledge – Schools must create effective learning environments with real-world problems involved in life – Prior knowledge and beliefs are key (teachers begin with what students “know”) – Reflection necessary to develop deep conceptual knowledge- express/perform knowledge in various ways
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Embodied Cognition
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Theory that cognitive processes develop from real-time, goal-directed interactions between humans/ environment – interactions through our senses and bodies – Cognitive development related to sensorimotor engagement w/ the world Ex. Observational Learning: parts of observer’s brain matches the brain of the one performing the action
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Constructing meaning
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Example: Child thinks the wall talks in a hospital when the nurse speaks through intercom
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Co-constructed Knowledge
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Previous knowledge helps him understand current situations Construct new understanding from questions and responses Ex. ice cream melts so get that last as the grocery store
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Constructivism
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View that emphasizes active role of learner in building understanding, making sense of information – Study individual knowledge, beliefs, self-concepts, identity
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Central Ideas of Constructivism
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1) Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge 2) Social interactions are important in knowledge construction process
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Psychological Focus
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Use information/resources to build/improve mental models, problem- solving strategies (One form of Constructivism)
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Social Focus
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Increase abilities to participate with others in activities that are meaningful in the culture (One form of Constructivism)
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First Wave of Constuctionism
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Focus on individual/ psychological sources of knowing (Piaget’s theory) – Central Idea #1 : individual meaning making – Concerned with logic, construction of universal knowledge
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Radical Constructivism
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Knowledge assumed to be individual’s construction – Cannot be judged right or wrong – Could cause problems for educators –> Teachers must emphasize some values over others, all beliefs are not equal, there are some right answers, some knowledge in not constructed but universal
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Second Wave Constructivism
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Vygostsky Theory! Central Idea 2: Social interaction, cultural tools, and activity shape individual development/learning – Putting leaning in social and psychological views of constructivism – Appropriating the outcomes of working with others -> learner internalizes knowledge/skills developed in interaction with other person or with cultural tools
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Vygostsky Theory
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Bridges both social and psychological views of constructivism
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Constructionism
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Concerned with how public knowledge in disciplines (such as science, math, history, economics) is constructed – Not a focus on individual learning – Interest in how common- sense everyday beliefs are communicated among group members
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How knowledge is constructed…
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1) Directed by realities/ truths of external world (Information Processing- reconstructs reality/ build mental representations) 2) Directed by internal processes (Piaget: organization, assimilation, and accommodation- new knowledge abstracted from old) 3) Directed by both external/ internal factors (Vgostsky- Knowledge grows through interactions of cognitive and environmental/ social factors)
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Argument: Knowledge Situated or General
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General, internal, and transferable or bound to time/place in which is it constructed? Can knowledge from one situation transfer to another?
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Situated
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Skills/ Knowledge tied to situation in which they were learned… difficult to apply to new settings – Not school learning – learning by doing (business, factories, gangs) Vgostsky!
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Community of Practice
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Social situation/context in which ideas are judged useful/true or not – Truth in one time/place becomes false in another – New ideas may be rejected or tested/accepted
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Elements of Constructivist Student-centered Teaching (5)
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1) Learning in complex, realistic, relevant environments 2) Provide for social negotiation- shared responsibility for learning 3) Support multiple perspectives- multiple representations of content 4) Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed 5) Encourage ownership in learning
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1st Element of Constructivist Teaching (Environment)
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Complex learning environments- problems and situations that mimic real life – authentic tasks/activities – Scaffolding (support for students) – Help students find resources, keep track of progress, break down problems SITUATED LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
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2nd Element of Constructivist Teaching (Social Negotiation)
