Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 1, 2, 3, 7

development of anthropology
-began 2500 ya by Greek historian Herodotus from journeys
-Khaldun wrote universal history
-recent field of inquiry in Western civ; 1886 U Penn
-wasn’t studied until recently; now practiced everywhere

development of anthropology: in western civ
-so long due to limit of technology (no way to travel)
-but people were not ignorant to cultures (in Bible)
-invention of magnetic compass: 500 ya ships from Europe (imperialism) to extend trade and politics, initially label others “savage” but learn to accept them

anthropological perspectives
1) holistic: parts of culture must be seen in broadest content to understand interconnections & interdependence of biological & cultural aspects of humans
-understand how hard facts (anatomy) relate to cultural practices
-focus on nonwestern culture; all humans must be studied (anthro is not uniform liberal politics because varied in all beliefs)
2) ethnocentrism: believe that ones own culture is proper one; need to avoid (culture-bound: don’t have exposure & experience)
-challenge findings of other scientists

Anthropology & It’s Fields
1) physical (biological) anthro 2) archaeology 3) linguistic anthro 4) cultural anthro
-all gather info -> analyze data -> explain similarities (culture practices) and differences (cultural universals) among humans across time and space
-applied anthropology (5th field): use anthropological method to solve practical problems; first use in public health movement (medical anthropology: use cultural and physical anthropology to understand relationship between health & cultural behaviors)

physical (biological) anthropology
-focus on humans are biological organisms
-traditionally study evolution, adaptation, growth & development (how environment impacts growth/variation in physical appearance)/ today study molecular anthropology (genes)
-different fields: paleoanthropology (study of origin of humans/evolution), primatology (study of living/fossil primates), forensic anthropology (study of skeletal for legal purposes)

4 fields: cultural anthropology
study of patterns of human behavior, thought, and feelings
-humans produce culture: society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas and values that generate behavior (ethno – = culture)
-two main components:
1) ethnography (participant observation): description of a culture based on fieldwork (on-location research) (one study)
2) ethnology: comparison of cultures (final conclusion once you finish research; many studies)

4 fields: linguistic anthropology
study of human languages
-allows history to be transmitted
-linguistic relativity: linguistic diversity in differences of sound/grammar AND differences in ways of looking at the world (eg. no word for future/past = no perception of time); argued that there is a universal biological basis
-provides: 1) description (how sentence is formed), 2) history (change over time), 3) study in social setting; eg. discourse: extended communication on a subject (social factors effect how one uses their language)
-number in world is declining; work with tribes oral language to turn into written

4 fields: archaeology
studies human cultures through recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data (eg. pots, tools, bones)
-prehistoric: do not have written records
-subspecialties: bioarchaeology (human), ethnobotany (plants), zoo archaeology (animal remains)

archaeology: cultural resource management (CRM)
branch of archaeology tied to government policies for protection of cultural resources
-preserve important aspects of a cultures historic and prehistoric heritage; must survey lands
-required for any construction project funded by US government
-contract archaeology: state legislation sponsors archaeological work

anthropology, science, and the humanities
-most humane science and scientific humanity
-cannot fully understand another culture by observing it; must experience it (participant observation)
-an empirical social science: based on observations or information taken in through sense and verify by others instead of using intuition
-need imagination (consider the unlikely) and skepticism (being realistic) to understand
-use hypothesis and theory to study relationships & discover unexpected facts
-doctrine: assertion of opinion or belief freely handed down by authority as true or indisputable

being fully immersed in another culture (community = laboratory)
-immerse in data as much as possible (to notice small details that may be overlooked)
-use social participation & personal observation in the community
-reflexivity: check own bias and assumptions as they work
-need background info to make sure researchers conclusions are accurate

comparative method
-end product of research: statement about people that understands and explains their culture; allows for more narrow hypothesis
-cross-cultural research: use global sample to discover whether hypothesis to explain a culture is universally applicable

question of ethics
ethics ensure research does not harm groups studied
-comunicate in advance with planned study and obtain informed consent (formal recorded agreement to participate in research; must translate if diff language done through communication not signature); use pseudonyms: don’t use real name of people being studied
-American Anthropological Association has code of ethics that must be followed
-have special obligations to those they study, those who fund research, and other anthropologists who rely on research

worldwide interconnectedness from global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious disease
-erosion of traditional cultures

