Development Ch 2

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What is a theory?
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-an explanation of facts and observations, a set of concepts and ideas that organize the many experiences we encounter all the time -not necessarily true or false, but generate discussion and research -can be large or small, useful or of questionable usefulness -produce hypotheses -generate discoveries -offer practical guidance -meant to be refined as more truth is gained
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developmental theory
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-a group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth -a developmental theory provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development -helps us understand why and how people change as they grow older -facts and observations are connected to patterns and explanations, weaving the details of life into a meaningful whole -first step in science of human development is to pose a question
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what do theories do? (3 things)
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1. produce hypotheses 2. generate discoveries 3. offer practical guidance
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norm
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-an average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population -common behavior that results from biological or social pressure -an average or usual event or experience -not really \”normal\” but means something closer to \”typical\” -norms can be calculated (weight and height of newborns) but differences do NOT = deficits or abnormality -influenced by culture – Theories Norms -do not confuse theories with norms or facts -data are facts that sugggest conclusion, which may verify or refute a theory, but could be other ways to interpret -theories are neither true nor falsee
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SUMMING UP 1
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-theories provide a framework for organizing and understanding the thousands of observations and behaviors that occur in every aspect of development -theories are not facts, but they allow us to question norms, suggest hypotheses, and provide guidance -theories are practical and applied: they frame and organize our millions of experiences
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Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism (learning theory)
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-oppose -began as general theories of psychology -cognitive theory emerged -all 3 theories are \”grand\” in that they are comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied
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psychoanalytic theory
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-a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior -originated with Freud
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Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
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-development in the first 6 years of life occurs in 3 stages, each characterized by sexual interest/pleasure stemming from a certain body part -in infancy, erotic body part is mouth (oral stage -in early childhood, it is the anus (anal stage) -in preschool years, it is the penis (phallic stage) (a source of pride and fear among boys and a reason for sadness and envy among girls) -after quiet period (latency), the genital stage arrives at puberty, lasting through adulthood Freud (1856-1939) Austrian MD who worked in psych…listened to their dreams, fantasies and stream of consciousness from which he constructed an elaborate theory. First 6 years of life -infancy/ORAL -toddler/ANAL -preschool/PHALIC -school-age/LATENCY -teen/GENITAL Latency was not really a stage but more a dormant time when sexual needs were less intrusive, psychic energy goes toward school work and sports etc. Adol/genitals focus of this stage (heterosexual relationships discussed only!) -Freud maintained that sensual satisfaction (from stimulation of the mouth, anus, or penis) is linked to major developmental stages, needs, and challenges -**sensual satisfaction from stim to parts was linked to major developmental stages, needs, and challenges -he believed no new stages occurred after puberty, but adult personalities and habits were influences by earlier stages -phsychoanalytic theory contends, that childhood fantasies and memories remain powerful lifelong, particularly as they affect the sex drive (libido)
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huh?
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-Ex: suckling as an infant provides nourishment but also erotic joy and attachment to mom -kissing in adulthood is vestige of this -Ex: pleasure arises from self-control in toilet training -Ex: boys discover their penises and the pleasure of stim there. Girls envy this
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Each stage has conflicts
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-infants have to wean -toilet training must be acheived -adolescents must control their sex drive (libido) -**How you’ve experienced and resolve these crises determines personality for life because they are viewed as foundation of adult behavior -no stages after puberty, but childhood memories and fantasies have powerful influence on us for life
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Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
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-he proposed a comprehensive developmental theory -described 8 developmental stages, each characterized by a particular challenge, or developmental crisis -named 2 polarities at each crisis, yet recognized a wide range of outcomes between those opposites The stages: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 3. Initiative vs. Guilt 4. Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Erikson’s is another psychoanalytic theory!! Danish mother took him to Germany, grew up there and traveled. Went back to Vienna for psychoanalysis and provided art therapy for Freud’s patients. Married a Canadian woman and left europe for USA just before WW2. First 5 are close to freud’s. but each had a challenge/developmental crisis to get through with polarities for each. Normal development leads to neither extreme.
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Why do Erikson’s theories differ from Freud’s?/ Erikson’s emphasis
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1. Erickson’s stages emphasize family relationships and culture, not sexual urges 2. Erikson recognizes adult development, with 3 stages after adolescence , and felt it was equally as important
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behaviorism
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-a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. -AKA learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
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Behaviorism: Conditioning and Social Learning
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-arose in opposition to psychoanalytic theory -Watson argued that if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists should examine only what they can see and measure: behavior, not irrational thoughts and hidden urges -if psychologists focus on behavior, they will realize that everything can be learned -also called Learning Theory- idea that \”everything can be learned\”…people learn by developing habits, bit by bit -Actions + Env responses lead to complex behaviors Development occurs in small increments NOT stages.
