Earth Structure and materials

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Geologists
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Have used two main types of evidence to learn about Earth interior: direct evidence from rock sample and indirect evidence
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Seismic Waves
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When earthquakes occur they produce …….
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What are the three main layers of earth
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crust,the mantle,and core
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Pressure
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results from a force pressing on an area *The deeper down inside Earth,the greater pressure.
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Crust
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the layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin*The crust is a layer of sold rock that includes both dryland and the ocean floor.
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Basalt
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is a dark fine-grained rock
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Granite
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a rock that usually is light color and has coarse grains * Both granite and basalt have more oxygen and silicon than any other element
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Mantle
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is made of rock that is very hot,but solid.Scientist divide the mantle into layers based on physical characteristics of those layers.Overall, the mantle is 3,000 Kilometer thick.
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Lithosphere
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Geologists often group the crust and uppermost mantle into single layer called the lithosphere
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Asthenosphere
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As a result,the part of the mantle just beneath the lithosphere is less rigid than the rock above.Over thousands of years this part of the mantle can bend like a metal spoon. But it’s still solid .If you kicked it,you would stub your toe.This soft layer is called the asthenosphere.
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The Mesophere
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Beneath the asthenosphere, the mantle is hot but more rigid.The stiffness ofvthe mesosphere is the result of increasingly high pressure This layer includes a region called the transition zone,which lies just beneath the asthenosphere.It also includes thr lower mantle,which extends down to Earth’s core.
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The core
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is made mostly of the metals iron and nickel.It consists of two parts -a dense ,liquid outer core and a dense solid inner core.*The total radius of the core is 3,480 kilometers .Earth core occupies the center of the planet.
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Outer core
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layer of molten metal surrounding the inner core*The outer core is 2,258 kilometers thick
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Inner core
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is a dense ball of solid metal. In the inner core ,extreme pressure squeezes the atoms of iron and nickel so much that they cannot spread out to become liquid.
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Rock-forming minerals
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are approximately 20 minerals that make up most of the rocks of Earth’s crust
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Grains
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Most rocks are made up of particles of minerals or other rocks.Geologists call grains
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Texture
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is the look and feel of a rock’s surface To describe the texture of a rock,geologists use terms that are based on size, shape, and pattern of grains
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Rock Origin
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Geologists classify rocks into three major groups : Igneous ,sedimentary,and metamorphic rock.
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Igneous rock
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forms from the cooling of molten material called magma or lava.Magma hardens underground to form rock .Lava erupts ,cools and hardens to form rock on earth Earth’s surface.
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Sedimentary Rock
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forms when small particles of rocks or the remains of plants and animal pressed and cemented togethor.Sedimentary rock form in layers that are buried below the surface.It is classified into three main groups
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Metamorphic Rock
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forms when a rock is changed by heat and pressure ,or by chemical reactions .Most metamorphic rock form deep underground
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Igneous Rock more info
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classified by their origin ,texture,and mineral composition
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Extrusive Rock
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is igneous rock that formed when lava that erupted into Earth’s surface.Basalt is the most common extrusive rock. It has small crystals
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Intrusive Rock
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Igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath the surface of earth *The most abundant type of intrusive rock in continental crust is granite.Granite forms tens of kilometers below Earth’s surface and over hundreds of thousands of years or longer
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Rhyolite
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is a fined-grained, extrusive igneous rock with composition that is similar to granite
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Pegmatite
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A very course-grained, intrusive igneous rock
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Porphyry
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has large cystals surrounded by small crystals
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Metamorphic Rock
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Any rock that forms from another rock as a result of changes in heat or pressure (or both heat and pressure) is a metamorphic rock.
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Magma
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molten rock inside of earth inside the earth
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Lava
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molten rock on the surface of the earth
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Igneous Rock ex
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basalt,granite,grabbo (intrusive) pumice,scoria,obsidan (extrusive
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Detrital Sedimentary Rocks
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dertrital sedimentary rocks: made from sediments snd grains of minerals of different sizes that have been deposited,and compacted togethor.ex: sandstones, conglomerate, shale
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Chemical Sedimentary Rock
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form when water in which minerals are dissolved evaporates,and the mineral grains are cemented togethor.ex halite
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Organic Rocks
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form when water in which materials that come form once living organisms such as plants, fossils,and shells become cemented togethor .ex coal and limestone.
