developmental psych quiz 9

Which of the following is a more accurate vision of adolescence?

a) For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.

b) For most individuals, adolescence is a time of rebellion, crisis, pathology, and deviance.

c) Most adolescents have a brush with juvenile delinquency.

d) Very few adolescents contribute positively to their communities and make a successful transition through adolescence.

a) For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.

For the majority of teens, adolescence is marked by:

a) stress and storm.

b) delinquency.

c) a healthy self-image.

d) low self-esteem.

c) a healthy self-image.

Puberty refers to a period of:

a) declining abstract thought and emotional maturation during late adolescence involving neural and synaptic development in the brain.

b) declining gross motor development during late childhood due to the maturation of the temporal and parietal lobes.

c) rapid psychological and emotional maturation that lasts through adolescence and is a product of enhanced cognitive development.

d) rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence.

d) rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence.

The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs approximately _____ for girls than for boys.

a) two years earlier

b) one year earlier

c) two years later

d) one year later

a) two years earlier

_____ is a hormone associated in boys with genital development, increased height, and deepening of the voice.

a) Testosterone

b) Estrogen

c) Estradiol

d) Progestin

a) Testosterone

Which of the following is a type of estrogen?

a) Insulin

b) Testosterone

c) Progesterone

d) Estradiol

d) Estradiol

Which of the following hormones dominates in male pubertal development?

a) Testosterone

b) Progesterone

c) Estrogen

d) Follicle stimulating hormone

a) Testosterone

Which of the following statements about the timing and variations in puberty is true?

a) Children in European countries mature up to a year earlier than their American counterparts.

b) For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.

c) Genes have little to do with when and how puberty develops.

d) Non-Latino White girls experience puberty earlier than African American girls.

b) For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.

Donna is concerned about her adolescent daughter’s tendency to flare up at the mildest provocations. Donna says that her daughter refuses to see reason sometimes and seems unable to exercise much self-control. As a specialist in the development of adolescents, you would tell Donna that her daughter’s behavior could partly be explained by the biological reason that:

a) the prefrontal cortex—involved in reasoning and self-control—has developed fully by early adolescence.

b) the corpus callosum, where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence.

c) by the end of adolescence, individuals have fewer, less selective, less effective neuronal connections than they did as children.

d) the amygdala—the seat of emotions such as anger—matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.

d) the amygdala—the seat of emotions such as anger—matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.

_____ is the “judgment” region that reins in intense emotions but doesn’t finish developing until at least emerging adulthood.

a) Nucleus acumbens

b) Corpus callosum

c) Prefrontal cortex

d) Amygdala

c) Prefrontal cortex

In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2009, it was found that nationally, _____ percent of twelfth-graders reported being sexually active.

a) 70

b) 15

c) 49

d) 80

c) 49

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

a) are rarely passed through oral sex.

b) can be prevented through the use of contraceptive pills or implants.

c) rarely occur in U.S. adolescents.

d) are contracted primarily through sexual contact.

d) are contracted primarily through sexual contact.

The U.S. adolescent pregnancy rate is _____ times as high as in the Netherlands.

a) ten

b) three

c) five

d) eight

d) eight

Research has shown that infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to have:

a) high birth weight.

b) Down syndrome.

c) childhood illnesses.

d) type II diabetes.

c) childhood illnesses.

A number of leading experts on adolescent sexuality conclude that abstinence-only programs:

a) are less effective at reducing the risk of adolescent pregnancy than sex education programs.

b) prevent adolescent pregnancies better than sex-education programs emphasizing contraceptive knowledge.

c) are more effective at reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections than sex education programs.

d) provide useful knowledge about safe sex to sexually active adolescents.

a) are less effective at reducing the risk of adolescent pregnancy than sex education programs.

A recent national study revealed that _____ percent of U.S. 15-year-olds met the federal government’s exercise recommendations on weekdays.

a) 31

b) 50

c) 80

d) 12

a) 31

According to the study by Lloyd Johnston and his colleagues at the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan monitoring the drug use of America’s high school seniors in a wide range of public and private high schools, the percentage of illicit drug use:

a) declined in the late 1990s.

b) was highest during the early 1990s.

c) has been at the same level since 1990.

d) increased significantly between 2000-2005.

a) declined in the late 1990s.

Bill wants to know how he can prevent drug abuse by his adolescent son. You would suggest that Bill:

a) have family dinners most nights of the week.

b) discourage his son from making more friends at school.

c) engage in lesser parental monitoring and control.

d) cease to emphasize educational success.

a) have family dinners most nights of the week.

According to a recent large-scale study of eighth- and tenth-graders, amongst the various risk factors, which of the following is the strongest predictor of substance abuse among?

a) Monitoring in schools

b) Genetic predisposition

c) Ethnicity

d) Peer relations

d) Peer relations

Which of the following characterizes a person suffering from anorexia nervosa?

a) A relentless pursuit of weight gain through binge eating

b) A positive image of the body shape

c) An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss

d) A high level of self-efficacy

c) An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss

Anorexia nervosa is about _____ likely to occur in females than males.

a) twice more

b) 10 times more

c) half as

d) three times more

b) 10 times more

Anorexia and bulimia nervosa affect:

a) men and women equally.

b) men more than women.

c) women more than men.

d) women more than older men, but less than younger men.

c) women more than men.

According to Jean Piaget, around age 11, the fourth stage of cognitive development, the _____ stage, begins.

a) concrete operational

b) formal operational

c) postoperational

d) passive operational

b) formal operational

_____ thinkers develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and then systematically deduce the best path to follow to solve the problem.

a) Formal operational

b) Preoperational

c) Concrete operational

d) Postconventional

a) Formal operational

In contrast to Piaget’s views, the development of formal operational thinking:

a) does not occur during adolescence.

b) is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.

c) is unaffected by the influence of culture and education.

d) is commonly seen among all American adults.

b) is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.

The _____ is adolescents’ belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior—attempts to be noticed, visible, and “on stage”.

a) personal fable

b) stage fear

c) imaginary audience

d) collective myth

c) imaginary audience

Fifteen-year-old Juanita wants to skip school today because she is having a bad hair day and is convinced that everybody will notice and think badly of her. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?

a) Personal fable

b) Imaginary audience

c) Fight-or-flight response

d) Top-dog phenomenon

b) Imaginary audience

As part of their effort to retain a sense of _____, adolescents might craft a story about the self that is filled with fantasy, immersing themselves in a world that is far removed from reality.

a) imaginary audience

b) invincibility

c) transitivity

d) personal uniqueness

d) personal uniqueness

George wants to ensure that his sons become competent decision makers. Which of the following is a strategy you would suggest for improving their decision making?

a) Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving

b) Encourage the presence of peers in risk-taking situations

c) Supply contexts where substances and other temptations are readily available, testing their willingness to make risky decisions

d) Keep them in a sequestered environment where they will not have to face decision-making in real-world contexts

a) Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving

Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) _____.

a) fixing certain minimum levels of compliance

b) guiding students in their tasks

c) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation

d) limiting the amount of time spent volunteering

c) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation

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