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conditioning
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-according to behaviorism, the process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli, and learning takes place. -the word conditioning is used to emphasize the importance of repeated practice, as when an athlete conditions his or her body to perform well by training for a long time
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Pavlov
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-linked stimulus and response -conditioned dogs to salivate when hearing a particular noise
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classical conditioning
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-the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a tone) that had no special meaning before conditioning (aka respondent conditioning) -learning to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually responding to the neutral stimulus the same way as the meaningful one Classical conditioning= person learns to associate neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus gradually responding in the same way to neutral stimulus as the meaningful one. Exs in humans…infants learn to smile at their parents bc they know parents will bring them food. We experience nervousness in a situation that reminds of a prior bad situation
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B.F. Skinner
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-agreed that psychology should focus on the science of behavior -recognized operant conditioning
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operant conditioning
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the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated) -consequences following a behavior are experienced as either enjoyable or not enjoyable and will either reinforce behavior being repeated or avoided -AKA instrumental conditioning -careful of the word \”reward\”: (ex: stickers in ASD child; child wanting to get out of school gets suspended) -reinforcer surveys -**problem with research is that people differ!
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reinforcement
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the process by which a behavior is followed by something desired, such as good for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person reinforcers: consequences that increase the frequency or strength of a particular action
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social learning theory
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-an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior -Even without a specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people -holds that humans sometimes learn without personal reinforcement or reinforcement through modeling (not all actions) People will copy some behavior but not all. -Enter Albert Bandura (80-present) who says \”But people also act ON their environment not just respond to it! -consider differential susceptibility in these cases…you witness something dramatic vs your best friend
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modeling
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central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them (aka observational learning)
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cognitive theory
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-a grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time -according to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
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Piaget
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-the first major cognitive theorist -how children think changes with time and experience and their thought process affect their behavior -to understand humans, one must understand thinking -4 age related periods, or stages: 1. sensorimotor 2. preoperational 3. concrete operational 4. formal operational -thoughts/expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and behavior -In 1920s, people assumed babies didnt think, but Piaget disagreed with this and observed infants, then school children—developed his central thesis of cognitive theory -he is credited with discovering that people’s assumptions and perceptions affect their development, but his theories are limited Piaget was a biologist with focus on shellfish but later helped standardize IQ tests. We now know that intelligence is modular rather than a unified system of gen’l intelligence. People can/do develop in one area and not in another. But consider all the advances in neuroscience he wasn’t able to access. NONE of the grand theories are multi-cultural, multi-contextual etc.
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cognitive equilibrium
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-in cognitive theory, a state of MENTAL BALANCE in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas -intellectual advancement occurs because people of all ages seek mental balance (cognitive equilibrium)
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assimilation
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-new is fit into old -the interpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas
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accommodation
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-the restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences -old is restructured to include new (harder than assimilation, but produces i-advancement
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information processing
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-(cognitive theory revamped) -a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output -thinking is affected by changes throughout adulthood -focuses on the process of thought -details of process shed light on the specifics of outcome -cognition begins with input picked up by the 5 senses, proceeds to brain reactions, connections, and stored memories, and concludes with some form of output -ideas matter -Piaget submitted idea that our assumptions and perceptions affect development (now universally accepted) BUT…his ideas were limited -views intelligence as process of output…this has stood the test of time. IDEAS MATTER!
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The methods of these grand theories differ because…
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-Freud and Erikson thought unconscious drives and early experiences formed the bias for later personality and behavior, so they listened to people’s dreams and memories, and incorporated themes from past myths and history -Behaviorists instead stressed actual experiences in each individual’s life, focusing on learning by association, by reinforcement, and by observation. For that reason, they collected experimental data on animals of all kinds ,believing that laws of behavior apply to all creatures, including humans -cognitive theory held that to understand a person, one must learn how that person thinks. Accordingly, Piaget gave children intellectual tasks and listened to their answers
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SUMMING UP
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-each grand theory has a different focus: emotions (psychoanalytic), actions (behaviorism), and thoughts (cognitive) -Freud and Erikson thought unconscious drives and early experiences form later personality and behavior -behaviorists stress experience in more the recent past and focus on learning by association, reinforcement, and observation -cognitive theory holds that to understand a person, one must learn how that person thinks, either in stages (Piaget) or in the organization and maturation of many components of the brain (information processing)
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some newer theories
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new theories emerged that are multicultural and multidisciplinary (unlike grand theories) and are more in accord with the life span perspective
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sociocultural theory (Vygotsky)
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-a newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces -described interaction between culture and education -each culture teaches beliefs and habits… all learning is SOCIAL
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Vygotsky
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-psychologist from USSR -sociocultural theory -pioneer of the sociocultural perspective -describes the interaction between culture and education -apprenticeship in thinking
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apprenticeship in thinking
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-Vygotsky’s term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society -each person develops with guidance of others, more skilled members of society
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guided participation
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-the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations. -teaches novices the skills and habits expected within their culture -methods used by teaching skills to novices Guided participation==consider how we instill social rules in our kids \”say please\” model saying please. He was one of first to state that disabled should be educated.
