Correction Officer Study Guide (Ohio)

List five reasons for corrections training.
-To acquire new knowledge & skills
-To prepare for proper job performance
-To improve safety & survival during critical events
-To standardize procedures within the field of corrections
-To build confidence with new found knowledge & skills

Define the term “ethics”.
The moral actions, conduct, motives & character of an individual

Explain the relationship between a Student Performance Objective and a test question.
A test question must respond directly to an SPO and every SPO may be the basis of a test question.

State the nine responsibilities of Correction Officers.
– To treat everyone professionally
-To yourself to maintain your self respect
-To your own profession
-To your family
-To your community
-To citizens to never allow cynicism to cloud your view of the people whom you serve
-To never use excessive physical force when controlling combative individuals
-To never accept gratuities
-To never commit perjury

Identify the purpose of any “Code of Ethics”.
-The purpose of any code of ethics is to identify expected behavior.

Define the term “non-feasance”.
-The nonperformance of some act which the person is obligated or has responsibility to perform.

Define the term “malfeasance”.
-The commission of some act which is positively unlawful.

Define the term “bribery”.
-The offering, giving, receiving or soliciting of something of value for the purpose of influencing the action of an official in the discharge of his or her public or legal duties.

State the four factors which most likely contribute to unethical behavior.
-Peer pressure

Define the term “probable cause”.
-The facts & circumstances within the officer’s knowledge & of which he/she has reasonably trustworthy information sufficient to warrant a person to believe that an offense has been or is being committed by the person to be arrested.

Define the term “sexual harassment”.
-Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature as a condition of employment.

Define the term “administrative segregation”.
-The act of confining a prisoner to an individual housing cell or designated housing unit, physically separate from the general population for specific reasons, other than as a penalty, thereby prohibiting physical contact between this prisoner & the general population.

Describe the two types of sexual harassment & an example of each.
-Quid Pro Quo: this for that or something for something
-Hostile Environment: occurs when employees who are not harassed directly, must work in an atmosphere or environment where such harassment is pervasive.

Identify characteristics of potential sexual assault perpetrators.
-Violent crime convictions
– Long sentences
-Familiar with prison culture
-Large stature
-Gang affiliations
-Significant social status within the prison

List in order the major components of the criminal justice system.
-Law enforcement agencies

Define the term bail.
-A guarantee, usually in the form of money, that the accused will appear in court.

Define the term “indictment”.
-A formal written accusation of a crime made by a grand jury.

List the basic legal issues that the court will consider when determining whether sexual harassment is present in the workplace.
-Sexual in nature
-Severe or pervasive in the workplace

Identify ways staff can become aware that an alleged sexual assault has occurred.
-Discover a sexual assault while it is in progress or personally witness an incident that includes sexual threats or pressure.
-A victim or another inmate may report that an incident has occurred.
-Overhearing inmates talking about a sexual assault incident.
-Medical evidence of an incident may be discovered during a medical exam though the inmate has reported no incident.

Identify characteristics of potential male sexual assault victims.
-Convicted of non-violent crimes
-First time offenders who are unaware of prison culture
-Young, smaller in stature or possess feminine characteristics
-Not street-wise
-Mental & physical disabilities

List the duties of the first responder to a sexual assault incident.
-Separate the victim and the accused
-Preserve and protect any crime scene until appropriate steps can be taken to collect any evidence
-Have the victim and abuser not take any actions that could destroy evidence

Explain the primary sources of inmate rights.
-US Constitutional Amendments 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14
-Case Law Precedent
-Federal Statutory Right (PLUIPA, PREA)
State Statutory Rights (ORC)

Explain the general parts of a civil lawsuit in a correctional setting.
-Plaintiff: part that brings a civil lawsuit
-Defendant: the person being sued
-Tort: civil wrong for which a remedy may be attained

Identify the legal standards in which use of force is evaluated in a correctional setting.
-Was the force applied in a good faith effort to maintain or restore discipline or order?
-Was the force applied maliciously & sadistically for the very purpose of causing harm?

Explain the U.S.S.C. ruling that defines the standard of deliberate indifference, according to Farmer vs. Brennan (1994).
-Correction officials must know of a substantial risk of serious harm to include prisoner’s health & safety.

Explain what qualities as deliberate indifference to medical needs according to Estelle vs Gamble (1976).
-Unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain through refusal of medical care by correctional or medical staff or intentionally delaying or interfering with treatment.

