a) For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.
b) For most individuals, adolescence is a time of rebellion, crisis, pathology, and deviance.
c) Most adolescents have a brush with juvenile delinquency.
d) Very few adolescents contribute positively to their communities and make a successful transition through adolescence.
a) stress and storm.
c) a healthy self-image.
d) low self-esteem.
a) declining abstract thought and emotional maturation during late adolescence involving neural and synaptic development in the brain.
b) declining gross motor development during late childhood due to the maturation of the temporal and parietal lobes.
c) rapid psychological and emotional maturation that lasts through adolescence and is a product of enhanced cognitive development.
d) rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence.
a) two years earlier
b) one year earlier
c) two years later
d) one year later
d) Follicle stimulating hormone
a) Children in European countries mature up to a year earlier than their American counterparts.
b) For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.
c) Genes have little to do with when and how puberty develops.
d) Non-Latino White girls experience puberty earlier than African American girls.
a) the prefrontal cortex—involved in reasoning and self-control—has developed fully by early adolescence.
b) the corpus callosum, where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence.
c) by the end of adolescence, individuals have fewer, less selective, less effective neuronal connections than they did as children.
d) the amygdala—the seat of emotions such as anger—matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.
a) Nucleus acumbens
b) Corpus callosum
c) Prefrontal cortex
a) are rarely passed through oral sex.
b) can be prevented through the use of contraceptive pills or implants.
c) rarely occur in U.S. adolescents.
d) are contracted primarily through sexual contact.
a) high birth weight.
b) Down syndrome.
c) childhood illnesses.
d) type II diabetes.
a) are less effective at reducing the risk of adolescent pregnancy than sex education programs.
b) prevent adolescent pregnancies better than sex-education programs emphasizing contraceptive knowledge.
c) are more effective at reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections than sex education programs.
d) provide useful knowledge about safe sex to sexually active adolescents.
a) declined in the late 1990s.
b) was highest during the early 1990s.
c) has been at the same level since 1990.
d) increased significantly between 2000-2005.
a) have family dinners most nights of the week.
b) discourage his son from making more friends at school.
c) engage in lesser parental monitoring and control.
d) cease to emphasize educational success.
a) Monitoring in schools
b) Genetic predisposition
d) Peer relations
a) A relentless pursuit of weight gain through binge eating
b) A positive image of the body shape
c) An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss
d) A high level of self-efficacy
a) twice more
b) 10 times more
c) half as
d) three times more
a) men and women equally.
b) men more than women.
c) women more than men.
d) women more than older men, but less than younger men.
a) concrete operational
b) formal operational
d) passive operational
a) Formal operational
c) Concrete operational
a) does not occur during adolescence.
b) is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.
c) is unaffected by the influence of culture and education.
d) is commonly seen among all American adults.
a) personal fable
b) stage fear
c) imaginary audience
d) collective myth
a) Personal fable
b) Imaginary audience
c) Fight-or-flight response
d) Top-dog phenomenon
a) imaginary audience
d) personal uniqueness
a) Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving
b) Encourage the presence of peers in risk-taking situations
c) Supply contexts where substances and other temptations are readily available, testing their willingness to make risky decisions
d) Keep them in a sequestered environment where they will not have to face decision-making in real-world contexts
a) fixing certain minimum levels of compliance
b) guiding students in their tasks
c) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation
d) limiting the amount of time spent volunteering