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Developmental Psychology Ch. 20

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senescence
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The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient.
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presbycusis
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a significant loss of hearing associated with senescence. presbycusis is usually not apparent until after age 60
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infertility
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the inability to conceive a child after trying for at least a year
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menopause
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the time in middle age, usually around age 50, when a woman’s menstrual periods cease and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops. Strictly speaking, menopause is dated one year after a woman’s last menstrual period, although many months before or after the date are menopausal
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hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
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Involves taking hormones (in pills, patches, or injections) to compensate for hormone reduction. HRT is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms or after removal of ovaries, but it is also used by men as their testosterone decreases. HRT has some medical uses but also carries some health risks
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andropause
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A term coined to signify a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass
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mortality
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death. as a measure of health, mortality refers to the number of deaths each year per hundred thousand members of a given population
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morbidity
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Disease. as a measure of health, morbidity usually refers to the rate of diseases in a given population-physical and emotional, acute (sudden) and chronic (ongoing)
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disability
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difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, mental, or emotional condition
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DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years)
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A measure of the reduced quality of life caused by disability.
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vitality
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A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic–physically, intellectually, and socially–and individual actually feels
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QALYs (Quality-adjusted life years)
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a way of comparing mere survival without vitality to survival with good health. A full year of health is full QALY; people with less than full health have a fiction of QALY each year. Thus, their total QALY is less than the total years they live.
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how much younger do adults typically feel than their chronological age
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5 to 10 years younger
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how does senescence help in adult life–example with cancer
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body functions slower, so if someone has cancer it will grow slower
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crucial to good health in adulthood
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setting goals and working to accomplish them (ex. 50 year old want to run a marathon, so they train for a year, eat and sleep right, etc.)
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brain size in adulthood
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gradually decreases
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effects of brain size decreasing in adulthood
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multitasking, processing, and complex working memory tasks become harder and take longer
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what protects the brain for adults
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homeostasis, allostasis, neurological reserves
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if severe brain loss occurs before age 65, it is not due to senescence, but to what few factors
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drug abuse, poor circulation, viruses, genes
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first visible changes of aging
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skin (collagen decreases 1 percent each year starting a age 20), then views, toenails/fingernails, etc.
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what age does hair start to gray
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40, starting with temples
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how does body change in adulthood
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increases waist circumference, muscles weaken, fat on abdomen, people stoop when they stand, adults shrink, agility reduced
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type 1 fibers (slower movement) and type 2 fibers (forceful actions), which is reduced faster
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type 2 fibers (forceful actions)
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vision decline in adulthood
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peripheral declines first, longer to adjust to light change, motion perception, contrast sensitivity, all other declines vary by person
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nearsightedness (difficulty seeing objects at distance) is affected by
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genes and age (decreases with age)
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farsightedness (difficulty seeing objects that are close)with age
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increases (lens of eye changes shape)
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hearing is most acute at what age
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10
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most popular contraceptive for women
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birth control pill
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sexual arousal and orgasm time with age
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slower
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average age of stopped sexual intercourse
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60 for women, 65 for men (but fluctuate depending on partner)
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does cohort play a part in sexual arousal
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yes (ex. contraceptive allowed for sex to be more enjoyable, homosexual interaction more common)
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medical care when infertility rises
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scarce (so infertility varies by nation)
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causes o infertility by gender
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males fault 1/3, females fault 1/3, mystery 1/3
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reason for male infertility
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low sperm count (sedentary life, drugs, stress, sauna, radiation, etc.)
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reasons for female infertility
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PID (blocks fallopian tubes and prevents sperm from reaching ovum), sedentary life, drugs, stress, sauna, radiation, etc.
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IVF
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in vitro fertilization (rising in western nations-brings up many moral questions, helps infertile couples have kids)
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women decline in sex hormones – quick or slow
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quick
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men decline in sex hormones – quick or slow
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slow
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age of menopause is affected by what factors
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genes, exercise, smoking
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hysterectomy
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surgical removal of the uterus
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hysterectomy side affects
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same as menopause (hot flashes, dry vagina, body temp disturbed)
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risks of HRT
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more like to get breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, does not prevent dementia
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positive aspects of HRT
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less hot flashes, osteoporosis, etc.
