Constitutional Amendments (1-27)


1st Amendment
Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.

2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms a well
regulated miltia is neccessary to the security of a free country

3rd Amendment
Restricts quartering of troops in private homes.


4th Amendment
No “unreasonable” searches and seizures without a warrant or probable cause that a search will produce evidence of a crime; Exclusionary Rule.

5th Amendment
Right of Accused Persons/ Indictment of Grand Jury (1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda) (2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges) (3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without “due process of law” (fair treatment) (4) Eminent domain

6th Amendment
The right to counsel in criminal trials (1) Speedy and public trial (2) Accused must be told charges essay writers world reviews (3) right to counsel (free lawyer if poor) (4) right to jury in criminal cases

7th Amendment
Right to jury

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in civil trials.

8th Amendment
Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail. Meaning of “cruel” based on “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.” Categorical bans on death penalty: juveniles, retarded, non-murder crimes…

9th Amendment
Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not been developed by Supreme Court. Not everything can be written down.

10th Amendment
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as “reserved powers amendment” or “states’ rights amendment`

11th Amendment
One State cannot be sued by another state
federal courts from hearing cases lodged against a state

12th Amendment
separation of votes for President and Vice President

13th Amendment
Abolished slavery. First of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War (1865-70)

14th Amendment
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War.

15th Amendment
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three `Reconstruction Amendments` passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 ; 26)

16th Amendment
Gives Congress the power of income tax

17th Amendment
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)

18th Amendment
Prohibition of alcohol

19th Amendment
States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender

20th Amendment
Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th

21st Amendment
Repeal of Prohibition

22nd Amendment
Limits the president to two terms.

23rd Amendment
Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress)

24th Amendment
Abolishes poll taxes

25th Amendment
(1) Succession of VP if president dies or become incapable to do his job. (2) if there is no VP, president must appoint one, and congress must approve

26th Amendment
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)

27th Amendment
Congressional pay raises are not begin until the next election
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