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Educational Psychology Answers

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sternberg/successful intelligence
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a three part description of the mental abilities, thinking processes, coping with new experiences, adapting to context, that lead to more or less intelligent behavior, triarchic theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative, practical
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spearman/general (g) & specialized intelligence
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overall intelligence (pg. 141) fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval capacity, broad cognitive speediness, processing speed; decision speed
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self-regulated learning
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analyzing, setting goal, devising plans, enacting tactics, strategies, regulating learning
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crystallized intelligence
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ability to apply culturally approved problem-solving methods
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fluid intelligence
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mental efficiency, nonverbal abilities grounded in brain development
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cattell, horn, & carroll
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fluid and crystallized theory
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neuroplasticity
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is the ability of the brain to adapt and make new neural pathways to learn something new
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assimilation
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fairly easy to learn
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schemes
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mental systems or categories of perception and experience
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adaptation
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adjustment to the environment
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accommodation
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altering existing schemes or creating new one in response to new information
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zone of proximal development (zpd)
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what the learner is not yet ready or able to learn, what the learner could understand with guidance, what the learner already knows
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cognitive development
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continuous and complete assessment (per zpd)
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metacognition
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understanding one’s awareness of their learning
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external attribution
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blaming an outside factor as the cause of an event. also known as situational attribution. example: a star football player consistently downplays his athletic talent in interviews, emphasizing instead the support and love of his family as key to his success.
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internal attribution
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if success or failure is attributed to internal factors, success will lead to pride and increased motivation, whereas failure will diminish self-esteem.(blaming a factor, agent, or force within one’s control for causing an event. also known as a dispositional attribution. example: when a cashier is short with her at the grocery store, the woman decides he must be a rude and crabby person all the time).
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attribution
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how individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their behavior
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performance orientation
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a personal intention to seem competent of perform well in the eyes of others
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mastery orientation
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focus on learning goals/they value achievement & see availability as improvable
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rad teaching
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reticular; how to use changes in the environment, amygdala; how to keep filter from blocking information entering the brain due to stress, dopamine; neurotransmitter release with pleasurable experiences
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corpus callosum
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connects right & left hemispheres & allows information to pass between them/inner brain
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hippocampus
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memory/curved tube in the center of the brain
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brain structures and functions
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review
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conservation
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characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance
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de-centering
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focusing on more than one aspect at a time
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operations
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combinations of schema performed mentally
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script
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a schema involving a predictable sequence of events related to a particular activity
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schema
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an organized body of knowledge about a particular object phenomenon
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multiple intelligences gardner – a person’s eight separate abilities
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logical linguistic musical spatial kinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist
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moral development kohlberg stages of moral reasoning (and understand what they are and how they apply)
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preconventional moral reasoning – judgement based on personal needs and others’ rules conventional moral reasoning – based on others’ approval expectations, values, laws, loyalty postconventional moral reasoning – rights of others can override obedience to laws/rules
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obedience/punishment – kohlberg level 1: stage 1
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pre-conventional morality: the state of moral development when the “right” answer is decided associated with avoiding punishment. the concern is for self- “will I get into trouble for doing this?” if so, it is the “wrong” answer.
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personal reward – kohlberg level 1 stage 2
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the state of moral development when a person only does something if it will be of benefit to them. “what’s in it for me?” is asked to determine if a choice is “right” and sometimes requires that there must be a “fair exchange.”
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good boy-nice girl – kohlberg level 2 stage 3
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conventional morality: the state of moral development when a person’s concern is “what will people think of me?”the “right” answer for them is one that would please or impress others.
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law & order – kohlberg level 2 stage 4
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conventional morality: the state of moral development when the “right” answer is to always follow the law. In this stage, nothing is viewed as being above the law.
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social contract – kohlberg level 3: stage 5
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post-conventional morality: the state of moral development when the “right” answer is one that protects the rights of individuals according to the rules agreed upon by the whole society.
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universal ethical principle – kohlberg level 3: stage 6
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post-conventional morality: the state of moral development when the “right” answer is in accordance with moral principles. It is consistent with self-chosen ethical principles that are not concrete. they are universal ethical principles such as justice, equality, and human dignity.
