Earth Space Science Climate and Meteorology FLVS

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Movement and storage of water between Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere
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Water Cycle
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Molecule movement in liquids, solids and gases from slowest to fastest
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Solid, liquid and gas
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Water falling from sky including snow, sleet, hail and rain.
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Precipitation
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Water turning into a gas because of added heat energy
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Evaporation
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Water vapor condenses to form water droplets in the form of clouds
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Condensation
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When water enters the soil & can be used by plants and animals or become part of the groundwater supply.
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Infiltration
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Plants releasing water vapor into the atmosphere
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Transpiration
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Hold water molecules together and cause water to flow freely.
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Hydrogen Bond
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Most abundant gases in atmosphere
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Nitrogen and Oxygen
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Instrument package that scientists use to gather data about the atmosphere. This helps forecast the weather.
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Radiosonde
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Government agency that collects & analyzes weather and climate data in the United States.
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The National Weather Service
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Force of pressure exerted by air molecules over a part of Earth’s surface. Also called air pressure.
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Atmospheric pressure
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Measures air pressure
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Barometer
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Low air pressures
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Thunderstorms
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High air pressures
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Sunny skies
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Air moving from place to place
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Wind
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Occurs in polar regions and blow east to west.
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Polar Easterlies
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Occurs between 30-60 degrees N and S latitudes. Blow west to east.
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Westerlies
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Occurs just above & below the equator. Blow east to west.
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Trade Winds
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Earth’s rotation causes winds that move East and West based on their point of origin on the surface.
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Coriolis Effect
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Wind Energy advantages
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No pollution and wind is a renewable energy source.
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Wind Energy disadvantages
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Winds blow inconsistently, windmills are unsightly and rotating blades can kill birds.
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Day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions including precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and clouds.
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Weather
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Rocks broken down over time as a result of weather
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Weathering
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Averaged weather conditions in an area over a period of many years
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Climate
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Area on Earth with similar temperature and precipitation patterns
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Climate Zone
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Studies past weather records to determine patterns that may be helpful in predicting long-term future events.
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Climatologist
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Prediction of future weather events for specific locations
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Forecast
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The collection, study, analysis and reporting of weather data.
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Meteorology
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Stages in a Thunderstorm
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Developing stage, mature stage and dissipating stage.
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Developing Stage
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Warm moist air moves up into the atmosphere and forms a thunderstorm cloud when it hits cool air.
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Mature Stage
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Cloud grows and becomes too heavy to hold any more water so it precipitates and causes a downdraft.
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Dissipating Stage
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Storm starts to fade when all the precipitation is released and the downdraft is greater than the updraft.
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Fast flow of electrical energy between two charged surfaces. (Usually between atmosphere and ground)
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Lightening
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Cool, dry air meets warm, moist air and creates a thunderstorm. High winds in the upper atmosphere push against thunderstorm clouds and cause rotation in storm.
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Formation of Tornado
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Warm, moist air combines with light winds in high atmosphere. The disturbance can create a strong low pressure system. Need heated, moist air from ocean waters to continue developing.
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Formation of Hurricane
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What to do before, during and after a severe weather event takes place.
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Weather Safety Plan
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Transfer of energy through waves
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Radiation
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Occurs when material is in direct contact with another material with a different heat energy.
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Conduction
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When warm fluids rise and cold fluids sink
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Convection
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Energy budget that accounts for specific ways heat moves in and out of the atmosphere.
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Energy Budget
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When greenhouse gases trap solar radiation and maintain tolerable temperatures on Earth.
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Greenhouse Effect
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Changes in climate resulting from human activities.
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Global Warming
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Long and short term changes in Earth’s climate that result from natural processes as Earth’s multiple spheres interact with each other.
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Global Climate Change
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Contributes to Global Warming
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Burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas.

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