Compare and Contrast Essays

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Shi’ites vs Sunni (Shi’ites
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– \”Party of Ali\” – believe religious leadership rightfully belonged to Ali and his descendents – Shi’ite rulers rarely achieved power – mourn death of Husayn and his family
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Shi’ites vs Sunni (sunni
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– followers of \”tradition\” – feels that the community should elect leaders who were the most qualified (best moral values – not corrupt) – Sunni rulers sometimes order that Ali be cursed in public prayer – supported the first three caliphs – consider caliphs to be Imams
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Shi’ites vs Sunni similarities
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– follow teachings of the Quran and Hadith – agree that Muhammad commended Ali at Ghadir-al Khumm
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Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) vs Abbasid(Abbas family) Caliphate (750-1258) UMAYYAD
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– presided over an ethnically defined Arab realm – ruled from Damascus – army: almost entirely of Muslim Arabs – adopted administrative practices from the Byzantine and Sasanid Empires – coinage – decade of unrest(fell in 750) – rebellion overthrew the last caliph – smaller than abbasid
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Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) vs Abbasid(Abbas family) Caliphate (750-1258) ABBASAID
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– founded by descendants of muhammad’s uncles – moved from baghdad – Theology and religious law became preoccupations at court – expanded territory – ruled from Baghdad – ruling elite was more cosmopolitan – influenced by greece, iran, central asia, and africa – mamluks – fell under control of savage mountain warriors – much larger than umayyad
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Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) vs Abbasid(Abbas family) Caliphate (750-1258) SIMILARITIES
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– spread the Islamic religion – influenced by other cultures – both were influenced by monotheism –
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Islam Christianity Judaism ISLAM
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– God called Allah – Quran and Hadith – Five pillars – Shariah law – Muhammad
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Islam Christianity Judaism CHRISTIANITY
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Holy trinity – Bible – 10 commandments – Jesus and 12 disciples
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Islam Christianity Judaism JUDAISM
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– Torah – 12 tribes – Abram, Moses, David, Solomon
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Islam Christianity Judaism SIMILARITIES
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world spread religions (of 7) – impacted relations between groups of ppl – monotheistic – People \”of the book\” – Abrahamic (Abraham was the first practicer of monotheism) – All have prophets
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Byzantium (East) The Latin West Kievan Russia BYZANTIUM
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– Interpretation of religious doctrine differed from those in the West – Eastern Orthodox (patriarch) – Kept Roman imperial law intact – rises – trade center
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Byzantium (East) The Latin West Kievan Russia THE LATIN WEST
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Interpretation of religious doctrine differed from those in the East – weakens – manorialism – Roman catholicism (pope) – political power based on landholding
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Byzantium (East) The Latin West Kievan Russia KIEVAN RUSSIA
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Russia – good relations with the east – political power came from trade – Slavic languages – Vladimir I : promoted Orthodox Christianity (988) – Political power derived from trade (not landowning)
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Byzantium (East) The Latin West Kievan Russia SIMILARITIES
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came from old rome (East and West) – Monotheistic – feudalism (West and Kievan) – Orthodox (East and Kievan) – All large trade centers – Headed by a king (w/ complete power) – Rulers promoted specific religion – social hierarchy
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Byzantium (East) 600-1200 The Latin West 600-1000 Kievan Russia 900-1200 BYZANTIUM
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– originated from E.Roman Empire – large trade crossroad (constantinople) – stretched from Adriatic Sea -> Eastern Side of Black Sea – Religious schism (1054) – \”The plague of Justinian\” crisis – territorial losses deprived long periods of peace (arab armies) – pressure from north/south – Ottoman Empire takes over Constantinople (1453 – \”Istanbul\”) extra: – women’s significance decreased over time – Hagia Sophia \”Sacred Wisdom\”
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Byzantium (East) 600-1200 The Latin West 600-1000 Kievan Russia 900-1200 THE LATIN WEST