study of humanity through space (different locations) and time
-comparative discipline; seek what makes people different/have in common
-concerned with explanation of reality
-single quotes: human labeled (eg. race)
-anthropological perspective: understanding of interactions of factors (social, biological, material) that shape human thought and behavior

shared & socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions that inform and are reflected in people’s behavior
-shared by members of a society
-it exists because it provides a design to help people survive; balance between self-interests of individuals and needs of whole society
-blueprint: structure that can be filled in
-no one group is independent; all interdependent on one another (trade products)

history of culture
-first definition from edward tyler in 1871 “complex whole of knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”
-new definitions; distinguish behavior and ideas because its not just about behavior, its the ideas that generate the behavior

characteristics of culture
1) it is learned
2) it is shared
3) it is based on symbols
4) it is integrated (parts function together as whole)
5) it is dynamic (constantly change)

culture is learned
born with biological ability (desire for order) to acquire culture but learn it through enculturation: how culture is passed on through generations and individuals become members
-learned not inherited
-begins at conception
-learn socially appropriate ways to satisfy basic needs
-each generation learns from the one before
-learned behavior is always shown in primates (in addition to intellectual behavior)

culture is shared
-common denominator of a society; can predict what someone will do
-society: organized group of interdependent people who generally share territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being (can’t have culture without society and no society without culture; not true for all species)
-differences in own culture eg. age (when do you become an adult) roles of men and women (gender: sex is biological but gender is a social construct; 1/3 of babies aren’t completely male/female but dr.’s alter)

culture is shared: subculture
distinctive ideas, values, and behavior patterns by a group within a larger society, but share common standards with larger society
-different occupational (labor) groups, social class, ethnic groups from other societies
-ethnic group: publicly identify as a distinct group; share origin, language, customs (eg. amish, north american indians)
-ethnicity: ideas held by an ethnic group

culture is shared: pluralism/multi-ethnic
-pluralistic society: two or more ethnic groups are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain cultural differences
-eg) uyghur – turkish speaking muslims in china
-can make it difficult to communicate/lots of misunderstandings

culture is based on symbols
symbol: a sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that represents something else
-arbitrary: acquire specific meanings when people agree on usage
-most important symbol is language; transports culture to following generations
eg) ekiuka: translates to HIV & banana eating pathogens

culture is integrated
-culture is a system of distinctive parts that function together as an integrated whole (changes in one part affects another)
-three types of cultural features
1) social structure: social organization; (rule-governed relationship that hold societies together eg. families, power relations)
2) infrastructure: economic base
3) super structure: society’s shared sense of identity and worldview
4) the environment

culture is dynamic
culture must be flexible; when one element inside or outside changes, entire system tries to adjust (strict cultures will not last, but liquid cultures will lose distinctive character)

functions of culture
1) production/distribution of necessary goods/services
2) social structure for reproduction & mutual support (biological continuity)
3) pass on knowledge and enculturate new members to become functioning adults
4) facilitate interaction
5) ways to avoid or resolve conflicts in group/with outsiders
6) maintain order
7) emotional/psychological: predictability (eg. certain ideas about afterlife)
-cultures various parts must be consistent with one another

culture and adaptation
all animals face adaptation: gradual process where organisms adjust to conditions of locality where they live
-natural selection: adapt biologically as frequency of anatomical/physiological features increase in population
-cultural adaptation: ideas, technologies, and activities that allow to survive and even thrive in an environment (humans depend on; we can’t grow a coat, but we can make one); we can live anywhere & we’re so successful we’re dangering other species; humans do not react to the environment as given; they perceive it (different people see it as cold, etc.)

culture and adaptation: maladaptive
-some cultural practices are maladaptive (create problems) eg. toxic air from industrial practices & obesity from fast food
-relativity of adaptation: can be adaptive but also maladaptive (eg. food-foraging people’s garbage disposal is ok in low density but can result in health hazards)
-can be adaptive in short run but maladaptive over time (destroying land for farm land = loss of top soil)

culture and change
-culture, environment & language are constantly changing
-cultures must be flexible to be adaptive
-change can bring bad results (eg. nomads increased size of herds led to overgrazing and erosion)
-change can be driven by capitalism; fashion trend show interplay of infrastructure, social structure, and superstructure: unisex clothing = diminishing gender differences in Western labor market and in division of labor around the world

