CRJ 118 test

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What is the most used frequent drug in the stimulus category
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caffeine
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According to the drug enforcement administration, drug addiction is
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a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking use
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the cost of alcohol abuse is _________ the social cost of all illegal drugs
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twice
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the word drug is derived from the fourteenth century french word drogue, meaning ___________
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dry substance
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______________ elevate mood – produce feeling of wellbeing- by stimulation the CNS
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stimulants
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Substances that can reduce pain are known as __________
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depressants
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____________ is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and used, despite harmful consequences
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drug addiction
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substances that alter perceptual functions are known as __________
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hallucinogens
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both alcohol and tobacco function as introductory drugs that may lead to the use of other psychoactive drugs (T or F)
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True
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The national institute on drug abuse (NIDA) reports thats _____________ dependance is most common substance use disorder in the U.S
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nicotine
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The ____________ controls such basic drives as sexual activity
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hypothalamus
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Neurotransmitter levels are controlled by chemicals in the presynaptic terminal which are known as ___________
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monoamine oxidases (MAO)
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substances that stimulate receptor sites are known as ____________
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agonists
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Psychoactive drugs are absorbed into the bloodstream and quickly carried to the ____________ nervous system
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central
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When determining risk versus reward the ___________ tend to emphasize benefits while discounting dangers
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adolescent brain
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___________ where neurotransmitters attach cause chemical substances to interact and produce pharmacological actions
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receptor sites
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an important part of the cell body are ___________, which appear as branches of a tree and receive messages from other neurons
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dendrites
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consuming more than one type of psychoactive chemical is called ____________
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poly drug use
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Neurons do not interlock but instead are separated by synapses ( T or F)
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true
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in reaction to emotional memories burned into it by the intensity of the drug euphoria, the ___________ operates outside of conscious control to cause intense cravings
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amygdala
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___________ is a synthetic version of morphine prescribed for chronic or long lasting pain
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oxycodone
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physicians often use the less addictive drug _____________ to relive heroin withdrawal symtoms
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clonidine
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chronic ___________ use leads to cirrhosis of the liver, damage to the heart muscle and nerve damage
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alcohol
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most long term alcoholics suffer from wernicke korsakoff syndrome, a deficiency in:
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thiamine
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heroin depletes the neurotransmitter ________
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dopamine
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unlike other drugs of abuse, alcohol
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provides calories, is a food, and is partially eliminated through the lungs and urine
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benzodiazepines are referred to pharmacologically as ____________
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sedative hypnotics
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oxycodone is the active ingredient of ___________, and is also found in medications such as percodan and tylox
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oxycontins
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approximately _____ adult americans consume alcohol
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2 out of every 3
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analogs designed by the underground chemists are known as______________
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designer drugs
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some intravenous abusers combine cocaine with heroin a practice known as ____________
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speedballing
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cocaine achieves its main immediate psychological effect the high by causing a build up ______________
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dopamine
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cocaine that has been cut for consumer sale in the U.S typically has a purity level of less than ______ percent
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20
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Crazy medicine is ____________________
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mixture of meth and caffeine
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crack is made by cooking cocaine with a mixture of ______________ and water
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sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
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researchers have found that the human liver combines __________ and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaines euphoric effects while possibly increasing the risk of sudden death
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cocaine and alcohol
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the effects of inhaled cocaine disappear in ________
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60 to 90 mins
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resembling a normal cigarette, electronic cigarettes use a battery powered device of deliver a smokeless and odorless dose of __________
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nicotine
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Because _____________ suppresses appetite, chronic heavy users generally fail to eat properly and thus develop various illness related to victim deficiencies and malnutrition
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methamphetamine
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women are susceptible than men to ___________ induces brain damage
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nicotine
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perceiving sounds, odors, tactile sensations, or visual images that arise from within the person, not the environment is an autonomic hyperactivity induced distortion of the perception of objective reality known as _____________
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hallucinations
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which three classes of perception drugs are commonly abused
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opioids, depressants, stimulants
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lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in ______________
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1938
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________________ was initially developed as a general anesthetic for surgery
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pcp
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fewer than ________ percent of LSD users report recurring low intensity trips so called flashbacks without having ingested the substance recently
