CPR533 Midterm

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History of Social Media
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According to the definition above, the first recognizable social network site launched in 1997.
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Definition of Social Media
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websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking
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Characteristics of Social Networking Sites
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Profiles in a bounded system, display an articulated list of friends, After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system with whom they have a relationship. The Friends list contains links to each Friend’s profile, enabling viewers to traverse the network graph by clicking through the Friends lists. On most sites, the list of Friends is visible to anyone who is permitted to view the profile, although there are exceptions.
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Online Communities
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Groups of people with common interests and practices that communicate regularly and for some duration in an organized way over the Internet through a common location or mechanism.Typically, members become attached to their communities and visit them often. Examples of virtual communities are bulletin boards where the same people come, on a regular basis, to discuss common interests such as fighting breast cancer, collecting antique vases, or the issues of owning a Sabre sailboat.
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Social Network Site vs. Social Networking Site
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People you know vs. meeting strangers. Emphasis and scope. ”Networking” emphasizes relationship initiation, often between strangers. While networking is possible on these sites, it is not the primary practice on many of them, nor is it what differentiates them from other forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC). What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. This can result in connections between individuals that would not other- wise be made, but that is often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between ”latent ties” (Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline connection. On many of the large SNSs, participants are not necessarily ”networking” or looking to meet new people; instead, they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network. To emphasize this articulated social network as a critical organizing feature of these sites, we label them ”social network sites.”
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What attracts user to join a virtual community?
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Information Exchange (Most frequent) – Knowledge and information are, in general, a valuable currency or social resource Social Support – a flow of emotional concern, instrumental aid, information, and/or appraisal (information relevant to self-evaluation) between people Friendship – The interactivity achieved with chat rooms, instant messaging, and bulletin boards, and the various search facilities available on the Internet provide a way for individuals to search for and to communicate with others for the purpose of establishing and continuing friendships. Recreation – Virtual community participants have been found to believe that the communities are fun and enjoyable, and the primary motivation for individuals in MUDs is an interest in recreational role-playing and game playing.
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Media Richness
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Media richness theory is based on the assumption that the goal of any communica- tion is the resolution of ambiguity and the reduction of uncertainty. It states that media differ in the degree of richness they possess-—that is, the amount of information they allow to be transmitted in a given time interval-—and that therefore some media are more effective than others in resolving ambiguity and uncertainty. Applied to the context of Social Media, we assume that a first classification can be made based on the richness of the medium and the degree of social presence it allows.
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Social Presence
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social presence theory states that media differ in the degree of ”social presence”-—defined as the acoustic, visual, and phys- ical contact that can be achieved-—they allow to emerge between two communication partners. Social presence is influenced by the intimacy (inter- personal vs. mediated) and immediacy (asynchronous vs. synchronous) of the medium, and can be expected to be lower for mediated (e.g., telephone conversa- tion) than interpersonal (e.g., face-to-face discus- sion) and for asynchronous (e.g., e-mail) than synchronous (e.g., live chat) communications. The higher the social presence, the larger the social influence that the communication partners have on each other’s behavior.
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Self-Presentation
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The concept of self-presentation states that in any type of social interaction people have the desire to control the impressions other people form of them. On the one hand, this is done with the objective of influencing others to gain rewards (e.g., make a positive impression on your future in-laws); on the other hand, it is driven by a wish to create an image that is consistent with one’s personal identity (e.g., wearing a fashionable outfit in order to be perceived as young and trendy). The key reason why people decide to create a personal webpage is, for example, the wish to present them- selves in cyberspace. Usually, such a presentation is done through self-disclosure; that is, the conscious or unconscious revelation of personal information (e.g., thoughts, feelings, likes, dislikes) that is consistent with the image one would like to give.
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Self-Disclosure
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The conscious or unconscious revelation of personal information (e.g., thoughts, feelings, likes, dislikes) that is consistent with the image one would like to give. Self-disclosure is a critical step in the development of close relationships (e.g., during dating) but can also occur between complete strangers; for example, when speaking about per- sonal problems with the person seated next to you on an airplane. Applied to the context of Social Media, we assume that a second classification can be made based on the degree of self-disclosure it requires and the type of self-presentation it allows.
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Parasocial Interactions
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Relationship b/w media users and media figures. Why do these relationships form?Humans have need to connect to other people. Where?Across all media platforms and or/ in media environments where there is no interaction. Why? Increases sales and loyalty and brings appreciation Journalist Interactions Disclosing personal information, asking readers questions to get to know their audience. Conversational language.
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Cues Filtered In, Cues Filtered Out
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Similar to face-to-face interactions, people motivated in online interactions with others also wish to \”reduce interpersonal uncertainty, form impressions, and develop affinity.\” Walther argues verbal cues can be replaced with nonverbal cues over CMC (Computer mediated information) and has published experimental support for this claim. Here, affection expressed verbally online was compared to verbal synchronous offline communication and found to be equivalent across settings. CMC partners ask more questions and disclose more about themselves than do their face-to-face counterparts. In this way, CMC may actually improve or assist FtF interactions. -Because we over-interpret the few cues that are there We substitute emotions with emojicons.
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Cognitive Surplus
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The free time that people have on their hands to engage in collaborative activities, specially as applies to web 2.0. And what did we do with that free time? Well, mostly we spent it watching TV. they just assume that media includes consuming, producing and sharing.
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Wisdom of the Crowds
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Many Are Smarter Than the Few. Its central thesis, that a diverse collection of independently deciding individuals is likely to make certain types of decisions and predictions better than individuals or even experts.
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Four elements required to form a wise crowd
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Diversity of opinion: Each person should have private information even if it’s just an eccentric interpretation of the known facts. Independence: People’s opinions aren’t determined by the opinions of those around them. Decentralization: People are able to specialize and draw on local knowledge. Aggregation: Some mechanism exists for turning private judgments into a collective decision.
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Loyalty
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Brands strive to win customer loyalty because repeat purchases are critical to company success and profit- ability. Brand loyalty: the tendency of some consumers to continue buying the same brand of goods rather than competing brands. Costumer loyalty: Need to trust brand, need to have value and commitment.
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Affordances
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affordance represents the notion of ”opportunities for action” as perceived by an organism in its environment (Gibson, 1979). The original conceptualization of affordance simultaneously considers the properties of an object (e.g., a hill) and of a perceiving entity – Clues about how an object should be used, typically provided by the object itself or its context. For example, even if you’ve never seen a coffee mug before, its use is fairly natural. The handle is shaped for easy grasping and the vessel has a large opening at the top with an empty well inside.
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Journalist join Twitter for three main motivations:
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to follow sources; to promote content or interact with readers; or because of office structures or directives.

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