culture & the individual
-to balance individuals self interest with needs of society as a whole, society offers rewards for adherence to culturally prescribed standards (usually social approval)
-scapegoat: personal needs are not met before the group needs

ethnocentrism and the evaluation of cultures
-in most cultures the name for one’s own society translates to “true human beings” and call outsiders “barbarians”
-cultural relativism: one must suspend judgement of other people’s practices in order to understand them (no premature judgements; wait until you have full understanding of culture and then make informed judgements)
-anthropologists do not rank cultures; instead understand them (examine each culture on its own terms; decide if it satisfies needs and expectations of people in it: nutritional status, incidence of violence, demographic structure, stability and tranquility of life)

ethnography research history: early history
-American anthros focused on Native Indian and Eskimos (internal colonies: indigenous groups surrounded by larger society)
-focus on “primitive” societies (life ways similar to prehistoric ancestors); where little/no info was known
-focus on “endangered societies” that would disappear by “civilized” nations
-after 1960: established code of ethics
-new focus: documenting dying/changing cultures (caused by globalization and assimilation: forced to act like more powerful culture)

ethnography research history: salvage ethnography/ urgent anthropology
-ethnographic research that documents endangered cultures
-sought to reconstruct abandoned traditional lifeways and preserve culture (result of western domination; violence and extinction of culture)

ethnography research history: acculturation studies
acculturation: often disruptive process of cultural change in traditional societies as they come in contact with more powerful state societies
-local indigenous cultures are made inferior and forced to adopt ways of dominant society
-led to applied anthropology
-first one was by Mead: worked with Omaha indians pre & post contact

ethnography research history: applied anthropology
use of anthropological knowledge & methods to solve practical problems in communities confronting new challenges
-help communities with economic, social, political changes

ethnography research history: studying cultures at a distant
-national character studies: to discover personality traits or psychological profiles shared by the majority in societies
-useful in WWII: Mead studied “culture at a distance”: analysis of newspaper, literature, photographs, and films (con: media bias); info used for propaganda and psycho warfare

ethnography research history: studying contemporary state societies
-understanding human relations, ideas, and behavior depends on knowledge of all cultures and peoples, including complex industrial societies
-worked in own countries in various places (factories, farms, suburban)

ethnography research history: peasants
the largest social category in our species
-halfway between modern and traditional foragers (lower class, farm)
-practical and significant because unrest is widespread

ethnography research history: advocacy anthropology and studying up
-advocacy anthropology: research that is community based and politically involved
-help countries adjust to new circumstances or become advocates for peasants and ethnic minorities in order to help them (social justice, human rights, preservation of culture)
-study up: call upon anthropologists to focus on Western elite

ethnography research history: globalization and multi-sited ethnography
-globalscape: worldwide interconnected landscape with multiple intertwining and overlapping peoples and cultures on the move
-diasporic population: living and working far from homeland (consequenece of globalization)
-multi-sited ethnography: study people and culture embedded in larger structures of a globalizing world; follow people, objects, etc. as they move through interrelated transnational situations and locations
-cyberethnography: ethnographic studies of online “imagined communities”

ethnographic research methods
-ethnographic fieldwork: extended on-location research to gather info on a society’s customary ideas, etc. through participation observation in its collective social life
-research is done by anthropologists who have done work in other cultures (non bias); consider culture as a whole despite focus on one topic (hollistic view)
1) site selection & research question
2) preparatory research
3) participant observation (ethnographic techniques: acceptance, participant observation, key consultants)
4) data gathering (surveys, interviewing, mapping, photography & filming)

ethnographic research: site selection & research question & preparatory research
1) where to go? (usually in foreign country)
2) question/problem to study (can take preliminary trip)
3) advance planning: obtain funding and securing permission from community to be studied
4) preparatory research: study info (written, visual, sound), learn language, etc.

ethnographic research: ethnographic techniques
-must socially and psychologically adapt to strange community
1) acceptance
2) participant observation (MOST important)
3) key consultants (informants): members of society being studied who provide info to help researchers understand meaning of what they are observing (fieldworkers thank with cash, goods, services)
-need to bring: notebook, pen, camera, sound/video recorder

ethnographic research: data gathering (ethnographic techniques)
1) quantitative data: measurable, statistical information
2) qualitative data: non statistical information; most important because it captures essence of culture
-gather data by: formal and informal interviewing, mapping, recording sounds and images, genealogical data, and surveys