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25
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indians in the northern mexico have used ___________ as a part of their religious rites since prehistoric times
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mescaline
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_________ the common name for MDMA is a synthetic drug that has stimulant and hallucinogenic properties
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ectasy
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the death of ___________ in 2009 cast a spotlight on propofol, in widely used, short acting intravenous sedative hypnotic used in the introduction and maintenance of anesthesia or sedation
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micheal jackson
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the immediate effects of inhalants are similar to those of __________
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alcohol
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___________, such as darvon, demerol, methadone, oxycontin, percoct, percodan, and vicodin, which are prescribes to treat pain
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opioids
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frued posited that the _______ consists of thoughts and memories that can easily be called fourth
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preconcius
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the genital stage of of psychological development occurs from about ages
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3-5
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when some aspect of animal or human behavior is followed by a certain type of consequence a reward the behavior is more likely to be repeated. the reward is called
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positive reinforcement
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according to freud, the ______ exercises a sense of morality that controls behavior
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superego
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learning theory proceeds on the basis that all forms of behavior are
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conditioned
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a person ______ a negative rienforcer
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works to escape
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part of the psychological explanation for drug abuse has been a presumed ____________ a psychological vulnerability resulting from problematic family relationships, inappropriate reinforcement, the lack of healthy role models, contradictory parental expectations, and/ or an absence of love and respect
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addictive personality
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which of the following is cited in the text as a noted behavior
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B.F Skinner
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Social control theory argues that lower risk of drug use is closely related to ____________
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close knit families
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the pairing of two stimuli, one of which elicits a reflex and one of which is neutral is known as _________
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classical conditioning
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The __________ Amendment initiated national prohibition.
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18th
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The earliest \”war against drugs\” (other than alcohol) in the United States was a
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opium
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The amendment that enacted Prohibition became effective in _________.
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1920
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During the 1960’s the pendulum of drug policy began to shift away from a law enforcement model toward a __________________.
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treatment
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The __________ Act strengthened the amendment that enacted Prohibition.
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Volstead
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In 1961 California established a ______________ program in which drug addicts were taken into custody and committed.
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civil commitment
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_______________ such as Miltown and Valium enabled millions of housewives to \”get by with a little help from their friend\”.
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Sedatives and tranquilizers
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_________________ became popular during the 1960s, particularly among rebellious college students and people who identified themselves as antiestablishment.
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Hallucinogens
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LSD arrived in the United States from Europe in 1949 for experimental use in treating _____________________.
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psychiatric disorders
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Barbituric acid was first synthesized in _____________ in 1863 by Nobel Prize-winning chemist Adolf von Baeyer.
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Germany
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The ____________ Amendment and Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (18 U.S.C. Section 2510-520) place restraints on how the government can secure information about the activities of suspected drug traffickers.
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Fourth
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The __________ Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy trial.
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Sixth
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The ___________ have been particularly active in efforts against outlaw motorcycle clubs, which often traffic in firearms and drugs.
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FBI
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U.S. efforts against drug abuse are limited by _________________.
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national boundaries
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In United States versus Verdugo Urquidez, the Supreme Court has held that constitutional protections do not obtain in U.S. government actions against foreign nationals on ______________.
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U.S soil
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_________________ encourages citizens to report crimes; the agency will then respond to the reports..
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Reactive law enforcement
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Their most important task of the ______________ relative to drug trafficking is responsibility for administering the Witness Security Program .
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U.S. Marshals Service
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________________ has also been criticized as a plea-bargaining device for drug kingpins
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Forfeiture
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Before passage of the ___________, money laundering was not a federal crime
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Money Laundering Control Act of 1986
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. _________________ restrains government from arbitrarily depriving a person of life, liberty, or property.
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Due process
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a 700 gram unit of heroin bought in Thailand for 7,500 to 9,500 can be sold in the U.S for ___________
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60,000-70,000
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in 1972 the French and the U.S drug agents effectively dismantled the ____________, ending the American Mafia’s monopoly on heroin distribution in the U.S
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French connection
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the globalization of organized crime created a connection with ___________
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Terrorism
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Control of the worlds cocaine industry rests in the hands of ______________
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columbian
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_____________ organized crime syndicates control the wholesale distribution of cocaine in the western half and the midwest of the United States and they dominate the drug trade in the Northwestern United
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mexican
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By the end of the 1990’s Columbian heroin accounted for more than _______ percent of the drug smuggled into the United States.
