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Dr. Carskadon Social Psychology Exam 1

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social psychology
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scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to each other
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1) we construct our own social reality 2) social intuition is very powerful and also dangerous (of being wrong)
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core principles of social psychology
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yes
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are most people influenced by advertisement?
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bad
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are we bad or good at predicting our feelings and actions?
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good
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we are too ____ at being optimistic about planning our future
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past behavior
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the best predictor of future behavior
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yes
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do social influences shape our behavior?
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30%
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how much of our waking time is spent in conversation?
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false
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T or F: social influences are not behind cruel (9/11) and nice (9/11 heroes) actions
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yes
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does social influence affect the standards of beauty and personality?
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personalities and attitudes
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these 2 things shape our behavior
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biologically
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how is social behavior rooted?
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ethology
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study of inherited behavior patterns
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Conrad Lorenz
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who studied ethology
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false
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T/F: the principles of social psychology is NOT applicable to the real world
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yes
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does social psychology help shape our values?
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segregation, women, and inequality
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what are somethings social psychology help shape our values in?
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social representation
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def: our shared values and beliefs
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true
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how we label things is another example of how social psychology shapes our values; true or false?
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1) social psychology documents the obvious 2) maybe social psychology is dangerous REALITY: it is neither
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2 beliefs/myths of social psychology
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no because we evoke common sense once we know about the topic at hand
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is social psychology common sense?
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heinsight bias
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“i knew it all along”// once we see the outcome, we know what happened
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is
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correlation is OR is not about prediction?
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no
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does correlation mean one thing causes another?
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if they follow all the instructions
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when are polls accurate?
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opt-in
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taking initiative to say you will do something // ex: organ donor
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opt-out
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taking initiative to say you won’t do something // ex: in some countries you have to say you won’t be an organ donor
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yes
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do people react based on the way certain things are phrased?
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1/3
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in social psychology, how much of studies deal with deception?
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expectations
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these are important in social psychology experiments
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man characteristic
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signs that tell the instructor what to expect from the experiment
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demand characteristic
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subtle cue that makes participants aware of what the experimenter expects to find or how participants are expected to behave
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spotlight effect
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thinking that people are paying more attention to us than they actually are
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illusion of transparency
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belief that our emotions are easily sensed by others // not a true belief
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overestimate
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do we over or underestimate the impact of our social blunders we make?
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self-concept
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what we know and believe about ourselves
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self-schema
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beliefs about ourselves that organize and guide our perception and information processing that relates to us // ex: “bad things always happen to me” or “I always look good”
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possible selves
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images of our future selves
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social comparison
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when we compare ourselves to others
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yes
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are we more comfortable when we think about associating with people who are “lesser” than we are?
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when the outcome doesn’t apply to us
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when do we enjoy when others fail?
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success feeds self-esteem
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does self-esteem feed success or does success feed self-esteem?
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false
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labels do not go into self-concept; true or false?
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children believe what we tell them // be careful what you say
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what is an example of labeling going into self-concept?
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looking glass-self
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not how others actually see us, but how we think others see us
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praise
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which is used more? praise or criticism
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true
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we tend to think that others think more highly of us than they actually do; true or false?
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more
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our culture gives more or less compliments than other cultures such as Japan?
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individualistic society
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most people in this care about their own goals than group goals
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United States
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what is one of the most individualistic societies?
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collectivism society
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most people in this identify with a group
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do
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we do or do not have a desire for uniqueness?
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individualism
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uniqueness is another characteristic of what?
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false
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we are often really good at predicting what influences our moods; true or false?
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true
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we are really bad at predicting our own moods; true or false?
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planning fallacy
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our inability to predict how long it will take us to do something // we are too optimistic about this
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bad
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are we good or bad at predicting our feelings?
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fasle
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we are good at predicting the success/failure of our own romantic relationships; true or false?
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your friends
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who can perceive your relationships better than you can?
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doesnt
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general self-esteem does or doesn’t affect your grades
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academic self-esteem
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how well you feel about taking a specific test
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when they achieve good things
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when do children’s self esteem build?
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specific
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do we want self-esteem to be specific or general?
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impact bias
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overestimating the impact of an effect
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false
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T/F: comparison to others doesn’t affect our self esteem
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results of our thinking
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are we more aware of the results of our thinking or the process of our thinking?
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dual attitudes
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some attitudes are conscious and we control them (explicit) but some are unconscious and they control us (implicit)
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true
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sometimes friends and family can threaten self esteem; true or false?
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friends
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sometimes, does the success of our friends or strangers make us most uncomfortable?
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shared goals
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should married couples have shared or identical goals?