ethnographic research: data gathering: interviewing
-informal interview: unstructured & open-ended conversation in every day life
-formal interview: structured (prepared) question/answer session carefully notated as it occurs
-two types of questions: open ended and closed
-eliciting device: draws out individuals to share info (eg. join into a game)

challenges of ethnographic fieldwork
1) social acceptance
2) political tension
3) gender, age, ideology, religion, ethnicity, and skin color
4) subjectivity and reflexivity
5) validation

challenges of ethnographic fieldwork: social acceptance
-culture shock & loneliness
-feeling ignorant & awkward
-success depends on mutual goodwill and ability to develop friendships
-can be adopted into networks of kinship relations
-physical challenges: adjusting to food/hygiene/climate, must be alert of conversations relevant to research

challenges of ethnographic fieldwork: political tension
-caught in political rivalries & trying to be neutral
-can be seen as a spying government authority
-must win trust that allows people to be themselves and share unmasked version of their culture

challenges of ethnographic fieldwork: subjectivity (bias) & reflexivity;
to describe culture you need 3 types of data:
1) theory: people’s own understanding of their culture and rules they share
2) belief: extent to which people believe they are observing those rules
3) practice: behavior that can be directly observed (what anthropologist sees happening)
-reflexivity: self-monitor and check their own bias as they work

challenges of ethnographic fieldwork: validation
-can’t replicate experiments like natural science; access to sites is limited, funding, etc.
-changing factors = what could be observed in a certain context at one time cannot be observed at others
-because of this, anthropologists have heavy responsibility for reporting correctly

Completing an Ethnography
piece together all that has been gathered to describe the culture
-describe -> interpet -> theory
-describes: history, community today, natural environment, settlement patterns, subsistence practices, kinship relations, marriage and sexuality, economic exchanges, etc. (can be shown with photos, maps, diagrams)
1) digital ethnography: document research on recordings or film; allows to share info easily
2) ethnohistory: study of cultures of recent past through oral histories

branch of cultural anthropology that makes cross-cultural comparisons and develops theories why certain differences/similarities occur between groups
-theory: explanation supported by reliable data; an agreed understanding (vs. dogma/doctrine: assertion of opinion handed down by an authority as true)
-no theory is true: vary degrees of probability (provide fact-based evidence = explanation of observed reality); can change/improve
-scientific theory depends on demonstrable evidence & repeated testing

ethnology & the comparative method
-cross-cultural researcher depends on evidence gathered by other scholars as well as their own
-Human Relations Area Files (HRAF): a vast collection of cross-indexed data catalogued by cultural characteristics and geographic location (one phenomenon cannot support an entire theory)
-can test hypothesis using old data

ethical responsibilities in anthropological research
-scientia potentia est: anthropological knowledge may have far reaching (possibly negative) consequences for those being studied

timeline of cultural adaptation
1) food foraging: oldest, most universal (mobility, hunt, gather; circle: share everything, no hierarchy, no leader, everyone works together)
2) 10,000 YA: domestication of plants and animals
3) horticulture (cultivating plants) led to permanent settlement, but pastoralism requires mobility to seek pasture & water (triangle; hierarchy emerges; farmers feed middle class)
4) 5,000 YA: cities develop
5) industrial revolution: economy of labor/animals to machines (bad: environmental pollution & global warming)

the unit of adaptation
-includes both organisms and environment (dynamic interaction)
-how humans meet basic needs:
1) constantly make cultural adaptations: skills and knowledge to survive in ecosystem (natural environment and all the organisms living in it)
2) finding efficient methods to get food, water, shelter

adaptation in cultural evolution
-humans use culture to adapt to the environment; Amyara has wide chest to live in high altitude of Andes, Bali gathers in water temples to plan when they will flood their crops
-cultures can evolve (change over time; positive or negative) OR progress (positive change over time; moving towards perfection)
-convergent evolution: development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different cultures
-parallel evolution: development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environments by people whose past culture were similar
-periods of major change are usually followed by stability
-ethnocentric trap: we see all change as progress and thus don’t realize they may cause damage (destroying environment)
-Camache indians traded horses with Europeans but Europeans took over them

adaptation in cultural evolution: culture areas
a geographic region where many societies follow similar patterns of life (cultural traits)
-same environment and resources

adaptation in cultural evolution: culture core
cultural features that are fundamental in the society’s way of making its living (food-producing technique, knowledge of resources, work arrangements)
-pattern of subsistence is also determined by
1) social structure/political organization
2) environmental factors
3) technological advancements
-compromises culture’s food habits: e.g.) kosher

