Dr. Powell – Market Research – Test 2

1. What types of samples are used in qualitative research?
Qualitative researchers usually collect detailed data from relatively small sample by asking questions or observing behavior. The semi-structured format of the questions and the small sample sizes limit the researcher’s ability to generalize qualitative data to the population.

2. What type of research designs do you use in qualitative research?
Exploratory

3. What are the advantages of using qualitative research?
a. Qualitative research can be completed relatively quickly
b. Because of the small size it can cost less
c. Richness of data. In-depth data about specifics
d. First hand experiences with customers
e. Help define constructs or variables
f. Help define marketing problems and opportunities
g. Uncover motives and play a critical role in building marketing models and scale measurements.

4. What method is most frequently used in qualitative research?
a. In-depth interviews are the most prevalent method for acquiring qualitative research and the best and most used type of in-depth interview is the traditional focus group.

5. What is the cost of a focus group?
a. Focus groups are relatively inexpensive to organize, host and analyze. However using the information from a focus group without verification from further research can prove very costly to a company.

6. What is the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique test or thematic apperception? (Go to page 178)
pg 178

7. What is a code sheet?
a sheet of paper that lists the codes for different themes or categories for a particular study

8. Explain the differences between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.
Inductive research: an investigation that uses causal design procedures to generate and test hypotheses that create new theories or extend existing theories.
Deductive research: experimental investigations that are undertaken to test hypothesized relationships

9. What are the complete and unabridged definitions for reliability and validity?
Reliability: the extent to which the measurements taken with a particular instrument are repeatable
Validity: the extent to which the conclusions drawn from the experiment are true

10. What are the different types of validity?
Internal validity: the extent to which the research design accurately identifies causal relationships
External validity: the extent to which a causal relationship found in a study can be expected to be true for the entire target population
Construct validity: the extent to which the variables under investigation are completely and accurately identified prior to hypothesizing any functional relationships
Convergent validity: when the researcher’s measures of a construct are highly correlated with known existing measures of the same construct
Discriminant validity: the existence of a negative correlation between an experiment’s measuring methods and those measurements of completely different constructs

12. What are the different types of variables? Explain extraneous, independent and dependent variables.
Extraneous variable: all variables other than the independent variables that affect the responses of the test subjects. If left uncontrolled, these variables can have a confounding impact on the dependent variable measures that could weaken or invalidate the results of an experiment
Independent: An attribute of an object whose measurement values are directly manipulated by the researcher, also referred to as a predictor or treatment variable. This type of variable is assumed to be a causal factor in a functional relationship with a dependent variable
Dependent: a singular observable attribute that is the measured outcome derived from manipulation the independent variable

13. What is a construct?
hypothetical variables composed of a set of component responses or behaviors that are thought to be related

1. Explain what tangibility and dimensionality are.

14. What is a hypothesis and what is a null hypothesis?
Hypothesis: a yet-unproven proposition or possible solution to a decision problem that can be empirically tested using data that are collected through the research process; it is developed in order to explain phenomena or a relationship between two or more constructs or variables
Null hypothesis: a statement of the perceived existing relationship between two questions, dimensions, or subgroupings of attributes as being not significantly different

15. What are the advantages of quantitative research?
Ability to accommodate large sample sizes at a relatively lower cost
Can be used with advanced statistical analysis to identify hidden patterns and trends
Ease of administration
Ability to tap into factors that are not directly observable (attitudes, feelings, preferences)

16. Understand and be able to explain the large chart on page 238.
238

17. What is sampling error?
Any type of bias in a survey study that is attributable to mistakes made in either the selection process of prospective sampling units or determining the size of a sample required to ensure its representativeness of the larger defined target populations

18. What does construct development require and what error does this create?
Constructs development error occurs when researchers are not careful in identifying the constructs to be used in the study. Researchers must correctly identify and define the different data requirements (concepts, objects, topics) that are the focus of the investigation

