Educational Psych Ch 7/10/11 Flashcards

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Recognizing stimuli by feature analysis is a form of bottom-up processing.
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True
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Stimuli from the environment are theorized to first enter working memory.
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False
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It appears that the capacity of long-term memory is unlimited.
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True
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\”Memory for meaning\” is semantic memory.
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True
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A prototype is a false instance of a concept.
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False
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The element of processing that influences the physical and emotional environment in which learning takes place is elaboration.
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False
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The key to maintaining information in long-term memory is rehearsal.
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False
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If a student tries very hard to remember the name of a book author, he or she is searching knowledge stored as an explicit memory.
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True
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\”Reconstructed memory\” means \”accurate memory.\”
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False
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The keyword method involves memorizing a standard list of words as a basis for forming associations with new items.
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False
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Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of learners?
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Active
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In the cognitive approach to learning, learning
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depends a great deal on individual perception.
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One of the educational implications of sensory memory is that
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attention is necessary if children are to remember information.
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Top-down processing is distinguished by its reliance on a(n)
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understanding of the context of a situation.
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What you are thinking about right now is being held in what type of memory?
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Working
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Items can typically be stored in working memory for approximately how long?
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About 20 seconds
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Research has shown that the capacity of the working memory is limited to about how many chunks?
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Five to nine
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Our ability to conserve something in working memory is most directly affected by the
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executive control processes
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You are given a math problem to solve. As you try to remember the formula involved, what memory system is being searched?
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Long-term semantic
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Long-term memory that is memory for meaning is called
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semantic
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When we intentionally try to learn something new, we are involving what type of long-term memory?
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Explicit memory
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Traditional views of concept learning suggest that we recognize examples of a concept by
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identifying defining features or attributes
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In discussing the concept \”fruit,\” the teacher says \”…and fruits come in practically all colors.\” The teacher is identifying a(n)
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irrelevant attribute
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In order to understand the large amounts of information inherent in complex concepts, people must develop structures or patterns called
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schemas
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Long-term memory for how to do things is called
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procedural memory
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Based on studies of context, in what location would a student be likely to perform best on an educational psychology test?
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in an educational psychology classroom
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According to the levels of processing theory, the length of time information is remembered is determined by
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how completely the initial learning was accomplished
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Forgetting due to the serial-position effect can be reduced through the use of
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part learning
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An educational application designed to reduce the impact of the serial-position effect is to
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break the lesson down into small parts that can be handled quite easily.
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According to Woolfolk, the basic purpose of mnemonic aids is to
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make connections between the information to be memorized
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The first step in peg-type mnemonics is to
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memorize a random list of places, words, facts.
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\”I before E except after C\” is an example of the use of what memory method?
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Chain
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The use of imagery techniques of learning, such as the keyword method, seems most appropriate for what age group?
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Late elementary school and older
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Within the information processing perspective, learning declarative knowledge involves
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integrating new ideas with existing knowledge to create an understanding
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What type of knowledge do experts have that involves an understanding of how to perform various cognitive activities?
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procedural
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What can teachers do to help their students develop an automated basic skill?
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Ensure that students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge and provide practice with feedback.
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In order to help students become better learners, it is recommended that they
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be provided a variety of strategies and practices
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You are asked to learn the 50 U.S. states, so you divide the country into geographic areas and set about your task. You are more likely to succeed than someone who begins to learn the states at random, because your system
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capitalizes on the serial-position effect by fragmenting the task.
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According to current cognitive theories, information may be lost from long-term memory in all of the following ways EXCEPT by
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substitution
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A script is viewed by cognitive theorists as useful
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in directing everyday activities in different situations
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Individuals with a strong sense of self-efficacy for a given task tend to attribute their failures to lack of ability.
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False
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Bandura’s model of reciprocal determinism is based on the notion of agency and personal control, therefore social influences are not part of his model of reciprocal determinism
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False
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Self-efficacy is an important influence on observational learning.
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True
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The interaction of environmental events, personal factors, and behaviors is called reciprocal causality.
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True
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When a teacher gives a \”pep talk\” to a student and says \”you can do it,\” the teacher may be able to influence a student’s self-efficacy for a task.
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True
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Self-efficacy refers to individuals’ skill at managing their own study behaviors.
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False
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After studying nearly 140 research investigations, Sandra Graham concluded that African American students had relatively strong self-concepts and high expectations for learning.
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True
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Volition is another term using for task commitment.
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True
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Self-efficacy is an important influence on observational learning
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True
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A student who has good follow-through for completing a task is said to have volition.