modes of subsistence
cultural infrastructure compatible with the available natural resources (subsistence = ways to get food)
-requires technology to use the resources
-requires work arrangements
1) food foraging: the oldest and most universal (tool making; migratory)
2) food producing societies: domestication of plants and animals
3) industrial food production: machines

modes of subsistence: food foraging
hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
-live in marginal areas (arctic tundra, deserts); don’t choose to, it is the best way for them to survive
1) mobility (nomadic): only move as needed; availability of water is the most crucial factor
2) small group size (less than 100, usually below carrying capacity)
3) flexible divisions of labor by gender
4) food sharing; get unlimited plants, set amount of meat
5) egalitarianism; equality is favored (no social status: everyone carries/owns bare minimum)
6) communal property; resources are first come first serve
7) rarity of warfare

modes of subsistence: food foraging: characteristics: flexible divisions of labor by gender
-men: hunting, butchering, processing hard/tough materials
-women: collect & process plants, domestic (breast feeding, pregnancy)
-these roles are not biologically determined
-divison of labor is far less rigid than other societies (all societies have divisions of labor by gender)

modes of subsistence: food producing societies
-10,000 years ago in SW Asia; Neolithic (New Stone) Age: stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated plants/animals (change was accidental; less secure & more work than foraging)
-built permanent dwelling to sow, weed, protect and harvest crops
-horiculture (producing food in gardens) & agriculture (producing food in farms) & mixed farming (crop growing & animal breeding) & pastoralism (herding grazing animals) (food foragers do not produce)

modes of subsistence: food producing societies: horticulture
cultivation of crops through simple hand tools (digging sticks, hoes)
-do not fertilize; stay in same plot (variety of plants) for a few years
-grow more than amount for subsistence; used for feasts and exchange
-slash and burn cultivation (swidden farming): cut natural vegetation & burn the slash & crops are planted in the ashes

modes of subsistence: food producing societies: agriculture
cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production
-use technology; irrigation, fertilizer, plows (fuel-powered tractor in developed countries)
-grow grains, tubers (potato), fruits, vegetables
-surplus crop cultivation: provide food for own needs & for non producing consumers & specialists (eg. blacksmith) (traded or sold for cash); most substantial
-usually governed by political or economic forces
-fixed settlements: farming families resided together near their cultivated fields
-change from egalitarian to more organized social structure

modes of subsistence: food producing societies: mixed farming
-Eurasian and African food-producers would not miss chance to kill wild game, fish, or fowl (grow plants but also breed/raise farm animals)
-transhumance: vertical season movement in mountains; up in summer, down in winter (only some move their herds; entire community migrates is pastoralism)

modes of subsistence: food producing societies: pastoralism
breeding and managing large herds of domesticated grazing and browsing animals (llama, camels, horse, goat, sheep, cattle)
-no permanent homes; follow or drive their herds to new pastures
-environments that are too dry, cold, steep, or rocky for farming
-trade surplus animals, leather and wool for other necessities (fruit, spice, tea)
-Bakhtiari herders in zagros mountains of west Iran; goats and sheep

modes of subsistence: food producing societies: intensive agriculture
-intensive agriculture led to urbanization (towns and cities); farmers became craftsmen
-new social order: more complex (ranked on control over resources, occupation, gender) = more inequality
-change in human culture: writing, trade intensified, monumental buildings built, new central government that dictated rules
-took over surrounding rural farms; these farmers became peasants: their surpluses were transferred to dominant rulers who gave it to their craftsmen/workers); still stuck in poverty today

modes of subsistence: industrial food production
-200 years ago; invention of steam engine in England
-began to use biofuels (coals, gas, oil) after steam
-increased factory production & transportation
-1960s: food production is large-scale, efficient, and cheap
-agribusiness (corporate farming): large-scale businesses involved in food production; hurt peasants and small farmers
-electronic digital revolution in the late 20th century allows for global marking complex involving interlinked distribution centers
-globalscape: US produces chicken and sends parts all over the world

culture cores
-Mursi: mixed economy (honey, cattle, corn)
-Bahaya: banana famers
-Bakhtiara/Basseri: nomadic pastoralists (sheep, goat); Basseri = Il-rah (migratory route)
-Bushmen/San/JuHoansi/Tiwi: food foragers