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Foliated Rock
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the minerals are arrange in bands. Also descibes the thin,flat layering found in most metamorphic rocks.For instance, cystals in granite can be flattened to create the foliated texture of gneiss.Slate is also common foliated rock.
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Non -Foliated rocks
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the minerals are NOT arrange in bands ,they are scattered
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Metamorphic Rock ex
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marble,schrist,slate
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The Rock Cycle
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is a diagram that shows all processes of how one type of rock may be changed into another. Also the processes of the rock cycle form a pattern of pathways.These pathways results from weathering and erosion,deposition ,earthquakes and volcanic activity,tremendous heat and pressure,and melting
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Melting and cooling ex
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Igeneous
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Weathering and Erosion
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produces sediments
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Compaction and Cementation
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Produces sedimentary rocks
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Heat and Pressure
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Produces metamorphic rocks
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Convection
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Heat transfer by the movement of a fluid.
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Radiation
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The transfer of energy that is carried in rays like light
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Conduction
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Heat transfer between materials that are touching
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Density
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is a measure of how much mass there is in a given substance.For an example,most rock is more dense than water because a given volume of rock has more mass than the same volume of water.
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Convection Current
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The flow that transfers heat within a fluid .Also heating and cooling of a fluid,changes in fluid’s density,and the force of gravity combine to set convection current in motion
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Convection Currents in Earth
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Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle
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Sediment
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small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things.*Most sedimentary rocks are formed through a sequenceof processes: weathering,erosion,deposition,compaction, and cementation
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Weathering
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The effects of freezing and thawing,plant roots,acid,and other forces on rock.
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Erosion
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The process by which ruuning water,wing,or ice carry away bits of broken-up rock.
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Deposition
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The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it
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Compaction
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The process that presses sediments togethor
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Cementation
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The process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment togethor
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What are the three major types of sedimentary rocks
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Clastic rocks, organic rocks, and chemical rocks.
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Clastic Rock
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sedimentary rock formed when rock fragments are squeezed togethor.The fragments can range in size from clay particles that are too small to be seen without a microscope to large,heavy boulders
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Organic Rock
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where the remains of plants and animal are deposited in layers.
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How are Sedimentary Rock used?
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People have used sedimentary rock throughout history for many diferent purposes,including,for tools and building materials.
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What is th relatively soft layer of the upper mantle called ?
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Asthenosphere
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What is the transfer of heat and direct contact of particles of matter called?
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Conduction
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Name the two layers of the BELOW the Earth’s surface in which convection takes place.
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The mantle and the outer core.
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A rock that forms from many small fragments of other rocks is a(n)
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Sedimentary Rock
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What kind of igneous rock usually contains large crystals
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Intrusive
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An igneous rock’s color is mainly determined by its
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Mineral composition
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You find deposit of organic limestone.In what type of setting did it probably form
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the ocean
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Shale is a clastic rock,meaning that it forms when
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Rock fragments
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The process by which metamorphic rock changes to igneous rock to begin with
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Melting
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Can turn igneous rocks into sediments
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Weathering and erosion
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In a rock cycle, what forces can change sedimentary rock to igneous rock?
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Melting and volcanic activity
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Which statement best describe how an extrusive igneous rock
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Magma cools quickly on Earths’s surface
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How do pressure and temperature change inside Earth as depth increases?
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Pressure and temperature increases
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Earth’s core is mostly made up of iron and magnesium
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False,Nickel
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Scientists think that movements in the liquid inner core create Earth’s magnetic field
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False,outer
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The oceanic crust is most like granite in compostion overall
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False basalt
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Pressure and temperature increase as you move deeper below Earth’s surface
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True
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To learn about Earth’s interior ,geologists study seismic waves move through Earth
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True
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The core earth’s outer skin of solid rocks
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False crust
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In which layer of earth is the asthenosphere located?