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Sociocultural Zone of Proximal Development
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-JUST RIGHT CHALLENGE IN OT! -find that zone and help person learn from there. Social learning is ACTIVE! -Zone shifts and expands (decreases as well?)
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taking culture into account
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-you must always take cultural context into consideration when trying to understand a person’s development -what are some of the benefits of having a multicultural view in the child development? …decrese in prejudice, increased interpersonal skills -culture impacts development at all stages
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universal perspective
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-ALL people share impulses, motivations that are expressed in ways most animals cannot -2 theories of significance developed out of this thought base (humanism and evolutionary)
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Maslow
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all people have the same basic needs self actualization esteem love/belonging safety physiological ^^in a triangle Once at highest levels people can experience \”peak experiences\”, where life is so joyful that time seems to stand still and self-seeking disappears. Relatively few people reach this self-actualization stage, but every CAN and that is UNIVERSALITY of humanism. Humanism emphasizes commonalities NOT differences in culture etc. However individuals must complete each stage to move up to the next. Satisfaction of needs at one level allows progression to next
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Carl Rogers
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focused on self and other respect; people should give each other unconditional positive regard , which means that they should see (regard) each other with appreciation (positive) without conditions (unconditional) -if we get this, we can develop -if we don’t get this, this jeapordizes development of intimate relationships and self acceptance -very involved in bringing patient-centered care to psychology and education fields (ECI and schools) -stressed the need to accept and respect one’s own personhood as well as that of everyone else
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Maslow and Rogers
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founded humanism
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humanism
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a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background. 1. physiological: needing food, water, warmth, and air 2. safety: feeling protected from injury and death 3. love and belonging: having friends, family, and a community 4. esteem: being respected by the wider community, and by oneself 5. self actualization: becoming truly oneself, fulfilling one’s unique potential while appreciating all of humanity -humanists emphasize what all humans have in common -must satisfy lower level before satisfying higher level
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Evolutionary Theory
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-viewing human development in evolutionary (Darwin) perspective -we must acknowledge the lives of our ancestors (we fear large animals but not cars- fears haven’t caught up to technology) -we use our minds now to preserve ourselves, i.e., seatbelts, traffic laws, reproductive medicine -every species has 2 long-standing bio drives: survival + reproduction -interaction of genes and environment affects survival and reproduction, the two basic drives recognized by the evolutionary theory
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selective adaptation
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-the process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. -Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the generations, to become more prevalent (genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequently, thus making survival of the species more likely -we can be both physically and psychologically molded as we grow and develop ex: Cheerful parents….abusive parents; too tight shoes or high heels; braces and nose jobs….etc.
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SUMMING UP 2
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-newer theories of development are more multicultural, expansive, and multidisciplinary than the earlier, grand theories -sociocultural theory emphasizes the varied cultural contexts of development -learning occurs within the zone of proximal development, as the result of sensitive collaboration between a teacher and a learner who is ready for the next step -universal theories include humanism and evolutionary theory, both of which stress that all people have the same underlying needs -humanism holds that everyone merits respect and positive regard in order to become self actualized -evolutionary theory contends that thousands of years of selective adaptation have led humans to experience emotions and impulses that have satisfied two universal needs of every species: to survive and to reproduce
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What Theories Contribute:
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Psychoanalytic Theories: make us aware of the impact of early-childhood experiences, remembered or not, on subsequent development Behaviorism: shoes the effect that immediate responses, associations, and examples have on learning, moment by moment and over time Cognitive Theories: bring an understanding of intellectual processes, including that thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development Sociocultural Theories: remind us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted cultural context, evident in every social interaction Universal Theories: stress that human differences are less significant than characteristics that are shared by all humans in every place and era
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eclectic perspective
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the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory -most developmentalists are ecclectic

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