Test 5: Types of Exordium, Narrative – Speech Body

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Exordium
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the place in the speech where you convince an audience to listen to your position •We call it introduction – Quintilian stated that the purpose of the exordium is to prepare audience to listen intently to the remainder of the presentation – Capture interest of audience – Establish credibility – Connect topic to area of interest for audience – Demonstrate your knowledge of subject matter
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First type of exordium Cicero discussed: introduction
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– Lays out speaker’s case in plain language – Audience becomes receptive and attentive – Best when topic is not controversial, or audience is confused or ill-informed
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Second type of exordium: insinuation
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– Used in cases about disputed topics to audiences with animosity towards topic or speaker – Imply that speaker will be short and to the point – Audience might be tired of hearing about your issue – Insinuations work to reduce the reluctance of audience to listen and allow speaker to make his/her case – Audience is already informed- possibly overwhelmed about topic – Cicero and Quintilian believe that the exordium must be serious in nature – Lends gravity and importance to the topic – First impression a speaker makes on an audience – Last part of speech to be composed
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Narrative: speech body
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– Aristotle argued that the intro was one of only two elements of a speech. Second component called the argument proper – Romans taught that body of speech that followed exordium contained three parts: statement of facts, the argument, and the refutation -Statement of facts -Argument – refutation
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Statement of facts
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explanation of what audience needs to know in order to appreciated main argument of speech • Relevant details made clear
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– Argument
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Greeks and Romans believed to be core of speech • Also called proof or confirmation- that portion of speech that validates your position on issue laid out in statement of facts • Central idea of speech • Often contains more than one claim • Organization is tricky • Greeks and Romans suggested not starting with most persuasive argument, but ending with it • Arguments ends on a high/best note, rather than on a weaker, less persuasive note
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– Refutation
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: response to potential opposition to your argument • Only relevant for persuasive speeches • Situational factors determine where you place it • Shows that you have thought about and researched the issue • Makes you appear more objective- easier for people to listen to your point of view • People won’t see you as partisan (unaware of the other sides argument: close minded)
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Speech peroration: conclusion
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– Summarizes idea for audience – Represent last opportunity for speaker to present his/her case to audience, leave audience with something to remember
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Principle of recency
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idea that last message you heard is most likely to be the one you remember – Finish with a bang, not a whimper
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Organizational patterns for persuasive speeches
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– General and specific purpose statements of persuasive speech are different than those of an informative speech • Help you figure out how to arrange main points
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1. Problem-solution order
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persuade the audience that a specific policy or action will solve existing problem First, convince audience that there is a problem Next, make case that your solution will solve the problem Establish how you see problem, convince audience to see it the same way (if you disagree here, you have definitive stasis) Establish scope of problem Move to a solution Explain how solution can be put into effect
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2. Problem-cause-solution order
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main points will include the problem, the causes, and the solution (addresses problem and cause)
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3. Comparative advantages
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pattern that uses each main point to explain why the speaker’s solution is better than another proposed solution – Acknowledge other solutions, but let audience know that they would not be the best solution
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4. Monroe’s Motivated sequence
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: 5 step organizational pattern, designed to move your audience to take an action -Developed by Alan Monroe – Combines psychological elements with persuasion i. Attention ii. Need iii. Satisfaction iv. Visualization v. Action
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Epideictic
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address commemorates an occasion and celebrates elements of scene – 2 important components: 1. Emotional attachment to the scene or moment 2. Use of pathos
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Epideictic vs. informative speaking
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– Both inform audience about event they are commemorating – Provide information to audience about criteria of importance for event – Both involve providing information, but language is the big difference
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Epideictic address
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: involves much more emotion than logic; stresses importance of connecting the feelings of speaker with those of audience – Gravitas: importance
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Eulogy
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speech that pays tribute to life of deceased – Ex. Oprah Winfrey gives eulogy for Rosa Parks (video) – Eulogy is a story about a person life, but not biography – Touch on specific moments – Personal stories help enhance credibility of speaker and create a vivid, positive, and energetic account of deceased – Example of George Bush – Award Cermony
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Award ceremony
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• Describe aware itself and criteria used to select recipient • Don’t reveal name of winner until the end of the speech • Acknowledge any connection between event, scene, or award and recipient
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Acceptance speech
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recipient of award gets a few minutes to address audience • Ex. Julianne Moore 2015 oscar for best actress • Leo golden globe
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Toast
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• Typically short-maybe 2-3 minutes • Usually planned • Celebrate an individual, or commemorate items (christening of a boat) • Celebratory in nature • Language is less formal • Wedding toast most common • Often use humor
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Goals for epideictic address
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1. Commemorate an occasion, person, idea, or object 2. Establish a connection between object being honored, people gathered to pay tribute, and event that has brought them together 3. Construct a narrative about the commemorated thing that presents it in a positive light 4. Conveys the importance of the act of paying tribute to objects
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strategies for epideictic address
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1. First rhetorical tactic relates to emotional language • As the speaker, use specific terms and phrases that evoke emotion in your audience 2. Focus of speech is not on you as the speaker. Your qualifications are not important at event. Focus is on topic- award, an idea, a person, or event 3. Commemorative speeches are relatively short. Brevity is valued
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Pericles of Ath
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considered to be one of gratest city of leaders during classical greek era. In his time, he gave many speeches to the public in honor of the dead ** public eulogy President Lincoln did this at Gettysburg President Obama did this at Fort Hood
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epideictic speeches: Introduction
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– General purpose: to celebrate, to praise, or to commemorate – Specific purpose: always tied to moment or occasion on which you give the speech – Also needs to articulate value or idea that occasion represents – Core purpose is celebrating the value or idea or person – Attention getters are different – Speech previews not used or are subtle • Only common element may be the need for a clear and appropriate transition to the speech body
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Reinforcement statement
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expression of the connection between the event and the social value it represents – Audience members typically share the value so the speaker reinforces the importance and power of social value – Always contains two elements 1. Emotional dimernsion 2. connection between value and event itself – Purpose of reinforcement statement in an epideictic speech is the same as the purpose of a thesis statement in an informative speech and an argument in a persuasive speech – Now you need to move to body of speech • Use transition
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Emotional dimension
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if accepting an award, your reinforcement statement should express humility and or gratitude
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Speech body
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– Epideictic speeches a series of stories that serve as an example of the connection between topic of speech, occasion, and the shared social value represented by event – Stories are narratives • Connection between story and shared social value must be clear – Eulogy: does not have to be sad • You need to determine the emotion you want to convey to audience and identify the value the departeds life represented for everyone • Hope and happiness can be a part of a eulogy • A chance to celebrate someone’s life • Stories in euology should be examples of shared values and feelings the person represented

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