Communication Research Paper

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Source 3: pg 275 \”The modern newspaper has been accused of being a business enterprise. \”Yes,\” say the newspaper men \”and the commodity it sells is news\”
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Source 3: pg 274 \”Reading which was a luxury in the country has become a necessity in the city. In the urban environment literacy is almost as much a necessity as speech itself.\”
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Source 3: pg 274 \”Publishers have found that the difference between the high-brow and the low-brow, which once seemed so profound, is largely a difference in vocabularies.\”
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Source 3: pg 274 \”A newspaper is not merely printed. It is circulated and read. Otherwise it is not a newspaper.\”
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Source 3: pg 274 \”The power of the press may be roughly measured by the number of people that read it.\”
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Source 3: pg 273 The modern newspaper is a product of city life; it is no longer merely an organ of propaganda and opinion, but a form of popular literature.
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Source 3: pg 273 It was this increase of circulation that made the newspaper-formerly a subsidized organ of the parties-an independent business enterprise, an envelope and carrier for advertising.
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Source 2: pg 82 Meg Greenfield, Washington Post editorial page editor-generation of journalists in 1940s and 1950s was \”more obliging to its government sources, much more willing to keep its secrets, and much more involved in its actual policymaking than it ever should have been-and than the successor generation would ever dream of being
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Source 2: pg 80 -World of complacent consensus in the newspaper changed with civil rights movement -national security began to be seen as a coverup -reporters were lied to by their sources in the government -1971 Pentagon papers published
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Source 2: pg 75 -1922 first society of newspaper editors -adopted codes of ethics and rules of objectivity -disaffiliated from public relations specialists -concept of press agents developed -used by Wilson to promote WWI
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Source 2: pg 65 -In Colonial America, printers were businessmen first, not journalists -4 pg weekly journals designed to advertise their printing business -local advertising, a little local gossip, rare political news, printed what came to them, avoided controversy
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Source 2: pg 66 -Conflict with Britain heated up after 1765, harder for printers to be neutral, felt compelled to take sides -Pamphlet publication at its peak -Now used as a tool of political power
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Source 2: pg 68 -New nation, newspapers were an editorial voice -Founded as weapons of a party -Editors attacked one another and politicians
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Source 2: pg 69 -1820s began going out to gather the news -New York Sun in 1833-sought commercial success and mass readership, began penny papers -Sold on the street rather than by subscription -began hiring correspondents
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Source 2: pg 72 -Journalists thinly differentiated from politics (1850s) -After Civil War, expanded as large industrialized businesses -1870, major dailies had hundreds of employees -competed for readers -Pulitzer, Hearst, sensational and yellow journalism
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Source 2:pg 73 -Pull of dollars toward sensationalism moved newspapers from political parties -At this time, reform questioning worth of political parties, new form of educational campaigning -From parades to pamphlets -Newspapers willing to take independent stand
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Source 1: pg 58 \”We can summarize the conclusions to be drawn from the argument thus far by saying that the convergence of capitalism and print technology on the fatal diversity of human language created the possibility of a new form of imagined community, in which its basic morphology set the stage for the modern nation\”
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Source 1: pg 57 \”It remains only to emphasize that in their origins, the fixing of print-languages and the differentiation of status between them were largely unselfconscious processes resulting from the explosive interaction between capitalism, technology, and human linguistic diversity\”
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Source 1: pg 57 -\”print capitalism created languages of power of a kind different from the older administrative vernaculars\” \”print-capitalism gave a new fixity to language, which in the long run helped to build that image of antiquity so central to the subjective ideas of the nation\” \”first and foremost, they created unified fields of exchange and communication below latin and above the spoken vernaculars\”
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Source 1: pg 56 \”What, in a positive sense, made the new communities imaginable was a half fortuitous, but explosive, interaction between a system of production and productive relations (capitalism), technology of communications (print), and the fatality of human linguistic diversity\”
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Source 1: pg 54 -Martin Luther and Reformation began the movement for mass readership -Spread of vernaculars, eroded original sacred imagined community
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Source 1: pg 50 Nation imagined as 1. Limited-never considered continuous with mankind or including all people, has to have boundaries 2. Sovereign-free and under God 3. Community-despite inequality, \”nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship\”
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Source 1: pg 48 \”The creation of these artefacts toward the end of the eighteenth century was the spontaneous distillation of a complex crossing of discrete historical forces; but that, once created, they became \”modular\”, capable of being transplanted, with varying degrees of self-consciousness, to a great variety of social terrains, to merge and be merged with a correspondingly wide variety of political and ideological constellations\”