language (linguistics)
a system of symbolic communication using sounds and/or gestures (and symbols & rules) that result in meanings based on agreement by a society who shares the language
-the sounds and gestures are symbols: represents something in a meaningful way
-signals: instinctive sound or gesture has a natural meaning (eg. scream); innate: not learned (cultural universal)
-3 branches of study: descriptive linguistics, historical linguistics, and sociolinguistics/ethnolinguistics

language & culture
-biological makeup: programmed for language but must learn it
-culture is dependent on language: due to amount of knowledge that must be learned by each person from other individuals in order to fully participate in society; enables us to translate concerns/beliefs into symbols that can be understood and interpreted by others
-language is the central and most highly developed human system
-most important symbol in culture (reflects our culture; ability to communicate & share culture)

Linguistic Research and the Nature of Language
-linguistics: study of all aspects of language
-no more than 50 sounds in the 6500 languages in the world
-discovered that all languages are organized in the same basic way)

descriptive linguistics
unravels a language by recording, describing, and analyzing its features; provides a deeper understanding
-how to research undocumented language
-need a trained ear and understanding of how different speech sounds are produces (phonetics)
-phonology, morphology, syntax and grammar

descriptive linguistics: phonology
the study of language sounds
-phonetics: systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language
-minimal-pair test: isolate phonemes (smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning)

descriptive linguistics: morphology, syntax, and grammar
-morphology: study of patterns or rules of word formation; mark out morphemes (smallest units of sound that carry meaning)
-syntax: patterns or rules by which morphemes are arranged into phrases/sentences
-grammar: the entire formal structure of a language (includes morphology and syntax)

historical linguistics
how languages change
-decipher “dead” languages
-new words in modern languages (eg. twerking)
-relationships among languages:
1) language family: a group of languages descended from a single ancestral language
2) Linguistic divergence: the development of different languages from a single ancestral language
-glottochronology: estimate when divergence occurred (compares core vocabulary: most basic and long-lasting words; change slowest)

historical linguistics: process of linguistic divergence (why languages change)
-languages are always changing!
1) selective borrowing from one language
2) need for a new vocabulary

historical linguistics: language of low and revival
-the most powerful force of change is the domination of one society over another
-more and more languages are going extinct (due to globalization)
-linguistic nationalism: ethnic minorities attempt to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms

study of language and society
1) Gender
-gendered speech: distinct male and female speech patterns that vary by culture
2) Social Dialects: varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions, occupations, or social classes
-code switching; changing from one mode of speech (language or dialect) to another as the situation demands

Social and Cultural Settings: Ethnolinguistics
study of language and culture
1) Linguistic Relativity: distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language (eg. different words for different types of snow in the arctic)
2) Linguistic determinism: language shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us (Sapir-whorf hypothesis; Hopi language in Arizona)

language versatility
-in many societies, people speak two or three languages because they were taught them as children
-receptive (passive) bilingualism: ability to comprehend two languages but speak in only one

gesture-call system
“key” speech: provides listeners with appropriate frame for interpreting what speaker is saying
1) Body Language
gesture: facial expressions and body postures/motions that convey messages
-kinetics: system of notating and analyzing body language
-proxemics: cross-cultural study of people’s perception and use of space
2) Paralanguage: voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning (eg. groaning, giggling)

tonal languages
a language where sound pitch of spoke word is essential to its meaning and pronunciation
-70% of languages
-non-tonal language (like English) can use tone to convey attitude

-people have found ways to expand their acoustic range to sound information beyond their loudest vocal reach (eg. whistled speech: exchange of whistled words; going extinct)
-in a globalizing world:
-illiteracy condemns disadvantaged people to ongoing poverty; the UN established literacy as a human right
-have reached remote villages; cell phones make communication possible without literacy (voice calls)

the origin of language
-cultural groups usually say homelands as state of origin and that the first humans spoke their language
-30k to 125k YA, Neanderthals had features necessary for speech
-displacement: referring to things and events removed in time and space (something apes can do that is distinctive to human language)
-spoken language may have emerged from gestural
-benefits of speaking: in dark, don’t have to stop what you’re doing

from speech to writing
-writing system: a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of a language in a systematic way (eg. hieroglyphics)
-alphabet: a series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in traditional order (invented 4,000 YA by Semitic-speakers in Egypt; the Greeks changed it 2800 YA to suit their language)