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low self-esteem
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do people with low or high self-esteem have more problems such as low income or abuse?
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high self-esteem
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people who are promiscuous at a young have a low or high self esteem?
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high self-esteem
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does the leader of the pack have a high or low self esteem?
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Dark Triad
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consists of 3 things: machiavellianism, anti-social personality, and narcissism
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machiavellianism
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when your only goal is gaining and keeping your own power
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narcissism
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inflated ego and your purpose is to maintain it
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they wildly overreact and become aggressive
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what happens when you insult a narcissist?
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high self-esteem because they believe everything good about themselves
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do narcissists have a high or low self esteem?
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more aggressive
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if the self esteem of a narcissist is high are the more or less aggressive?
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empathy (caring for others)
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what do narcissists lack?
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increasing
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is narcissism increasing or decreasing in our society?
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good partner
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do people with low self-esteem search for a good or bad partner?
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true
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people with low self-esteem will often overestimate when their partner is falling short and this will often sabotage their own relationship
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effortful self-control
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you know what the right choice is but it takes effort to follow through // can be a good thing but it works like a muscle and must be exercised to make better but too much can be bad
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self-efficacy
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your sense of confidence or how well you can handle something // important to instill in children
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Julian Rotter
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person who is given credit for coming up with Locus of Control
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Locus of Control
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some people have an external locus of control and an internal locus of control (external- not in our control // internal- in our control)
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internal
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is success higher with internal or external locus of control?
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false because too many choices makes us feel like were missing out
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T/F: the more choices someone is given the more satisfied they are
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more satisfied
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are people more or less satisfied with choices that can’t be reversed?
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self-serving bias
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tendency to distort things and see ourselves more favorably
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self-serving attributions
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if something goes good we’ll take credit for it but if it goes bad we blame it on someone else
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when they’re in the distant past
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when do we own up to our problems?
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bias blindspot
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we think that we see people the way they really are // we think others are bias
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0%
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what percentage of people thought they were below average in getting along with others?
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60%
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what percentage of people rated themselves in the top 10 when asked about getting along with others?
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false
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we don’t really believe our self serving perceptions; true or false?
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illusory optimism
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unrealistically optimistic
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the adolescent invulnerability myth
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the myth that says “nothing will happen”
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false consensus effect
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we believe others have the same beliefs and attitudes as us // most likely to show up doing matters of opinion // “everyone does it”
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false uniqueness effect
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pertains to more positive achievements // we think we are unique // not true
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positive effects of self serving bias
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1) higher self-esteem 2) protects against depression
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negative effects of self serving bias
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1) blame others for difficulty
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90%
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what percentage of college faculty considered themselves superior to their colleagues?
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group serving bias
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“them vs. us” // downplaying the positives in the “other” group and exaggerating the importance of the negatives // present in racial bias
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self-handicapping
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when you do something that will be an excuse for future failure // makes future failure more likely to happen
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impression management
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trying to present a particular image of ourselves // usually positive // ex: Ronald Regan presented himself as a family man but in reality he wasn’t
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self-presentation
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want to create a favorable impression
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self-monitoring
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always adjusting the way we present ourselves to others // the self you know may not be the self you show
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low self monitors
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which are happier, low or high self monitors?
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reality we construct
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what reality do we respond to?
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1) how we perceive something 2) how we remember something 3)how we explain something 4) how we judge something 5) how we expect something
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how do we respond to the reality we construct?
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priming
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activating certain associations in memory // affects what will happen next
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true
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a lot of processing is automatic; true or false?
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preconceptions
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what we think is going to happen // very influential
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when there are the most interpretations
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when are preconceptions most important?
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subjective
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is science objective or subjective?
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47%
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during regan’s presidency, what percentage of Republicans believed that things got better?
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8%
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during regan’s presidency, what percentage of Democrats believed that things got worse?
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false // what we say about others is what other people start to believe about us
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what we say about other people has no correlation about how others think about us; true or false?
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false
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we should always trust our intuition; true or false?
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belief perseverance
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once people have a certain belief it is almost impossible to get them to change it // reason why rumors happen
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before they come to a conclusion
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if we’re going to try and change someone’s mind, when should we do it?
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make it a task to explain the opposite
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how do we counteract belief perseverance?
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true
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memories are reconstructed; true or false?
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misinformation effect
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occurs when misleading information is incorporated into one’s memory after an event
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false
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new inputs have no effect on existing memories; true or false?
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true
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memories of our own attitudes change; true or false?
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speed, magnitude, and certainty
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what 3 things can we reconstruct our memories with?
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rosy retrospection
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tendency to remember events much more positive than they actually were
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intuition
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something we trust more than we should // unconscious info
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it helps us save time
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why is intuitive management good?