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Source 1: pg 49 \”It is an imagined political community-and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign\”
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Source 1: pg 49 \”With a certain ferocity, Gellner makes a comparable point when he rules that ‘Nationalism is not the awakening of nations to self-consciousness: it invents nations where they do not exist’\”
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Source 3:pg 276 \”The first newspapers were written or printed letters; newsletters they were called. In the seventeenth century English country gentlemen used to employ correspondents to write them once a week from London the gossip of the court and of the town\”
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Source 3: pg 276 \”The first newpaper in America, at least the first newspaper that lasted beyond its first issue, was the Boston News-Letter. It was published by the postmaster.\”
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Source 3: pg 277 \”The first newspapers were simply devices for organizing gossip and that, to a greater or less extent, they have remained\”
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Source 3:pg 277 Horace Greeley’s advice to someone starting a paper \”Begin with a clear conception that the subject of deepest interest to an average human being is himself; next to that, he is most concerned about his neighbors\”
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Source 3: pg 277 \”It is possible, however, to select certain particularly picturesque or romantic incidents and treat them symbolically, for their human interest rather than their individual and personal significance. In this way news ceases to be wholly personal and assumes the form of art. It ceases to be the record of the doings of individual men and women and becomes an impersonal account of manners and life\”
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Source 3:pg 278 Thomas Jefferson-\”I would rather live in a country with newspapers and without a government than in a country with a government and without newspapers.\”
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Source 3: pg 278 \”If public opinion is to continue to govern in the future as it has in the past, if we propose to maintain a democracy as Jefferson conceived it, the newspaper must continue to tell us about ourselves. We must somehow learn to know our community and its affairs in the same intimate way in which we knew them in the country villages\”
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Source 3: pg 279 \”The first newspapers, the news-letters, were not party papers. Political journals began to supersede the news-letters at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The news with which the reading public was most concerned at that time was the reports of the debates in parliament.\”
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Source 3: pg 280 \”Through the newspapers the whole country was enabled to participate in the discussions by which issues were framed and legislation was enacted\”
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Source 3: pg 281 \”When the newspapers became, in the early party of the eighteenth century, a journal of opinion, it took over the function of the political pamphlet. The opinion that had formerly found expression in a broadside was now expressed in the form of editorial leading articles.\”
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Source 3: pg 281 \”The role which the political journals played in English politics was reenacted in America. The American newspapers were a power with which the British government had to reckon in the struggle of the colonies for independence\”
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Source 3: pg 282 \”Under these circumstances the work of the newspaper, as a gatherer and interpreter of the news, was but an extension of the function which was otherwise performed spontaneously by the community itself through the medium of personal contact and gossip\”
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Source 3: pg 283 \”When, finally, the exigencies of party politics, under conditions of life in great cities, developed the political machine, some of the more independent newspapers revolted. This was the origin of the independent press.
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Source 3: pg 282 \”The ordinary man, as the Saturday Evening Post has discovered, thinks in concrete images, anecdotes, pictures, and parables. He finds it difficult and tiresome to read a long article unless it is dramatized and takes the form of what newspapers call a story. ‘News story’ and ‘fiction story’ are two forms of modern literature that are now so like one another that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them\”
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Source 3: pg 284 \”It is said that James E. Scripps. of the Scripps, McRae League, which specializes in afternoon papers in secondary cities, built up his whole string of papers upon the basis of the very simple psychological principle that the ordinary man will read newspaper items in the inverse ratio to their length\”
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Source 3: pg 285 \”James Gordon Bennett invented news as we know it\” he renounced all former principles of the newspaper and announced purposes of the new journalism \”Henceforth the editors were to be news gatherers and the newspaper staked its future on its ability to gather, print, and circulate news\”
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Source 3:pg 285 \”What is news? There have been many answers. I think it was Charles A. Dana, who said, \”News is anything that will make people talk.\” This definition suggests at any rate the aims of the new journalism. Its purpose was to print anything that would make people talk and think, for most people do not think until they begin to talk.\”