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Collaboration with others, respect for different perspectives; GOAL is to establish own positions, respect other positions, work together to negotiate – Involves talking and listening – Intersubjective attitude – Challenging in competitive cultures (USA)
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Intersubjective attitude
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Build shared meaning by finding common ground, exchanging interpretations
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3rd Element of Constructivist Teaching (Multiple representations )
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Consider problems using various analogies, examples and metaphors – prevents oversimplifying complex content as in trying to apply only one approach to every situation – Spiral curriculum
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Spiral Curriculum
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Jerome Bruner’s design for teaching – Introduces fundamental structure of all subjects early in school years – Revisits subjects in more and more complex forms over time
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4rd Element of Constructivist Teaching (Self- awareness)
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Make students aware of their own role in constructing knowledge – Our assumptions, beliefs, experiences shape what we “know” about the world – Different experiences lead to different knowledge Awareness helps us choose, develop and defend our positions while respecting positions of others
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5th Element of Constructivist Teaching (Ownership)
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Constructivist theory changes the focus of teaching and puts the students’ own efforts first (teachers design student-centered instruction)
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Applying Constructivist theories
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– Do problem-based activities – Create meaningful connections between teachers’ knowledge and what the students know/ need – Scaffolding
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Scaffolding
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– Contingency support: adjust/differentiate responses to students – Fading: Withdraw support as student understands more – Transferring responsibility: student’s responsibility for own learning
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Inquiry Learning
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– practiced in science!! 4 categories: 1. Procedural: hands-on, collect data, science procedures 2. Epistemic: draw conclusions based on evidence 3. Conceptual: Connect to prior knowledge 4. Social: Discuss, argue, debate, present – Greatest impact is epistemic or combo – Teacher guidance/scaffolding important
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Inquiry Process
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1. Teacher presents problem, question, puzzling event 2. Students formulate hypotheses to explain the event or solve the problem 3. Students collect data to test the hypotheses 4. Students draw conclusions 5. Students reflect original problem and thinking processes needed to solve it
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Problem- based Learning
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– Came from expert knowledge in medicine – GOALS: develop useful/flexible knowledge – Provide students with realistic problems that may not have right answers – Students confront the problem, launch inquiry, collaborate to solve – REAL PROBLEMS
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Conclusions about Inquiry and PBL
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Students need balance of both and content- focused methods – effects of unassisted-discovery tasks are limited (need active, constructive engagement) – Scaffolding in place, learners explain their ideas and check for accuracy – examples show how to succeed – Prior knowledge affects amount and type of guidance and feedback needed
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Cognitive Apprenticeship
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Less experienced learner acquires knowledge/skills under guidance of an expert – guided participation – students observe expert models – get external support from tutoring, feedback, and coaching – Receive conceptual scaffolding – Articulate their knowledge of processes and content – Reflect on their progress – Explore new ways to apply their learning Teaching –> mentoring, cross-age groups
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Reciprocal Teaching
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GOAL: To help students understand, think deeply about what they read Strategies: 1. summarizing content 2. asking questions about central point 3. Clarifying difficult parts 4. Predicting what will come next – Teachers can introduce strategies and model them – Read passage and students gradually assume teacher role – Increases comprehension at any age! – Shifts from teacher to student responsibility – Matches demands and abilities of students – Diagnose thinking of students when they use strategies
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Collaboration
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Philosophy about how to relate to others, how to learn and work – dealing with people -respecting differences – sharing authority – building on knowledge of group – EMPLOYEES: ability to work with others, initiative, responsibility, and easy communication
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Cooperation
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Way of working with others to attain a shared goal
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Group Work
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Simple students working together; may or may not be cooperating
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Cooperative Learning
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elaboration, interpretation, explanation, argumentation, are integral learning is supported by others – David and Roger Johnson – Favored by Information Processing (favor group discussion for rehearsing and expanding knowledge)….. Piaget (favor interactions that create cognitive conflict, individual tries new ideas)….. Vygotsky (favor social interactions with higher mental functions that are internalized ?)