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– \”medieval\”: the time between the Greco-Roman civilization and the Renaissance – Charlemagne’s rise marked a shift of focus for Europe(away from mediterranean and toward the north and west) – was first of all three – lost land to the vikings – crusades (won 1 out of 11) – self-sufficient economy (+trade) – investiture controversy (popes vs kings) – monasticism (Rule of Benedict) – revival between 1000-1200 – technology: new plow, efficient draft harnesses, use of horses over oxen, horse collar – cities: Florence, Brescia, Pavia, and Siena built new walls
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Byzantium (East) 600-1200 The Latin West 600-1000 Kievan Russia 900-1200 KIEVAN RUSSIA
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– repeated linguistic/territorial changes – choice eastern orthodox over roman catholicism (Vladimir I) (a consequential choice) – trade along navigable rivers -introduction of Cyrillic near 988 – extension of eastern orthodoxy=latin christianity barrier of expanding east -influenced Christianity -> Eastern Slavs – political power came from trade, not landowning – large cities may have reached 30k/50k people – peak of culture as the rule of law spread
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DEVELOPMENT Byzantium (East) 600-1200 The Latin West 600-1000 Kievan Russia 900-1200 SIMILARITIES
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– practiced a form of christianity – lost territory from invaders – suffered from political fragmentation – trade based economy – kings promoted religions
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Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox ROMAN CATHOLICISM
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– diff interpretation of church doctrines – used the roman alphabet – developed in the west – followed the pope – papacy- powerful international office
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Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox Similarities EASTERN ORTHODOX
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– diff interpretation of church doctrines – adopted the writing system Cyrillic – took root in the east (Byzantium and Kievan Russia) – followed leadership of the patriarch of constantinople
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Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox Similarities SIMILARITIE
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influenced life of Christian practitioners – monotheistic – originated from Roman belief – came from the schism of (1054)
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China’s relations w/ central asia (Tibet, Uighur, Liao, Jin) China’s relations w/ the east (Japan, Korea, Vietnam) similarities CHINA W TIBET UIGHUR LIAO JIN
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– conflict was often(people wanted to have control over central asia) – Tibet and Uighurs (turkic group) were Tang’s main rivals (still threads into today) – Associated (T/U) as \”barbarians\”/\”foreign aggressors\” – Li Shimin set alliance w Tibet (princess marriage) – had different religions, political administrations
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China’s relations w/ central asia (Tibet, Uighur, Liao, Jin) China’s relations w/ the east (Japan, Korea, Vietnam) similarities CHINA RELATIONS W/ EAST
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reason for less territorial issues was because of how the four never touched each other – More welcoming (comrades rather than rivals) – Established trade w/ 1 another (needed resources) – Influenced political ideologies – Buddhism (spread) – Champa rice (gift from Annam) – Woodblock printing (evolved into movable type) – mongols invade – Eastern neighbors recognized China’s superiority – similar writing systems – tribute system
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China’s relations w/ central asia (Tibet, Uighur, Liao, Jin) China’s relations w/ the east (Japan, Korea, Vietnam) similarities SIMILARITIES
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China was an important trade source to rivals/comrades – influenced surrounding asian territories
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Tang Empire (618-755) The Golden Age Song Empire (960-1200) Sui (581-618) Similarities TANG
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– rivals: Uighurs/Tibets – political use of Buddhism (Mahayana) – central – east – junk, gunpowder – Uighur collapsed, leaving only Tibet as rival – Elites saw Buddhism undermining Confucian idea of family – Wu Zhao: seized control of gov’t (690) – Brought down from: overexpansion + rebellion
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Tang Empire (618-755) The Golden Age Song Empire (960-1200) Sui (581-618) Similarities SONG
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– one of three states that emerged from fall of Tang (+Liao, nomads) – capital: Kaifeng – Zen (Chan Buddhism) – Neo-Confucianism in response to Buddhism – movable type – East only – three different states – \”flying money\” (credit)
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Tang Empire (618-755) The Golden Age Song Empire (960-1200) Sui (581-618) Similarities SUI