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True
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A student who begins solving a problem by analyzing the task and setting a specific goal is engaging in the performance phase in Zimmerman’s model of self-regulated learning.
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False
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A student who takes a break and asks herself \”what I am doing is not working, maybe I should start over\” is demonstrating self-regulated learning
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True
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Rubrics are appropriate for when teachers evaluate student work, but should not be used with students for self-evaluation purposes.
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False
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Bandura suggested that the main limitation of traditional views of learning is that these views are
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Incomplete
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Bandura challenged and expanded his early work on behavioral conceptions of learning by focusing on
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social learning theory
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According to Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, the most important and influential source of self-efficacy information comes from
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mastery experiences
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The following statement is true about the relation between self-efficacy and self-esteem
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There appears to be direct relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem.
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In addition to academic learning skills, self-regulated learners have
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good self-control abilities
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In Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory, the interaction among personal factors, environmental events, and behaviors is called
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reciprocal causality
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According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal causality?
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personal factors
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Woolfolk suggests the following strategy for teachers in an effort to involve parents in supporting self-regulation within their child:
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Ask families to keep records in support of the students’ self-evaluation of progress
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What are the steps involved in self-regulated learning?
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Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
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Which one of the following quotes is an example of high self-efficacy?
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\”I am usually good at math, so I will do well in this class.\”
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Research on self-efficacy and achievement suggests that school achievement is improved and self-efficacy is increased when students
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receive rewards or other reinforcements based on the quality of their performances.
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According to Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory, peers
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can serve as important models and facilitate student learning.
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Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that students can learn from observing others complete a task?
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social cognitive theory
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In Roger Azevedo’s research a self-regulation \”coach\” is
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someone who helps students plan their learning and monitor their understanding
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Which one of the following is NOT an essential component of emotional self-regulation?
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solving problems independently rather than asking for help when needed
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When individuals are naturally interested in a particular activity, they are intrinsically motivated.
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True
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Maslow’s approach to motivation is a humanistic view
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True
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A current reflection of the humanistic perspective is the \”self-esteem movement.\”
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True
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Attribution theories of motivation describe how an individual’s explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation.
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True
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According to the expectancy x value theory, motivation increases as expectancy of success and the value of rewards increase.
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True
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Students who have performance goals are interested in improving their skills, no matter how awkward they may appear in the process.
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False
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Work-avoidant learners feel successful when they do not have to try very hard, when the work is easy for them, or when they can simply \”goof off.\”
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True
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In general, performance is low when the level of anxiety is high.
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True
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Teachers are encouraged to recognize students for their accomplishments, especially improving their own personal best.
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True
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A key strategy for emphasizing learning rather than grades is to engage students in self-evaluation.
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True
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Nearly all researchers agree that teachers should make learning fun for students in order to promote good learning.
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False
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Students who hold a performance-approach goal orientation want to look good in the eyes of others.
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True
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Research exists to support the claim that students’ emotions are related to their learning goal orientation.
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True
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Researchers suggest using work sheets and standard assignments for writing tasks with ethnicthnic minority students rather than giving students writing tasks with cultural contexts
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False
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Learned helplessness occurs when causes of failure are considered internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
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True
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Being interested in a task because the activity is enjoyable is what type of motivation?
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Intrinsic
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Externally imposed reward systems seem particularly appropriate for students who are
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not interested in the subject
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A student’s reason for acting is called
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locus of causality
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In most humanistic theories, motivation is based on
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intrinsic needs
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In Maslow’s hierarchy, self-esteem is considered to be what type of need?
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Deficiency
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The cognitive approach to motivation is illustrated best by people who respond to
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their perception to events, not the events themselves.
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Pride or shame for one’s own actions is likely to be felt most strongly by those who attribute their actions to
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internal causes
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Participation in communities of practice is emphasized by what theory of motivation?
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sociocultural
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Individuals are naturally motivated to learn by
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feedback and goal acceptance
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An entity view of ability is consistent with what type of goals?
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performance
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Students who demonstrate \”learned helplessness\” are likely to
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focus on their failures and not seek assistance
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As need for achievement increases in spite of fear of failure, what type of student will be motivated to learn?
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mastery-oriented
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Students who are mastery-oriented will tend to hold what view of their ability?
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incremental and improvable
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What type of belief do failure-accepting students have?
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expectation of failure
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The following sentence is true about the relationship between motivation and cultural diversity.
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Some cultures raise children to be more motivated than others.

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