19. What is instrument design error?
Instrumentation: contamination to internal validity measures from changes in measurement processes, observation techniques, and/or measuring instruments

20. What does incidence rate explain?
Incidence rate: the percentage of the general population that is the subject of the marketing research

21. What is topic sensitivity?
The degree to which a survey question leads the respondent to give a socially acceptable response

22. What are the important characteristics to select for the survey method?
Diversity, incidence, and participation

23. What is external validity?
The extent to which the measured data results of a study based on a sample can be expected to hold in the entire defined target population. In addition, it is the extent that a causal relationship found in a study can be expected to be true for the entire defined target population

24. Know the definition and differences between experiment, case study, netnographics, survey, and observation
Experiment: Involves carefully designed data collection procedures in which researchers manipulate a proposed causal independent variable and observe the effect on a dependent variable, while controlling for all other influencing variables
Case study: an exploratory research technique that intensively investigates one or several existing situations similar to the current problem/opportunity situation
Netnography: a research technique that draws on ethnography but uses “found data” on the Internet that is produced by virtual communities

25. What is the primary reason for experimental research?
Main objectives are to predict sales, uncover valuable market info, and anticipate any adverse consequences of a marketing program for a particular product

26. What are the necessities to study causality and what conditions are necessary to study causality?
Primary focus of causal research is to obtain data that enables researchers to assess “cause-effect” relationships between two or more variables
3 Conditions:
Researchers must establish that there is temporal order between the independent X and dependent variables Y such that variable X must occur prior to observing or measuring variable Y.
Researchers must establish that collected data confirm there is some type of meaningful association between variable X and variable Y
Researchers must account for or control for all other possible variables other than X that might cause a change in variable Y

28. What is a functional relationship?
An observable and measurable systematic change in one variable as another variable changes

29. What is the most important procedure you apply to your subjects in the sample?
?

Validity
: the extent to which the conclusions drawn from the experiment are true
Internal validity: the extent to which the research design accurately identifies causal relationships

External Validity
the extent to which a causal relationship found in a study can be expected to be true for the entire target population

Construct Validity
the extent to which the variables under investigation are completely and accurately identified prior to hypothesizing any functional relationships
Convergent validity: when the researcher’s measures of a construct are highly correlated with known existing measures of the same construct

Convergent validity
when the researcher’s measures of a construct are highly correlated with known existing measures of the same construct

Discriminant validity:
the existence of a negative correlation between an experiment’s measuring methods and those measurements of completely different constructs

Internal Validity
The certainty with which the researcher can state that the observed effect was caused by a specific treatment; exists when the research design accurately identifies causal relationships

32. What is the best weapon to fight for internal validity?
Random selection of subjects from a heterogeneous target population and random assignment to treatment groups

34. What does randomization mean?
The procedure whereby many subjects are assigned to different experimental treatment conditions, resulting in each group’s averaging out any systematic effect on the investigated functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables

Probability Sampling
sampling designs in which each sampling unit in the sampling frame (operational population) has a known, nonzero probability of being selected for the sample

Non-Probability Sampling
sampling: sampling designs in which the probability of selection of each sampling unit is not known.The selection of sampling units is based on the judgement of knowledge of the researcher and may or may not be representative of the target population

Cluster Sample
A method of probability sampling where the sampling units are selected in groups rather than individually. Once the cluster has been identified, the elements to be sampled are drawn by simple random sampling or all of the units may be included in the sample

Convenience Sample

Non Convenience Sample

How would the appropriate size of a population be determined

How do you ensure a good sampling plan?
A good sampling plan includes the following:
Define the target population
Select the data collection method
Identify sampling frames needed
Select appropriate sampling method
Determine necessary sample sizes and overall contact rates
Create an operating plan for selecting sampling units
Execute the operational plan

What is the Overall Incidence Rate?
The percentage of the defined target population elements who actually qualify for inclusion into the survey

What are the components of a good sampling size?