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Disadvantages of Group Learning
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– Value process over learning – group conformity or reinforce misunderstandings – Socializing – May depend of expert over every member – May fail to contribute/ dependent on group
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High structured tasks
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work has specific answers (may be divided among group) – review previous material – competing teams, roles, rewards (STAD)
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Ill- structured complex tasks
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work has multiple answers, extended and productive interactions, unclear procedures – rewards hinder processing – open-ended techniques
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Developing social skills
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intergroup understanding assign roles and functions rotate leadership
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True cooperative learning
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1) Positive interdependence: attain goal if others attain goal 2) Promotive interaction: encourage other’s efforts 3) Accountability: demonstrate learning on their own 4) Social Skills: giving feedback, reaching consensus, involving everyone 5) Group processing: learn group dynamics, monitor relationships
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Setting up groups
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– 4 to 6 for review – 2 to 4 for problem solving – equal boys and girls – equal shy and outgoing – tolerant students with peers who are different – monitor groups for equal participation – teach skills for giving and receiving explanations
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Assigning Roles
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– should support learning – should rotate – help students cooperate and learn – large range (monitor participation to academic content) – use to listen for group reports
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Teacher’s role in collaboration
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Model, direct, facilitate, coach
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Reciprocal questioning
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design of cooperation that works in pairs or triads to ask and answer questions about material
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Jigsaw
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design of cooperation that each member of the group learns different parts of lesson material, becomes expert, and teaches it to the group
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Constructive/ Structured Controversies
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design of cooperation that works in pairs within 4 people groups to research controversy (pro and con- debate and consensus)
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Cooperative learning for students with learning disabilities
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Difficulties in cooperative groups; not always effective
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Cooperative learning for gifted students
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may not benefit due to slow pace, simple tasks, or repetition (fall into teacher role- use complex tasks that work at different levels)
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Cooperative learning forEnglish language learners
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often benefits! must talk, explain, interact (jigsaw!!)- small group = less anxiety
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Dilemmas of Constructivism
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1. Conceptual 2. Pedagogical 3. Cultural 4. Political
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Conceptual (Dilemma of Constructivism)
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Make sense of cognitive vs. Social conceptions, reconcile this in practice
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Pedagogical (Dilemma of Constructivism)
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Honor student’s attempts to think for selves and remain faithful to accepted disciplinary ideas (develop deeper knowledge, master facilitation, assess collaborative efforts)
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Cultural (Dilemma of Constructivism)
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Become conscious of culture in classroom and question assumptions about kinds of activities (Diverse backgrounds)
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Political (Dilemma of Constructivism)
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Gain support of administrators and parents with radical approaches
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Service Learning
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Combines academic learning with personal and social development for secondary and college students – meet community needs -intergate into curriculum -reflection -application or new knowledge -enhance caring for others and academics – should be ongoing – clear learning objectives – draws on child’s talents and skills – inclusive and link to skills
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Direct Service
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tutoring, meals to homeless
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Indirect Service
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Collect food for shelters, raise money
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Advocacy Service
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Design posters for food drive, write articles
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Problem- based service
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solve a community problem
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Virtual Volunteering
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translate documents to another language, provide multimedia support
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Today’s generation
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“Net generation” aka “digital natives”, “iGenerations”, “Google Generation” Households (0-8): 71% w/ smartphones, 42% with tablets, 35% both Households (6 mon- 3): 35% TV in room Households (4-8): 10% computer in room Households with TV on 1/2 of time: 40%
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Computer Tutorial Programs
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improve achievement test scored for K – 12
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Simulations and enrichment programs
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few effects on achievement test scores
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General Technology
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basic skills need to be supported active engagement frequent interaction feedback authenticity real world connection useful for basic reading process
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Technology-rich learning environments (TREs)
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Virtual worlds, simulations, tutoring systems, games, etc.
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Virtual Learning environments (VLEs)
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Ways of learning in virtual systems (blackboard, RCampus)
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Personal learning environments (PLE)
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Tools to support individualized learning
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Immersive Virtual Learning environments (IVLE)
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Simulation of real-world environment, professional tasks
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Games
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Interactive learning, educational objectives, can trigger motivation, provide challenges
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Massive Multi-player online games (MMOGs)
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Interactive gaming, virtual worlds, assuming roles, creation of complex scenarios
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Developmentally Appropriate Computer Activities
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– NOT for just drill and practice – Benefits cognitive development with loss of creativity – simple spoken directions – open-ended activities, discovery, exploration, problem solving, cause-effect – variety of responses – add to learning, focus on meaning
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Computer for older students
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report spending 60 mins or more per day Common activities: social networking, school assignments, email, browsing, streaming
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Butterfly defect
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Flutter from site to site on internet, often forgetting what one reads
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Using classrooms
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Only one computer: provide convenient access, central location for displays, side for individual – provide checklist, have trained experts, develop schedule for use More than one: arrange to fit goals, try models for groups of students per computer, use developmentally appropriate programs, monitor, filter software
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Computational Thinking
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Thinking like a computer scientist – formulating problems so their solutions can be represented as computing steps – Programing and coding -control actions of characters and design animations
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Media and Digital Literacy
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Importance of ability to read and write in many media
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Project Look Sharp
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provides materials, training, support as teachers integrate media literacy into lessons – Help students become critical readers of media – Questions to guide discussions – Use media to practice general observation, critical thinking, analysis, perspective-taking, production skills – helps students identity what they know based on popular media content – identify erroneous beliefs – Use as a standard pedagogical tool – analyze effect media had on history