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schemas
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mental concepts that guide our thinking // cognitive filter
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emotional
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which reactions are instant? cognitive or emotional?
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cognitive
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which reactions are slower? cognitive or emotional?
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when we know alot of info on the subject
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when is our intuition most likely to be right? (ex: carskadon would get big words correct)
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false // it is both
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info processing is neither explicit or implicit; true or false?
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yes
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is intuition automatic?
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subliminal perception
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information coming into your brain that you don’t know is there
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overconfidence
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most people are more unaware of our shortcomings than we should be
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overconfidence phenomenon
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being more confident than correct
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judging character and trusting people
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where do we fall short of the overconfidence phenomenon?
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intellectual conceit
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shows up in our judgment of past events // overestimating our abilities
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false // more competent less correct
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the more competent you are the more correct you are
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true
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most people overestimate their skill level
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3x
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how many times as likely its someone to guess your intelligence just by watching you?
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84%
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what percent of the time are students confident in their behavior?
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further in the future
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are we more confident in short term things or things further in the future?
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fasle
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we shouldn’t worry about a cooling period when making a commitment
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stockbroker overconfidence
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the other person thinks theyre getting the best deal getting the better deal but in reality, someone will lose
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political overconfidence
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people in this position don’t learn from experience // “we were almost right last time”
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conformation bias
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people only test what they have in mind
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true
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people will look for partners who share the view of themselves // if you think negatively about yourself you’ll find someone else who does too
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1) prompt feedback 2) unpacking tasks (breaking down tasks) 3) explain the opposite
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how to reduce overconfidence
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heuristics
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thinking strategies that enable quick and efficient judgements
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representativeness heuristics
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presume that something or someone belongs to a group just because they resemble a member of that group
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availability heuristic
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judging the likelihood of something based on your memory // vivid mental images
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aircraft travel vs. car travel
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an example of availability heuristic
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probability neglect
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when we worry about big unlikely problems and forget about the everyday mundane worries
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counterfactual thinking
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imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happen but didn’t // we put too much thinking into what might have been // “if only…”
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illusory correlation
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when we perceive a relationship when there isn’t one or when we think a relationship is stronger than it really is // we get into this because we remember the goof times and don’t think about the bad
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illusion of control
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when we have this fantasy that we can control a situation, more than we actually can realize
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more
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will people bet more or less money if they get to roll the dice themselves?
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regression towards the mean
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the tendency for extreme events to be followed by less extreme events // extravagant followed by normal
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sports illustrated curse
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best illustration of regression towards the mean // if an athlete is on the cover of Sports Illustrated, their performance will drop // partially true
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attribution
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trying to explain others behavior
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Fritz Heider
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came up with the attribution theory
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dispositional attributions
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what you did based on personality
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situational attributions
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what you did based on your situation
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spontaneous trait inference
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rapidly making a judgment about someone’s character // we think we know someone very fast // happens often and repeatedly // takes place in 1/10 of 1 second
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false
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we hardly spend any time trying to figure out others behavior; true or false?
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the alternatives
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when we think we have a reason or explanation why someone is doing something, what do we not realize?
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when there is no explanation
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when do we look at alternatives for explaining someone’s behavior?
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fundamental attribution error
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an example of this is when celebrities advertise a product and you believe it works because of them selling it
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smart people
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which is more likely to display the fundamental attrition error, dumb or smart people?
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actor/observer bias
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when we look at our own actions we think we did them because of the situation but when we see others actions we assume they’re stupid
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camera perspective bias
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when giving a testimony, the jury is more likely to believe the confession/testimony if the camera is on the person giving the testimony face
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false // it diminishes over time
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the fundamental attribution error stays the same over time; true or false?
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western cultures because they’re si individualistic
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which culture is most likely to display the fundamental attribution error?
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true
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people who commit the fundamental attribution error are most judgmental; true or false?
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experimenter bias
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these people need to be careful about not letting their expectations of what they want to happen slip into the experiment
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Rosenthal Effect
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the phenomenon whereby higher expectations lead to an increase in performance
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Rosenthal Study
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controversial study because it was only found once in most cases // 40% success rate, 60% fail rate
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self-fulfilling prophecy
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by predicting something you make it more likely to come true
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teacher who teach young children
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expectations are especially powerful with who?
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false
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if we expect someone to be hostile, they will prove us wrong and be nice; true or false?
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true
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people who idealize their relationships get better results; true or false?
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hostility
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when you question if your significant other loved you, it can lead to what?
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behavioral conformation
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form of self-fulfilling prophecy // your expectations of others and your own behavior towards them will lead them to act the way you expected them to