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illegal drug use in adulthood – increase or decline
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decline
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abuse of prescription drug use in adulthood – increase or decline
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increase
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2 most abused drugs in US
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tobacco and alcohol
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is cigarette use increasing or declining
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declining (but still leading cause of preventable death)
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benefits of alcohol
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reduces coronary heart disease and strokes, increases HDL, reduces LDL
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downfalls of alcohol
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destroys brain cells, osteoporosis, fertility harm, homocides, suicides, etc.
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metabolism between 20 and 60
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decreases by one third
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percent of US adults that are overweight
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2/3 (BMI of 25 or more)
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nations where obesity rates are rising
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African and Asian nations
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excess body fat increases the risk of what chronic diseases
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almost all of them
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psychological downfalls to being obese
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scorned, prejudice, less likely to marry, be employed, have friends,
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are more men or women obese
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women (give up)
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are more men or women healthy weight
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women (care more about staying thin)
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gastric bypass
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A surgical procedure for treating extreme obesity in which the intestine is cut and connected to the upper portion of the stomach, which is isolated from the rest of the stomach by a row of staples
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causes for weight gain
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sugar, diet, inactivity
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5 steps to change a habit
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denial, awareness, planning, implantation, maintenance
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attention myopia
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the phenomenon that happens when a person’s resolve to break a habit fades when faced with stress
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how to measure the effectiveness of health efforts
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mortality, morbidity, disability, vitality
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who typically live longer -men or women
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women
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reasons women might live longer
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genetics, women take better care of themselves, etc.
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does morbidity correlate with mortality
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not necessarily (ex. women have higher rate of morbidity but lower rate of morality)
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as mortality decreases morbidity
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increases (ex. cancers used to be leading cause of death, but now with health , measures it is mostly curable)
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is disability the same as morbidity
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no
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is vitality due to genetics or social interaction
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social interaction
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DALYs and QALYSs help in calculating
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public funds (but ethics and opinions differ)
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what SES has lower morbidity and disability
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high SES
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people with the highest SES live how much longer than low SES citizens
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average of 30 years
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age of middle adulthood
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26-64 years old
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secondary going is affected by factors such as
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drinking, smoking, eating, lack of exercise, etc.
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what sense is the first to fade
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vision (close vision first-reading glasses)
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second sense to fade
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hearing (faster/higher rate in men)
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what range is hardest for middle adults to hear-higher for lower
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higher
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peak of fertility for women
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before 30
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peak of fertility for men
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before 40
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percent of couples with fertility problems
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15%
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male causes of infertility
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low sperm count
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female causes of infertility
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weight, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometrics, infections, fibroid tumors, uterine health
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length of perimenopause or climacteric menopause
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3 years before and 3 years after cessation of menstrual cycle
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symptoms of menopause and perimenopause or climacteric menopause
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low estrogen, osteoperosis, sterility, vasomotor instability (hot flash), mood
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biggest part of male andropause
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no as dramatic as menopause and biggest effect is psychological
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viagra
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erectile dysfunction drug used to help older men reach sexual arousal
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1/2 of mortality from 10 leading causes of death in US can be traced to
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behavior (ex. smoking, poor coping w/stress, poor nutrition, lack of exercise, etc.)
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who proposed the “g” of intelligence
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spearman
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tERMAN’S TEMRITES
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a longitudinal study that followed kids who were ranked as Guinness in childhood and grew up to become well off/average adults
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findings of schaie’s cross sequential research
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IQ doesn’t decline until 80s
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salthouse typing experiment done by
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cattel and horn
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salthouse typing experiment
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measured speed (fluid intelligence) and accuracy (crystalized intelligence) in typing-found that younger people had more fluid intelligence and old people had more crystallized
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fluid IQ and age
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declines
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crystallized intelligence and age
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increases
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does US culture value fluid or crystallized intelligence
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fluid (fast paced)
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sternberg’s three types of intelligence
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analytical (tests/researcher), practical (people, salesman), and creative (artist/inventor)
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analytical skills in adulthood
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not needed as much, more important to have creative and practical
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reasons intelligent people fail
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lack of motivation, poor impulse control (fun vs. work), lack of perseverance (work hard), fear of failure, procrastination, inability to delay gratification, too little/too much self confidence
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who coined the term selective optimization with compensation
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Bates
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characteristics of an expert
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actions become automatic, more you do better you become, new strategies, more flexible/don’t follow rules exactly
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what prevents losing intelligence in old age
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lifestyle choices (ex. bingo vs. crossword puzzles)