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Source 3: pg 286 \”There seem to be, as Walter Lippmann has observed, two types of newspaper readers.\”Those who find their own lives interesting\” and \”those who find their own lives dull, and wish to live a more thrilling existence.\” There are, correspondingly, two types of newspapers: papers edited on the principle that readers are mainly interested in reading about themselves (provincial) and papers edited upon the principle that their readers, seeking some escape from the dull routine of their own lives, are interested in anything which offers them, what the psychoanalysts call \”a flight from reality\” (metropolitan press)\”
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Source 3: pg 286 \”Up to the last quarter of the nineteenth century, that is to say, up to about 1880, most newspapers, even in our large cities, were conducted on the theory that the best news a paper can print is a death notice or marriage announcement\”
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Source 3:pg 286 \”The yellow press grew up in an attempt to capture for the newspaper a public whose only literature was the family story paper or the cheap novel. The problem was to write the news in such a way that it would appeal to the fundamental passions.\”
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Source 3: pg 288 \”Without the advertising that the Sunday newspaper was able to give it, the department store would hardly have gained the vogue it has today\”
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Source 3: pg 288 \”It was Morrill Goddard’s ambition to make a paper that a man would buy even if he could not read it. He went in for pictures, first in black and white and then in colors. It was in the Sunday World that the first seven-column cut was printed. Then followed the comic section and all the other devices with which we are familiar for compelling a dull-minded and reluctant public to read.\”
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Source 3: pg 289 \”If the newspapers are to be improved, it will come through the education of the people and the organization of political information and intelligence.\”
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Source 3: pg 289 \”The real reason that the ordinary newspaper accounts of the incidents of ordinary life are so sensational is because we know so little of human life that we are not able to interpret the events of life when we read them. It is safe to say that when anything shocks us, we do not understand it.\”
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Source 4: pg 4 \”When the mails fail us, and the people so inactive at home, when great folks are so ill-natured as neither to marry or die, nor beget children, we are upon the search for that scarce commodity call’d wit, which, ’tis well known, is in these days as hard to come by in any week as intelligence.\”
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Source 5: pg 7 \”Newspaper markets have a unique trait in that they are two-headed entities-one function involves general reader-consumers while the other concerns advertisers. Selling local readers to advertisers makes newspapers unusually valuable and identified with their geographic area; in economic-speak, newspapers’ substitutability is limited. A newspaper’s contents reflect the life, character, and soul of a community.\”
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Source 5: pg 8 \”What makes newspapers unique also makes them change-resistant: Their unique public role has created a semi-virtuous mission or \”golden rule\” that essentially says anything that does not tell the public what it needs to know, in a professionally pure journalistic formula, must be inherently bad and thus is best avoided.\”
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Source 5: pg 15 \”Newspapers are systems of interconnected networks,created through communication. The surveillance function of newspapers also depends on a variety of boundary-spanning activities conducted through networks established with the external environment\”
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Source 5: pg 16 In a newspaper organization, communication is the process through which: -news is gathered -information is developed into stories -stories are edited -citizens are contacted and enrolled as subscribers -photographs are selected and arranged on pages -internal functions, such as accounting and advertising, are coordinated -stakeholder opinions, both inside and outside the organization, are sought and used
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Source 5: pg 17 \”In the American colonies, money was not, and could not be, a motivating factor for starting a newspaper business, for its success was uncertain. After the Revolutionary War, new demands for public expression, and for discussion of events and issues, fostered organizations whose primary product became the newspaper.
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Source 5: pg 18 \”As Americans moved from their rural roots to urban centers, growth in commerce followed their migration. Advances in science and technology increased the means of production and distribution of goods. The printer and his press became a newspaper office, with reporters, an editor, and employees who separately handled circulation, accounting, and advertising.\”
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Source 5: pg 17 \”Newspapers as modern organizations developed chains by joining a series of multi-hierarchical entities together. Today, four out of every five daily newspapers in the United States are owned by chains. As new forms of media developed in the 20th century, chains bought radio and television stations as well\”
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Source 5: pg 19 \”post modern organizations thrive on diffused, distributed, emergent leadership-throughout all levels and functional units. Whereas management is a form of social control, post-modern leaders focus on social support, on collaborating and creating community through communication.\”
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Source 5: pg 21 Newspapers are systems that are hierarchically ordered in accordance with Langdon Winner’s artifacts with politics.
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Source 6: pg ix the periodical press forged a vital link with the American people. It had given them their window on the world. Print journalism had brought our sense of national identity into being.