Identify the five classes of jails in Ohio.
-Full service
-12 Day
-12 Hour
-Minimum Security Jail
-Temporary Holding

Identify the seven important factors of security in a correctional facility.
-Key & tool control
-Emergency plans & training
-Control of medication & medical supplies
-Firearm usage

State the four categories of hazardous materials.
-Hazardous materials
-Hazardous substances
-Hazardous wastes
-Extremely hazardous substances

State the six responsibilities of the first responder to a hazardous materials situations.
-To protect lives & especially your own
-To notify the proper authorities
-To remove people from the immediate area
-To maintain security around the area
-To assist the fire department with evacuations
-To follow the response plan of your department

Identify the fire suppressant necessary for a class “C” fire.
-Multipurpose fire extinguisher
-Dry chemical
-Halon 1211

Identify the fire suppressant necessary for a class “A” fire.
-Fire hose (water)
-Multipurpose fire extinguisher

State the nine ethical responsibilities of Correctional Officers
-To treat everyone professionally
-To yourself to maintain your self-respect
-To your own profession
-To your family
-To your community
-To citizens to never allow cynicism to cloud your view of the people whom you serve
-To never use excessive physical force when controlling combative individuals
-To never accept gratuities
-To never commit perjury

Define the term “Report”
-A formal written presentation of the facts

Identify the six reasons why a well-written report is important
-A well-written report is a permanent record
-A report reflects on the training & character of the reporter
-Written reports are subject to review
-Reports may have a wide circulation
-Written reports may ultimately have legal implications
-Written reports provide a means of ensuring that facility policies and procedures are applied consistently & appropriately documented

Identify the five requirements of a well-written report

Explain the primary sources of inmate rights
-US Amendments (1st, 4th, 6th, 8th, 14th)
-Case Law Precedent
-Federal Statutory Rights
-State Statutory Rights

Explain the general parts of a civil lawsuit in a correctional setting
-Plaintiff – party that brings a civil lawsuit
-Defendant – the person being sued
-Tort – civil wrong for which a remedy may be attained

Identify the characteristics of potential sexual assault perpetrators
-Violent crime convictions
-Long sentences
-Familiar with prison culture
-Large stature
-Gang affiliations
-Significant social status within the prison

Identify the most important aspect of security in a correctional facility
-The corrections officer (you)

Identify the three main objectives of security in a correctional facility
-To maintain the order in the facility
-To prevent contraband from entering the facility
-To prevent escapes from the facility

Identify the seven important factors of security in a correctional facility
-Key & tool control
-Emergency plans & training
-Control of medication & medical supplies
-Firearms usage

Define the term “preventive patrol”
-The officer is visible to the inmates

Identify the three types of counts which can be taken in a correctional facility
-Formal count – a regular required count of all inmates in the correctional facility
-Census count- informal, irregular count
-Emergency count – infrequent (escapes, riots & disturbances)

State the seven safety precautions an officer should observe when handling a hazardous material situation
-Approach cautiously from upwind
-Secure the scene
-Identify any labels on containers if possible
-Evaluate all available information
-Consult emergency response guide book
-Assess the situation
-Obtain help from proper authorities

Identify the two choices a correctional officer has when dealing with minor incidents of misbehavior or minor infractions of the facility rules
-Suspension of rights or disciplinary isolation up to 120hrs

Describe the five guidelines a correctional officer should use when communicating informal discipline to an inmate
-Discipline an inmate in private
-Treat all inmates fairly but firmly when disciplining them
-Try to talk to inmates about their reason for their misbehavior
-Maintain a professional attitude when disciplining inmates
-Use discretion in writing reports

Identify the seven sources of authority by which a prisoner may be committed to a facility
-Commitments issued by the court for executions of sentencing
-Court orders or orders from the Attorney Generals office for the detention of state witnesses
-Arrest warrants
-Hold orders issued by the Adult Parole Authority of the State of Ohio, the local probation department, or teletype holds from other agencies that are substantiated
-Journal entry from any court of record
-On view arrests charged by the arresting officer
-Others (en-route prisoners, contempt prisoners, others as devised by different courts)

Identify, sequentially, the 12 basic steps for booking a prisoner into a facility
-Admit the escorting officer & the prisoner according to department policy
-Check physical condition of the prisoner
-Determine proper authority by which a prisoner is to be held
-The arresting or committing officer shall be properly identified
-Every inmate shall be properly identified & searched in order to prevent contraband from coming into the facility
-Remove & inventory all property taken from the prisoner
-Receipt all valuables & cash taken from the inmate & properly secure them
-Fill out the facility booking record completely and properly
-Add the prisoner into the facility head count
-Photograph the prisoner according to department procedure
-Fingerprint the prisoner according to department procedure
-Allow prisoner to make necessary phone calls