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50
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The popular culture of Mexico is fused with songs and ballads- known as _____________ glamorizing drug trafficking
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narcocorridos
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___________ dominate marijuana distribution in sections of Manhattan and the Bronx, most of Queens(particularly the Jamaican section of southwestern Queens) northern Brooklyn, and sections of Northern New Jersey
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Jamaicans
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since authorities began keeping records in the 1990, dozens of ____________ have been found along the Mexican Boarder with the United States – 24 were discovered in 2008
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dope tunnels
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the vast majority of ____________ consumed in the United States is produced in Europe–primarily the Netherlands and Belgium
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ecstasy
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with the passage of the ____________ drug testing also became a standard feature in the work place as a way to measure a worker productivity and to ensure public safety
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drug free workplace act
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opiates were once presented as a cure for_________
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alcohol dependence
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heroin addicts typically enter treatment when ____________
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Their habit is too expensive to support
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drug testing first appeared in the _________ as a part of methadone maintenance programs
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1960’s
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Metadone is __________
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Wholly synthetic narcotic
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Methadone’s success in treating some heroin abusers can be explained in terms of ____________
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behavorism
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the first medication approved by the FDA for dealing with alcohol dependence is___________
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Antabuse
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the alcohol anonymous approach of using public confession and commitment and mutual aid concepts can be found in a number of ________ century temperance organization
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19th
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behavior modification is a treatment approach based on _______________
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learning theory
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______________ therapy strives to have abusers understand their cravings and to develop coping skills
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cognitive behavior
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The first woman convicted for delivering a controlled substance to her fetus, in Florida in ___________
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1990
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A study in Illinois found that although white and African American women show similar rates of illegal drug use during pregnancy __________
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black women are more likely to be reported to authorities
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The creation of an illegal drug market controlled by organized crime was the result of _______________.
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– the existence of a huge profit opportunity – the outlawing of addictive drugs – the entrepreneurial ruthlessness of organized criminals
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On measuring the result of policy changes, Husak and de Marneffe ask should we be punishing people \”simply because _______________________?\”
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we are unable to demonstrate the benefits of not punishing them
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A study conducted by USA Today revealed that African Americans are ______ as likely as whites to be arrested on drug charges, even though both groups use drugs at about the same rate
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4 times
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Women who abuse heroin during pregnancy frequently give birth to infants suffering from ____________________.
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neonatal abstinence syndrome
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By 2004 state prisons were operating at ____ percent of capacity.
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115
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Certain substances that may be harmful to their consumers can be sold with only minimal restrictions. This is called________
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regulation.
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In theory, ____________ of a product in a free-market economy will drive up the price, reduce demand, and reduce consumption.
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reducing supply
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Since 1982 there has been a legally available pharmaceutical for physicians in ophthalmology and cancer treatment: Marinol (dronabinol), which is 98.8 percent pure __________.
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THC
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Drugs became a major political issue during the 1988 presidential campaign in part because of a __________ that asked the question \”Should Drugs Be Made Legal?\”
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Time Magazine article
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Nadelmann argues that most Americans would oppose making alcohol and tobacco illegal because _______________.
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– adult Americans have the right to choose what substances they will consume and what risks they will take – the economic costs of trying to coerce so many Americans into abstaining from those substances would be enormous – the social costs would be disastrous
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Most of those who ingest psychoactive chemicals ___________________.
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do not become dysfunctional
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When Connecticut changed its law to permit the purchase and possession of hypodermic needles without a prescription, the number of AIDS cases fell by _____ percent
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40
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The principle of harm reduction that evaluates impacts in comparison to some other, or no, intervention is ___________________.
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balancing costs and benefits
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The principle of harm reduction that accepts that some use of mind-altering substances is a common feature of human experience is ________________________.
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humanistic values
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The primary aim of Dutch drug policy is focused on ________________.
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health protection
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Dutch drug policy led to an influx of heroin users from other countries – so-called_____________.
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coffee shop owners
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Hard-core __________ heroin addicts receive their drugs from the government
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Swiss
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A policy of containment has been adopted by the __________________.
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Swiss

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