Please enter something

Educational Psychology (Anita Woolfolk) chapter seven

question

successive approximations
answer

reinforcing small steps to real a goal; the small component steps that make up a complex behavior
question

Reprimands
answer

criticisms for misbehavior; rebukes
question

Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
answer

An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement
question

Antecedents
answer

Events that precede an action
question

Response
answer

an observable reaction to a stimulus.
question

Social Cognitive Theory
answer

Albert Bandura’s theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism. Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory. Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning
question

Modelling
answer

changes in behavior, thinking or emotions that occur through observing another person
question

Ratio Schedule
answer

reinforcement based on the number of responses between reinforcers
question

interval schedule
answer

length of time between reinforcers
question

Classical Conditioning
answer

the learning of involuntary emotional or psychological responses
question

Respondents
answer

automatic responses to stimulus
question

presentation punishment
answer

decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by presenting an averse stimulus following the behavior
question

Operant Conditioning
answer

Conditioning in which an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior;
question

Social Learning Theory
answer

Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others
question

Prompt
answer

A reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue
question

conditioned response (CR)
answer

learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
question

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
answer

stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response AFTER conditioning
question

unconditioned response (UR)
answer

naturally occurring emotional or physiological response
question

Unconditioned stimulus (US)
answer

Stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
question

Functional Behavioral Assessment
answer

A systematic method of assessment for obtaining information about the purposes (functions) a problem behavior serves for a person; results are used to guide the design of an intervention for decreasing the problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior.
question

Cueing
answer

providing a stimulus that “sets up” a desired behavior
question

positive reinforcement
answer

increasing the probability that the response will occur again by adding a reinforcement after the behavior.
question

Vicarious reinforcement
answer

increasing the chances that we will repeat a behavior by observing another person being reinforced for that behavior
question

Self-instruction
answer

talking to oneself through the steps of a task
question

self-management
answer

use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior
question

Ripple effect
answer

‘contagious’ spreading of behaviors through imitation
question

Premack principle
answer

principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less preferred activity
question

response cost
answer

punishment by loss of reinforcers
question

cognitive behavior modification
answer

procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive learning principles for changing your own behavior by using self-talk and self-instruction
question

satiation
answer

requiring a person to repeat a problem behavior past the point of motivation or interest
question

negative reinforcement
answer

strengthening behavior by removing an averse stimulus when the behavior occurs
question

Applied Behavior Analysis
answer

the application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior
question

Operants
answer

voluntary (and generally goal-oriented) behaviors emitted by a person or animal
question

Learning
answer

process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior
question

observational learning
answer

learning by observation and imitation of others
question

contingency contract
answer

a contract between a teacher and a learner specifying what the learner must do to earn a particular reward/privilege
question

positive practice
answer

practicing correct responses immediately after errors
question

task analysis
answer

system for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills and sub-skills
question

self-efficacy
answer

a person’s sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task
question

continuous reinforcement schedule
answer

presenting a reinforcer after EVERY appropriate response
question

self-reinforcement
answer

controlling your own reinforcers
question

extinction
answer

the disappearance of a learned response
question

punishment
answer

process that weakens or suppresses behavior
question

group consequences
answer

rewards or punishments given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rules of conduct
question

removal punishment
answer

decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior
question

shaping
answer

reinforcing each small step of progress towards a desired goal or behavior
question

stimulus control
answer

capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors
question

behavioral learning theories
answer

explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in the observable behaviors
question

positive behavioral supports
answer

interventions designed to replace problem behaviors emitted by a person or animal
question

time out
answer

removal of all reinforcement
question

contiguity
answer

association of two events because of repeated pairing
question

Arousal
answer

physical and psychological reactions causing a person to feel alert, attentive, wide awake, excited, or tense
question

co-regulation
answer

a transitional phase during which students gradually appropriate self-regulated learning and skills through modeling, direct teaching, feedback, and coaching from teachers, parents, or peers
question

Human Agency
answer

the capacity to coordinate learning skills, motivation and emotions to reach your goals
question

Mastery experiences
answer

our own direct experiences – the most powerful source of efficacy information
question

self-regulated learning
answer

a view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals and planning how to do the task, applying skills, and especially making adjustments about how learning is carried out
question

self-regulation
answer

process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors and emotions in order to reach goals
question

social persuasion
answer

a “pep talk” or specific performance feedback – one source of self-efficacy
question

teachers’ sense of efficacy
answer

a teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even the most difficult students and help them learn
question

triarchic reciprocal causality
answer

an explanation of behavior that emphasizes the mutual effects of the individual and the environment on each other
question

vicarious experiences
answer

accomplishments that are modeled by someone else
question

Effective instruction delivery
answer

instructions that are concise clear, and specific, and that communicate an expected result. statements work better than questions.
question

Enactive Learning
answer

learning by doing and experiencing the consequences
question

Precorrection
answer

A tool for positive behavior support that involves identifying the context for a student’s misbehavior, clearly specifying the alternative expected behavior, modifying the situation to make the problem behavior less likely, then rehearsing the expected positive behaviors in the new context and providing powerful reinforcers
question

Reinforcer
answer

any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will occur again