Identify the five reasons for photographing inmates when they are booked into a correctional facility
-For ready identification while the inmate is in the facility
-To maintain a master mug shot file in the department
-To provide photographs to law enforcement officers for the purpose of photo lineups or identifying suspects
-For the identification of a prisoner who may escape from an officer in transit or a jail break
-To properly identify inmates upon release

Identify the three objectives of fingerprinting
-To obtain clear, legible prints for identification
-To obtain fingerprints records for future identification
-To obtain fingerprints that can be stored by the FBI & BCI

Identify the six articles that must be provided to an inmate who is being incarcerated for more than eight hours
-Personal hygiene items

Identify the four types of bonds by which an inmate may be released from a facility
-Own recognizance bond
-Cash bond
-10% bond
-Surety bond

Explain the five reasons for conducting cell and living area searches
-To prevent escapes
-To prevent violence
-To prevent contraband
-Maintain sanitation & fire safety
-Detection of criminal activity

Describe the four basic rules for making cell and living area searches
-Look before you touch
-Be thorough
-Be systematic
-Be curious

Identify the seven steps for a systematic cell search
-Open and close the door while inside
-Check the lock
-Check the bars
-Check the sink
-Check the pillows
-Check the mattress
-Check the bedding

Identify the basic rules for conducting body searches
-Be thorough and careful
-Be systematic
-Take your time and concentrate
-Be objective

Identify when, at a minimum, a prisoner should be searched
-Whenever entering or leaving the security perimeter

Define the term “frisk search”
A thorough search or “pat down” of a prisoner’s clothes and head cavities while the prisoner is still clothed

Define the term “strip search”
The inspection of a naked individual without scrutinizing the subject’s body cavities

List the basic requirements for body cavity searches
-Probable cause for a warrant
-Conducted under sanitary conditions
-By a medical professional of the same sex

Identify the six goals of classification
-To ensure the security of the facility
-To ensure that inmates are separated according to the standards as set forth by the state of Ohio
-To ensure the safety of all offenders, in particular the youthful and easily victimized
-To ensure the proper care for inmates with special needs
-To ensure the physical & emotional well being of all inmates housed
-Safety of officers

Identify the six requirements for classification of inmates
-Male & females separated by sight, sound, touch & out of reach of normal conversation
-Violent & nonviolent prisoners are not placed together in cells
-Males & females are supervised if placed together for purposes of transporting, programming or other events
-Juvenile & adult prisoners are separated in a manner consistent w/ 2151.312 ORC
-Jails using prisoner workers shall evaluate % select workers based on criteria
-Workers or educational release programs shall be housed separately from general population

Identify the five reasons for which a prisoner may be placed in administrative segregation
-The prisoner presents a chronic inability to adjust in general population
-The prisoner poses a major threat to himself, others, or the security of the facility
-The prisoner presents a valid need for protection as determined by the facility administrator
-The prisoner has a communicable disease
-The jail administrator has determined that such segregation is necessary & is in the best interest of the prisoner, staff, or facility

Identify the three materials in correctional facilities that are commonly used as fuel materials by inmates in arson fires
-Mattresses and bedding
-Paper products

Identify the four causes of accidental fires in correctional facilities that require constant monitoring
-Improper storage of paint/cleaning supplies near flames
-Inadequate ventilation of storage areas
-Inconsistent trash removal from cells
-Inadequate ventilation around electrical equipment

Identify the five on the job precautionary techniques for arson fires in a jail
-Routine inspections of housing areas & support areas
-Flammable cleaning supplies removed from all housing areas
-Any food carton or other disposable items used in food servicing should be picked up, not left for prisoners to discard
-Consistent trash removal from housing areas and entire facility
-Limit amount of combustibles in housing areas

Identify the two security indicators in a detention facility that could indicate the possibility of arson being planned in the facility
-Aerosols of any type in housing areas
-Hoarding of paper products & other combustibles

Define the term “emergency”
-A sudden, urgent, usually unexpected occurrence or occasion requiring immediate action

Name the four categories of disaster
-Natural disasters
-Man-made disasters
-Inmate disturbances
-Terrorist events

State two types of riots
-Between inmates and inmate groups
-Against the institution and correctional personnel

Identify inmate behavior that is a predictor of riots and disturbances
-Separating of inmates along racial lines
-Unusually high requests of transfers
-Excessive purchases of food items from commissary
-Increase in number of inmates being isolated/lockdown or placed in protective custody
-Increase threats, confrontations & attempts of intimidation by inmates toward staff
-Normal activity of inmates is subdued
-Drop in inmate participation in programs and events
-Increase in inmate/staff grievances
-Outside agitation by activists
-Letters & phone calls from concerned inmate family members inquiring about the safety of their family member

