Corrections Exam 1

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More than 3%
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When all forms of correctional supervision are taken into account, what percent of all adults in the United States are under some form of correctional control?
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2.3 million
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Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?
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6
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One out of ___ African American children have a parent who has been to prison.
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Feedback
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Systems learn, grow and improve according to what?
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Help people
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Probation and parole officers state that their original decision to become involved in this particular career field is based on their desire to:
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Financial and social change
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Now more than ever correctional systems are in a new era of correctional policy in what areas?
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To carry out the criminal sentence
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Which of the following is the central purpose of punishment?
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Both protection and punishment
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Corrections ideally serves which goal(s)?
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Reciprocal
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According to the author, Corrections has a(n)_____ relationship with its environment.
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The United States
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Which of the following countries has the highest incarceration rate in the world?
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Emile Durkheim
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Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity:
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more complex
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As systems grow and mature, they become:
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Federalism
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According to the author, which system of government divides power between federal and state governments?
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two-third
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Approximately ___ of all people under correctional supervision are living in the community on probation or parole.
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managing the correctional organization and working with offenders
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Clear, Cole and Reisig divide some of the controversies, issues and themes that arise in the study of corrections into two main areas:
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faces dispute
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The theory that offenders can be corrected:
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disputed
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One result of funding squabbles is that organizational turf is:
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street-level bureaucrats
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Because correctional workers work directly with people, they have been referred to as:
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exchange
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Interdependence between staff and offenders is considered:
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social relations
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According to the text, every aspect of the corrections field raises questions that concern deeply held values about:
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False
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The nonprofessional staff that works within the prison system normally possesses a college education. (T or F)
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False
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The organizational turf of criminal justice agencies is very clear because there is no blurring around the edges regarding the responsibility for different types of actions.
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True
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Corrections consist of subunits, each with its own function and responsibilities. Some examples are probation offices, halfway houses, and prisons.
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True
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People who undertake careers in corrections do so because they find the field an excellent place to express their most cherished values.
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True
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Large corrections systems damage families and communities, and increase racial inequality.
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whipping
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The following is an example of corporal punishment:
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similar behavior
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Jeremy Benthem argued that effective punishments prevent _____ in the future.
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religious groups
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Political liberals and _____ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.
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1790s
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The penitentiary was developed during the:
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correctional staff
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By the 1900s, punishments were carried out under the supervision of:
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All of these: Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment Punishment needs to be proportionate
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Lex Talionis embodies which of the following principles?
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transportation
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The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as:
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Cesare Beccaria
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The founder of the Classical School of Thought is _____
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All of these: It brought a reaction against feudal society and the monopoly of religion. It stressed the notion of equality for all citizens. It was largely influenced by the growth of scientific thinking.
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The period known as the Enlightenment had what effect(s) on society?
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The invention of the penitentiary, where prisoners could be isolated from the temptations of the outside world.
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The Enlightenment proposed which of the following ideas for correctional reform?
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money paid to relatives or victims of a crime
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The term wergild focuses on which of the following:
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All of these: People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations ont he government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.
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How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?
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All of these: Observation Experimentation Technological development
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During the Age of Reason, advances in scientific thinking led to a questioning attitude that emphasized which of the following?
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1200s
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According to the text, Legal sanctions, in the form we are familiar with today, emerged in the:
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13th
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The response to crime was viewed as essentially a private affair prior to the _____ century?
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Jeremy Bentham
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_____ was the leader of reform in England and the developer of a utilitarian approach to crime and punishment
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a system of compensation
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Wergild developed as:
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the church
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The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was:
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secular law
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The law of the civil society as distinguished from church law is known as.
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all literate persons
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Benefit of clergy was extended to:
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True
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Under the law of retaliation, lex talionis, vengeance was a duty to be carried out by the person wronged or by a family.
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False
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In England by the year 1200, a system of wergild, or payment of money as compensation, had developed as a way for the king to collect additional resources from the citizens.
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True
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One of the major reasons England and Europe resorted to sending offenders to the New World was that their prisons and houses of corrections were filled to overflowing.
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False.
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Public opinion about punishment has remained static over the last 200 years.
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False
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Shaming is a new punishment idea.
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Eastern State Penitentiary
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The concept of separate confinement was introduced in several locations, however one became the fullest expression of rehabilitation through separate confinement.
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forces in the environment
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Ideas of the Enlightenment fostered the thinking that crime is caused by:
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Auburn Penitentiary
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The \”congregate\” system of prison discipline was first instituted at the:
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the treatment and diagnosis of criminals
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With the rise of the medical model, the emphasis in corrections shifted to:
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sharply increased
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Between 1790 and 1830, the population in urban America had:
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heterogeneous
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During the 19th century, American society became increasingly:
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Walnut Street Jail
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Separate confinement was first implemented in:
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All of these: offenders were isolated from bad influences in society offenders were isolated from one another where offenders could reflect on their misdeeds
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The penitentiary was to be a place where:
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the separate confinement system
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The opening of Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 marked the full development of the:
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1930’s
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According to the text, the medical model of corrections was beginning to be taken seriously through implementation in the _____
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rehabilitating individual offenders
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During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and __________
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penitentiary
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An institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each other so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is the:
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1940s
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According to the text, serious attempts made to implement what became known as the medical model of corrections began in the:
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reformatory
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The ______ was an institution for young offenders that emphasized training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole.
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South.
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The leasing of convicts to private entrepreneurs took hold in the:
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John Haviland
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Eastern State Penitentiary was designed by:
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disillusioned
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By the mid-1800s, reformers were ____ with the penitentiary.
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all of these: understaffed overcrowded financially burdened
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Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become:
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reintegrate the offender
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According to community based corrections, the goal of the criminal justice system is to:
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True
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English trends and practices greatly influenced American corrections.
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True
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The Auburn System focused on a congregate system of operations.
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True
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Social and political values greatly influence correctional thought and practices.
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True
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The original penitentiary relied on penance and contemplation as the means for the criminal offender to move from sin toward perfection.
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False
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Corrections based on the assumption that criminal behavior can be treated is known as the crime control model.

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