diversity and social justice

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culture
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socially transmitted ways of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting within a group
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diversity
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differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental abilities, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and other human differences
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social justice
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a philosophy that expects citizens to provide for those persons in society who are not as advantaged as others
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socialization
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the general process of learning the social norms of the culture
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prejudice
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the aversion to members of certain cultural groups–manifests itself in fear, anger, hatred, and distrust
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stereotype
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occurs when generalizations are applied to a group without consideration of individual differences within the group
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discrimination
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focuses on behaviors and occurs on both the individual and institutional levels
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cultural borders
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a boundary between groups based on cultural differences that may limit an individual’s understanding of persons from a different cultural background
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ethnocentrism
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the deep felt belief that your culture is superior to all others
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privilege
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individuals or groups whose SES, race, native language, gender or other group memberships give them advantages and power over others in society
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oppression
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actions of one entity which intentionally or unintentionally distributes resources inequitably, refuses to share power, and imposes ethnocentric culture for its supposed benefit and rationalizes its action by blaming or ignoring the victims
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meritocracy
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a system based on the belief that an individual’s achievements are based on their own personal merits and hard work and that the people that achieve at the highest levels deserve the greatest social and financial rewards
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equality
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all groups have access to the same benefits of society regardless of their group memberships; state of being equal in the one cultural group is not inferior or superior to another
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social construction
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taken for granted assumptions about the world, knowledge, and ourselves assumed to be universal
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individualism
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dominant feature of western culture that stresses the rights, freedom and importance of the individual over groups
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three obstacles to social justice
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prejudice, stereotype, discrimination
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5 faces of oppression
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exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, violence, cultural imperialism
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purpose of social justice
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to provide an interdisciplinary conceptual framework for understanding the multiple forms of oppression
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name 5 cultural identities
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gender, race, nationality, sexuality, religious beliefs
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race
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the social concept that categorizes parts of a population based on physical appearances
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ethnicity
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identification of an individual according to his or her national origin and / or cultural patterns
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racism
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prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior
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racial micro-aggression
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everyday insults and demeaning messages sent to people of color by well-intentioned white people who are unaware of the hidden messages being sent by them
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name 5 institutions with regard to opportunities and outcomes
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education, labor market, housing, media, criminal justice system
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religious oppression
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mistreating an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations
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Christian hegemony
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Christian privileges that are unearned cultural and social assets or advantages
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The Establishment Clause
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the government cannot establish or support any single religion
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The Free Exercise Law
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first amendment which protects the free exercise of religion
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sexism
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an attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates or limits a person on the basis of sex
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biological sex
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based on which reproductive organs an individual has, chromosomes, and hormones
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gender
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our biological, social, and legal status as girls and boys, men and women
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gender expression
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peoples behaviors that convey something about their gender identity, or that others interpret as meaning something about their gender identity–masculine, feminine, butch, femme
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gender identity
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a persons own understanding of themselves in terms of gendered categories like man and woman–how they feel inside of what they believe themselves to be
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heterosexism
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discrimination or prejudice by heterosexuals towards homos
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gender bias
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unfair difference in the treatment of men or women because of their sex
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gender socialization
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process of learning the social expectations of attitudes associated with one’s sex
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cisgender
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a description for a person whose gender identity, gender expression, and biological sex all align–mane, masculine, male
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patriarchy
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social system in which men dominate–men regarded as authority within family and society
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sexual orientation
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one predominant sexual and romantic attractions toward someone of the opposite sex, same sex, or any sex
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body image
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how you view your physical self–whether you feel you are attractive and whether others like your looks
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self-esteem
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how much you feel you are worth and how much you feel other people value you
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sizeism
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prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of a persons size
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adultism
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the mistreatment of young people on the basis of their youth
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ageism
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the mistreatment of older persons on the basis of their presumed age
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elderspeak
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a form of cultural insults demeans the elderly with expressions such as sweetie and dear
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ADA
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labels someone as disabled if he or she experiences a physical or mental condition that limits the ability to perform a major life activity like walking around
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normalization
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making available to all persons with disabilities patterns of life and conditions of living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances of society
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5 key factors that indicate a pattern of mistreatment
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undermining of self-confidence and self-esteem increasing sense of worthlessness increasing feeling of powerlessness diminishing ability to function well in the world feeling unloved, unwanted or welcome
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class
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relative social rank in terms of income, wealth, education, occupational status, and / or power
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classism
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the institutional, cultural, or individual set of practices and beliefs that assign differential value to people according to SES–an economic system that creates excessive inequality and causes basic human needs to go unmet
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SES–Socioeconomic Status
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acts as a composite of the economic status of a family or individuals on the basis of occupation, educational attainment, and income
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individual classism
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refers to classism on apersonal or individual level, either in behavior or attitudes, either conscious or unconscious and unintentional
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institutional classism
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refers to the ways in which intentional and unintentional classism is manifest in the various institution of our society
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cultural classism
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refers to the ways in which classism is manifest through our cultural norms and practices
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social capital
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resources based on group memberships, relationships, networks of influence and support
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cultural capital
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the forms of knowledge, skill, education and advatantages a person has that give her or him a higher status in society
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poverty line
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minimum level of income deemed necessary to achive an adequate standard of living in a given country
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list the 5 determinants or SES
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income wealth occupation education power
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income
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amount of money that one earns in wages or salary in a year–the actual paycheck
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wealth
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net worth of a family–what is left after bills and expenses
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occupation
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determines income–generally an indication of ones education and degree of authority and responsibility over others
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education
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viewed as a way to enhance SES–higher SES higher chance of entering and completing college
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power
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people at the upper SES exert more power than those at any other level

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