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Source 6: pg x \”The American newspaper in its golden age ministered to a real community; in fact, it had done a great deal to create that community. It had human scale; it was something you could reach out and touch. The American newspaper was nothing if not a quirky neighbor, something like the fellow next door whom you had to learn to love or endure. In the newspaper, at least in its ideal form, you were in the presence of some personality-someone like a father, a demanding school teacher, an eccentric uncle, a close friend.\”
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Source 6:pg x \”Our story begins in the 1830s when Americans first began to make their way as a Democratic people. Before the 1830s newspapers were not at all newspapers in the modern sense. They were journals, dismal logs, keepers of records; they offered announcements fora commercial elite. During the early republic, columns of static commercial announcements were occasionally enlivened by political antagonism and partisan strife.\”
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Source 6: pg x \”with the explosion of coastal cities in the East, with immigrants pouring in from many nations abroad, there was a need to provide regular information to those who faced a rapidly changing and often inscrutable society\”
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Source 6: pg xi \”There was no mass education in those times-few schools and colleges-so the American newspaper had to take on the roles of schoolmaster, entertainer, and public gossip. All of these roles were avidly accepted by the penny papers and others that grew from them and were sold, not by subscription alone, but in individual copies on the streets.\”
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Source 6: pg xi \”During the last half of the nineteenth century the American newspaper rapidly became a cultural institution of undeniable force. Large metropolitan papers had increased from 4 pages to 8, then to 16, then to 32. Soon they were stuffed with supplements bursting with puzzles, comics, poems, household hints.\”
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Source 6: pg xi \”Americans love to talk back-we all recognize the force of talk radio and television today. The newspaper could be talked to. Many readers turned first to ‘Letters to the Editor’ or to those columns where some bright young female staffer, backed with no more authority than that of thepaper itself, would attempt to provide intimate advice to the ‘lovelorn’\”
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Source 6: pg xii \”Doubtless there are many today who believe that the newspapers are doomed by the coming of the latest offspring of electronic communication. The newspaper had to die. Yet the newspaper is still here, and there seems to be nothing in sight that can replace the great skill and art of the newspaper reporter in getting hold of the news, or of the newspaper editor in deciding what the news really is.\”
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Source 6: pg xii \”A major function of the newspaper always has been that it carves out of the chaotic fury of events the precise things that people want to know and need to know. A reader opening a newspaper does not seek a torrent of information on some one topic; he seeks a balanced meal, a reliable, structured picture of what is going on around him or her.\”
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Source 6: pg xiii \”On the other hand, even when all of the excuses are made of sensationalism, or greedy motives, or political indiscretions, there can be little doubt that the newspaper has been among our nation’s greatest cultural institutions. We Americans have made newspapers to fit our own style and personality, and, for the most part, they have been the envy of the world\”
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Source 6: pg 3 \”The newspaper revolution, which seems to parallel the democratic revolution so precisely, was defined by the existence of a new kind of newspaper, popularly labeled by a term that would enter the language as a catch phrase: the penny paper. The term signified any inexpensive and widely available newspaper; perhaps more importantly it signified newspapers that could be bought in single copies on the street\”
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Source 6:pg 9 \”On the other hand there can also be no doubt that the penny papers had helped pump life into a fusty and hidebound journalistic world. The newspapers of American cities before 1830 simply went about their stolid routines without enthusiasm or zest, except perhaps when they served as organs for incendiary political debate. Their readers were few and they were poorly informed by the news that they did receive.\”`
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Source 6: pg 9 \”These older papers usually did little to engage their readers. The penny papers, and the new larger papers that followed in their wake, changed all that. Newspapers now began to draw people of a polyglot urban milieu into some kind of commonality of interest and learning. They gave people things that they could understand. As much as any other force in the Jacksonian era, the papers that began to flourish in our big eastern cities forged a new vibrant sense of community, a sense of our own peculiar nationhood.\”
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Source 6: pg 12 \”By the 1830s the demand for the news and the desire to buy and read newspapers had far outpaced production. Tradition had a lot to do with keeping journalism in its long-delayed adolescence. But there were other factors as well. There were technological impediments to the growth of the newspaper: lack of paper and ink and inadequate printing presses and other mechanical equipment necessary to turn out the thousands of daily copies that we are accustomed to today.\”
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Source 6: pg 12 Paper was in very short supply in 1830. The papermaking art was still in its infancy. Papermaking machines were new. Only three individuals had efficient machines in 1830. Technology was insufficient for the type of circulation that could have been produced and helpful at the time.
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Source 6: pg 55 \”The nation’s newspapers, some of them long-established and flourishing, would play a major role in that war-a more vital role than in any of our wars before or since. The newspaper, which in times past had been an important source of public information, suddenly became crucial and indispensable to all citizens. Nearly all big papers employed reporters or war correspondents, which developed the importance of reporting.
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