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reunification of China into small principalities – 34yrs of power (collapsed in 618) – influenced Tang empire – capital: Chang’an – began construction of the Grand Canal (link Yellow & Yangzi)
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Tang Empire (618-755) The Golden Age Song Empire (960-1200) Sui (581-618) SIMILARITIES
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Tang and Song had influential writers, namely Li Bo, Murasaki Shikibu, Li Qingzhao – footbinding – examination systems (confucianism) – iron implements – unification under tang and sui made for major changes in china and surrounding lands – took influence from earlier dynasties – tang and song influenced the east; built upon them
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Korea Japan Vietnam Similarities KOREA
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– <20% of land = suitable for farming – Koryo: ruling house; from which \"Korea\" derives – house (^) united the peninsula – excelled in textiles and agriculture – \"bone ranks\" – Silla – constant threat from Jin and Liao -woodblock exchange with China
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Korea Japan Vietnam Similarities JAPAN
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– four main islands – 11% of land suitable for farming – implemented Tang features in gov’t – centralized gov’t – admiration of Chinese culture – capital: Kyoto – Fujiwara family: priests, bureaucrats, warriors – (FW) favored Confucian men over warriors – The Tale of Genji – noblewomen lived in near isolation
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Korea Japan Vietnam Similarities VIETNAM
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– Annam and Nanzhao – gifted champa rice to song court – Confucianism and Mahayana – wet climate and hills (like china) – monsoon seasons – Champa: southern Vietnam – CHAMPA RICEEE
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Korea Japan Vietnam Similarities SIMILARITIE
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– gov’t offices went to noble families (no exams) – instilled Confucian ideals – influenced by tang and song – advances in agricultural technology and productivity – all raised literacy rates (after improvement of printing) – attitudes toward women were different toward China(better) – tributes to China and had good relations with them
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MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS Coastal Regions Mountainous Regions Similarities COASTAL REGIONS
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arid climate – abundant fisheries – irrigated maize fields – overwhelmed by droughts or shifting sands
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MESOAMERICA Coastal Regions Mountainous Regions Similarities MOUNTAIN REGIONS
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– some parts have too high of altitudes for human habitation and agriculture – herds of llamas/alpacas – rich mix of grains and tubers – 250-300 frosts per year – freeze-dried vegetable and meat products
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MESO AMERICA Coastal Regions Mountainous Regions Similarities
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depended on each other to get the resources that they lacked – some of the most socially complex and politically advanced people of the western hemisphere – used llamas and alpacas to link coastal and mountainous economies while providing meat, wool, and transportation – ayllu, mit’a, khipu – developed compensating technologies that required accurate calendar
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North America Central America South america similarities NORTH AMERICA
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– Anasazi – four corners region of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah – chiefdom of Mound Builders – mounds of Mississippian peoples still stand today – large ecological regions – increasingly centralized political power and growing social stratification
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North America Central America South america similarities CENTRAL AMERICA
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– polytheistic – tribute system of Aztecs – chinampas – Toltecs: two chieftain/kings ruled(Tula) – \”Mexica\” : central mexico ; religious peoples – new political organization -> advances in astronomy/math + improved agricultural productivity – long distance trade – complex social hierarchies – religious cults/gods
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North America Central America South america similarities SOUTH AMERICA
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ayllu, mit’a, khipu – affected by the Andes – occupied just the west portion of the continent – llama and alpaca use (meat, wool, trade) – unlikely/harsh environment: development of complex societies – environment made for specific tech. – work : interdependent among genders
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North America Central America South america similarities SIMILARITIES
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use of the three sisters(corn, bean, squash) – natural environment powerfully influenced cultural development – developed unique technologies and cultural forms – competition for resources – times of contraction and expansion – irrigation systems

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