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Mantle
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which list the main layers of earth in order from outermost to innermost?
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Crust,mantle,core
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Which BEST describe the mantle?
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Hot but solid rock
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What do geologists call the crust uppermost mantle?
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lithosphere
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How does heat move?
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From warmer to a cooler object
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How is energy from the sun transfered?
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By radiation
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Heat from which of these causes convection currents inside Earth?
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Mantle and core
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Which of these combines withchanges in a fluid’s density and the force of gravity to set convection currents in motion
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Heating and cooling of a fluid
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is the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
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Convection
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When you heat up an object,the particles in the object move
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Faster
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a cool fluid is _______________dense than a warm fluid
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More
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When you touch hot sand,heat is transferred by __________ to your skin
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Conduction
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____________ convection,and conduction are the thre types of heat transfer
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Radiaton
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The amount of mass in a given volume of a substance is known as
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Density
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About how many minerals make up most of the rock of earth’s crust
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20
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Which of these is Not a group into whic geologists classify rocks.
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Crystals
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Which type of rock forms when heat or pressure change an existiong rock
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Metamorphic
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Which term describes how a rock’s surface looks and feels?
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texture
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Color alone does not provide enough information to identify
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true
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To study a rock sample,geologists observe the rock’s mineral compostion,color,and temperature
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False, grains
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The way in which each of the three majors group of rocks form is diffrent
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true
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A rock;s pigment give the rock its texture
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grains
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Rocks that are nonbanded have grains that lie in a pattern of flat layers or form swirls
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banded
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Any rock formed when another rock is changed by heat or PRESSURE is a metamorphic rock
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True
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Geologists classify metamorphic rocks according to thesize of the grains making up the rocks
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arrangements
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Igneous rocks are classified by their origin texture,and mineral composition
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true
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Extrusiuve rocks have larger grains than intrusive rocks
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smaller
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Which term best describes igneous rocks?
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Hard and dense
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Which igneous rock is used for cobblestone and landscaping?
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Basalt
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Which metamorphic rock has an even grain and can be cut nto slabs or easily carved?
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Marble
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How does coase -grained igneous rocks form?
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From slowly cooling lava
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Geologists classify sedimentary rock in three major groups
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Clastic
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have been used throughout history for tools and building materials
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Sedimentary
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After the process of weathering occurs,___________carries away bits of broken -up rock
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Erosion
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Is the process by which sediment get pressed togethor.
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Compaction
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Small grains,pebbles,mud,shell,and leaves are all example of
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Sediments
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Clastic rock are grouped by the_____ of the rock fragrments of which they are made
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size
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Which is the process that breaks up rock on Earth’s surface
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weathering
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Which forms when minerals dissolved in a water solution crystallize
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chemical rock
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Which is an example of an organic rock
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coal
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What occurs once the minerals in a rock have slowly dissolved in a process call compaction
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Cementation
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The series of processes that slowly change earth’s rock from one kind to another is called the rock
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cycle
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Plate movements help drive the rock cyclen by helping to form __________the source of igneous rocks
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magma
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Deep beneath the surface _________and the pressure can be changed sedimentary rock to metamorphic rock can become magma.
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heat
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Sediments piles up on the ocean floor through the process of
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deposition
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The process that breaks down granite into sediments is depositon
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weathering
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There are many pathways by which rocks move through the rock cycle.
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true
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The process of the rock cycle form a pattern of pathways
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true
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Surface events not subsurface events change rocks from one kind to another
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false and
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The collision of contitnental plates can be push up a mountain range,after which weatherng and erosion begin
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True
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Through the process of _________metamorphic rock can become magma
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melting
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Extrusive rock form beneath the earth’s surface
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False, Intrusive
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Metamorphic rock are un foliated if their origin ,texture,and mineral composition.
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False, Foliated
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Rocks that have large grains you can easily see are describe as fined grained
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Coarse

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