DB211 – Chapter 1 Key Terms

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data dependence
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When all data access programs are subject to change when any of the file’s data storage characteristics change (that is, changing the data type)
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ad hoc query
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a spur-of-the-moment question to the DBMS, the DBMS returns an answer, also known as a query result set.
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analytical databases
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Focus primarily on storing historical data and business metrics used exclusively for tactical or strategic decision making.
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business intelligence
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Describes a comprehensive approach to capture and process business data with the purpose of generating information to support business decision making.
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centralized database
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A database that supports data located at a single site.
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Data
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Data are raw facts. Meaning the facts have not yet been processed to reveal their meaning.
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data inconsistency
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Exsists when different versions of the same data appear in different places.
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data processing (DP) specialist
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Hired to create a computer-based system that would track data and produce required reports.
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data quality
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a comprehensive approach to promoting the accuracy, validity, and timeliness of the data.
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data warehouse
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a specialized database that stores data in a format optimized for decision support. The data warehouse contains historical data obtained from the operational databases as well as data from other external sources.
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database
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A shared, integrated computer structure that stores a collection of: End-user data–that is, raw facts of interest to the end user. Metadata, or data about data, through which the end-user data are integrated and managed.
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database design
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refers to the actuates that focus on the design of the database structure that will be used to store and manage end-user data.
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Database Management System (DBMS)
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A collection of programs that manages the database strutter and controls access to the data stored in the database.
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desktop database
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A single-user database that runs on a personal computer.
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discipline-specific database
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Contain data focused on specific subject areas.
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distributed database
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A database that supports data distributed across several different sites.
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enterprise database
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When the database is used by the entire organization and supports many users (more than, usually hundreds) across many departments.
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Extensible Markup Language (XML)
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A special language used to represent and manipulate data elements in a textual format.
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field
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A character or group of characters (alphabetic or numeric) that has a specific meaning. A field is used to define and store data.
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file
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A collection of related records. For example, a file might contain data about the students currently enrolled at Gigantic University.
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general-purpose database
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Contain wide variety of data used in multiple disciplines–for example, a census database that contains general demographic data, and the LexisNexis and ProQuest database that contain newspaper, magazine, and journal articles for a variety of topics.
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information
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The result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning. Data processing can be as simple as organizing data to reveal patterns or as complex as making forecasts or daring inferences using statistical modeling.
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knowledge
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the body of information and facts about a specific subject.
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metadata
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data about data, through which the end-user data are integrated and managed.
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multiuser database
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supports multiple users at the same time.
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NoSQL (Not Only SQL)
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Generally used to describe a new generation of database management systems that is not based on the traditional relational database model.
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online analytical processing
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A set of tools that work together to provide an advanced data analysis environment for retrieving, processing, and modeling data from the data warehouse.
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operational database
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A database that is designed primarily to support a company’s day-to-day operations. Also known as an online transaction processing (OLTP), transactional, or productional database.
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query
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A specific request issued to the DBMS for data manipulation. Simply a query is a question.
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query result set
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the answer given when an ad hoc query is preformed.
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record
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A logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing. For example, the fields that constitute a customer record might consist of the customer’s name, address, phone number, state of birth, credit limit, and unpaid balance.
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single-user database
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supports only one user at a time.
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social media
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Refers to Web and mobile technologies that enable “anywhere, anytime, always on” human interactions.
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structural dependence
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access to a file is dependent on its structure.
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structural independence
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exists when you can change the file structure without affecting the applications ability to access the data.
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structural data
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The result of formatting unstructured data to facilitate storage, use, and the generation of information.
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unstructured data
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Data that exist in their original (raw) state–that is, in which they were collected. Therefore, unstructured data exist in a format that does not lend itself to the processing that yells information.
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workgroup database
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When a multiuser database supports a relatively small number of users ( usually fewer than 50) or a specific department
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XML database
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Supports the storage and management of semistructured XML data.
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data independence
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exists when you can change the data storage characteristics without affecting the program’s ability to access the data.
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logical data format
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how the human being views the data
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physical data format
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how the computer must work with the data
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islands of information
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storage of the same basic data in different locations
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Data redundancy
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exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places.
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data integrity
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the condition in which al data in the database are consistent with real-world events and conditions. *Data is accurate *Data is verifiable
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data anomaly
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develops when not all of the required changes in the redundant data are made successfully
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database system
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refers to an organization of components that define and regulate the collection, storage, management, and use of data within a database environment.
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performance tuning
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relates to the activities that make the database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed.
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query language
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a nonprocedural language–one that lets the user specify what must be done without having to specify how.
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Structured Query Language (SQL)
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the de facto query language and data access standard supported by the majority of DBMS vendors.

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