Identify steps an officer can take to prevent riots, disorders and escapes
-Gather intelligence
-Inmate grievance procedure
-Control of contraband
-Management of information

Identify primary and immediate actions that should be taken by the corrections officer in response to an emergency
-Knowledge of the location of every inmate prior to any incident
-Lockdown of all inmates not involved
-An official count
-All staff accounted for
-Non-essential staff should be removed from the disturbance and surrounding areas

State the objective of a “Master Riot Plan”
To provide for the development of personnel, equipment and resources into the effected area as quickly & effectively as possible

Identify the four types of hostage takers
-Inmate who is fearful
-The escaping inmate
-The “Alpha Male” inmate
-The mentally unstable inmate

Identify the two types of responses to a hostage situation

Identify the seven guidelines a corrections officer should follow if taken hostage
-Relinquish your position of authority
-Keep a demeanor of dignity
-Stay healthy
-Do not attempt escape
-Take mental notes
-Keep in mind that time is on your side
-Control anxiety during the period of event

Identify the primary symptom of the “Stockholm Syndrome”
A sense of bonding develops between abductor and abducted

Identify the three purposes of the IPC training module
-To give trainees practical skills
-To equip trainees to apply those skills to the management of people
-To develop each trainee so the he/she can make effective use of his/her strengths as communicators

Identify the three basic components of the IPC Model
-The basics – sizing up the situation
-The add-ons – communication with inmates
-The applicants – management of behavior

Identify the four “Sizing Up” skills
-Positioning – helps us to see & hear what is going on
-Posturing – shows your confidence & attention to a situation
-Observing – helps us to make astute inferences about their appearance, behavior & clues
-Listening – makes us aware to pick out key words & mood

Identify the two major elements of positioning
-Putting yourself in the best possible position to see & hear groups & individuals
-Place yourself far enough to remain safe while still remaining close enough to see & hear what is happening

Identify the three major parts of positioning
-Distancing – should be adequate to allow both safety & and to see & hear things
-Facing squarely – the most effective line of vision
-Looking directing – understanding what is happening & to send a positive psychological message

Define the term “Posturing”
-Holding your body in such a way that shows strength, confidence, interest & control

Identify the three components of good posturing
-Standing erect
-Eliminating distractive behaviors
-Inclining slightly forward

Identify the four elements of observing
-Looking carefully at behavior, appearance & environment
-Making inferences
-Deciding if the situation is normal or abnormal
-Deciding if a situation indicates a potential for trouble or no trouble

Identify the three types of visual clues used during the first part of observing
-Behavior – clues that shoe a negative or positive relationship
-Appearances – body language, facial expressions & actions
-Environment – where it is taking place

Identify the four clues that can be used to identify inferences
-Inmate feelings – know how the inmate feels
-Inmate relationships – positive, negative, neutral
-Inmate energy levels – low, moderate, high
-Inmate values – what interests the inmate

Identify the four steps in listening
-Suspend judgment
-Pick out key words & phrases
-Identify the intensity of what was said
-Reflect on mood

Identify the three items that may be used to determine intensity
-Voice pitch

Identify the two add-on skills used in IPC
-Responding to inmates
-Asking questions

Define the term “Identifying Content”
-the skill of seeing and hearing what is happening and the ability to mirror that understanding back to the inmate

Identify the two steps in identifying content
-Think about what was seen/heard
-Reflect back using a responding format

Define the term “Identifying Feeling”
-the ability to capture in words the specific feeling being experienced by the inmate

Identify the two steps in identifying feeling
-Think about the feeling & its intensity
-Reflect back using a responding format

Define the term “Identifying Meaning”
-requires you to paraphrase the content of an inmate’s statement in such a way as to provide a meaningful reason for the inmate’s feeling

Identify the two steps in asking questions
-think about the meaning
-reflect back the feeling and meaning

Identify the three basic steps in asking questions
-use the 5 W’s & H method (who, what, when, where, why, how)
-think about what was said and not said
-respond to the inmate

Identify the three applications skills used in managing behavior
-handling requests
-making requests
-reinforcing behavior

Identify the two steps in handling requests
-check things out
-respond to the request

Identify the three reasons for giving an inmate an explanation for an officer’s response
-know why denied
-minimizes future gripes
-if approves, it may be conditioned for this time only

Identify the two steps in making requests
-check things out
-taking action

Define the term “Reinforcing Behavior”
-the ability to administer negative & positive consequences effectively
-showing the inmates the consequences of their actions will help you to manage behaviors

Identify the two parts of reinforcing behavior
-respond positively & negatively
-use verbal & non-verbal techniques