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marcia stages of identity development/know what they mean
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Identity diffusion – low commitment/low exploration/uncenteredness; confusion who one is & wants Identity foreclosure – high commitment/low exploration/accept parental life choices without consider options Moratorium – low commitment/high exploration/identity crisis; suspension of choices because of struggle Identity achievement – high commitment/high exploration/strong sense of commitment to life
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Identity diffusion
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low commitment/low exploration/uncenteredness; confusion who one is & wants
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Identity foreclosure
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high commitment/low exploration/accept parental life choices without consider options
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Moratorium
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low commitment/high exploration/identity crisis; suspension of choices because of struggle
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Identity achievement
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high commitment/high exploration/strong sense of commitment to life
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social development erikson stages of social development key task of each stage, the ages associated with each stage and what success or failure to negotiate the stage would mean to a person’s social development.
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Trust vs mistrust (infancy) – form loving trusting relationship Autonomy vs shame (toddlerhood) – physical skills, learns control Initiative vs guilt (preschool) – more assertive, more initiative Industry vs inferiority (school-age) – deal with demands to learn new skills Identity vs role confusion (adolescence) – must achieve identity in occupations, gender roles, etc. Intimacy vs isolation (young adult) – develop intimate relationships Generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) – satisfy and support nes generation Integrity vs despair (late adulthood) – culmination in a sense of acceptance of oneself
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Trust vs mistrust
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(infancy) – form loving trusting relationship
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Autonomy vs shame
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(toddlerhood) – physical skills, learns control
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Industry vs inferiority
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(school-age) – deal with demands to learn new skills
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Identity vs role confusion
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(adolescence) – must achieve identity in occupations, gender roles, etc.
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Intimacy vs isolation
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(young adult) – develop intimate relationships
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Generativity vs stagnation
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(middle adulthood) – satisfy and support nes generation
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Integrity vs despair
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(late adulthood) – culmination in a sense of acceptance of oneself
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vygotsky socio-cultural theory of cognitive development (and understand what they mean) apply vygotsky’s theory to your future teaching
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private speech (self-talk and inner speech) – children self talk guides thinking and action/verbalizations are internalized as silent inner speech zone of proximal development (zpd) – phase when a child can master task given if appropriate help & support scaffolding – support for learning & problem solving more knowledgeable other (mko) – anyone more knowledgeable than another
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private speech
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(self-talk and inner speech) – children self talk guides thinking and action/verbalizations are internalized as silent inner speech
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zone of proximal development (zpd)
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phase when a child can master task given if appropriate help & support
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scaffolding
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support for learning & problem solving
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more knowledgeable other (mko)
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anyone more knowledgeable than another
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piaget theory in scenarios/attributes and ages of the stage apply piaget’s theory (and stages) to your future teaching
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sensorimotor stage (0-2) imitation, memory, thought, recognize objects, moves from reflex actions preoperational stage (2-7) develops language, think, difficult to see another’s point of view concrete operational stage (7-11) solve concrete problems, understands laws & reversibility formal operational stage (11-adult) solve abstract problems, scientific thinking, social issues, identity adolescent egocentrism – everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, concerns
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sensorimotor stage
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(0-2) imitation, memory, thought, recognize objects, moves from reflex actions
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preoperational stage
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(2-7) develops language, think, difficult to see another’s point of view
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concrete operational stage
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(7-11) solve concrete problems, understands laws & reversibility
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formal operational stage
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(11-adult) solve abstract problems, scientific thinking, social issues, identity
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adolescent egocentrism
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everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, concerns
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piaget theory of cognitive development
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assimilation – fitting new information into existing schemes accommodation – altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information equilibration – search for mental balance between cognitive schemes & information from the environment disequilibrium – “out of balance” state that occurs when a person realizes that the current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem
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assimilation
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fitting new information into existing schemes
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accommodation
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altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
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equilibration
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search for mental balance between cognitive schemes & information from the environment
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disequilibrium
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“out of balance” state that occurs when a person realizes that the current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem
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goal orientation
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patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school
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mastery goal
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personal intention to improve abilities and learn no matter how performance suffers
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task-involved learners
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students who focus on mastering the task or solving the problem
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performance goal
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personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others
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ego-involved learners
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students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others
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general intelligence (g)
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a general factor in cognitive ability that is related in varying degrees to performance on all mental tests
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theory of multiple intelligences
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gardner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s eight separate abilities: logical mathematical, linguistic musical, spatial, body kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist