COM114 – Flashcard

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presentational speaking
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1. More Inclusive 2. Less Formal 3. More Interactive 4. Reaches a smaller number of individuals
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Good presentational speaking
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1. Goal directed 2. Audience centered 3. Ethically constructed
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Types of Plagiarism
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Misrepresentation Cut-and-paste plagiarism Incremental plagiarism Self-plagiarism Excessive Collaboration
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misrepresentation
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“core plagiarism” taking someone else’s work and claiming it as your own.
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cut-and-paste plagiarism
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piecing together info delivered from multiple sources or simply small excerpts from a single article
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incremental plagiarism
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failing to give credit for paraphrased material, excessive collaborations. “When the speaker fails to give credit for particular parts like quotations and paraphrases. “
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self-plagiarism
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submitting your own previous work without getting permission from your professors. ex. you use part of your high school term paper in your college speech.
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excessive collaboration
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when you sit down and work on something with someone, instead of looking for constructive criticism, you claim the work all as your own. ex. instead of editing a paper, you rewrite a section for a student.
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Presentation Process
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1. Select the Topic 2. Determine your purpose 3. Research 4. Organize 5. Practice
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Addressing Communication Apprehension/Problems.
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1. Skills Training 2. Systematic Desensitization 3. Cognitive Restructuring/Modification
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communication apprehension
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the inability to make a speech caused by psychological factors. This problem can be fixed by training or counseling.
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systematic desensitization
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couple with visualization, you address apprehension by putting yourself in a comfortable position then imagining increasingly more terrifying situations of giving a speech from a friend to a large audience.
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cognitive restructuring/modification
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the practice of recognizing one’s own irrationalities, addressing them, then replacing them with proper/beneficial realizations. ex. You recognize that being nervous doesn’t make sense and you address that by telling yourself that its actually alright and theres no reason to be nervous.
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Audience Analysis
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1. Demographic 2. Psychological 3. Environmental
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Demographic Audience Analysis
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age, sex/gender, geographical location, group affiliation, socioeconomic factors.
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Psychological Audience Analysis
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audience attitudes (favorable, hostile, neutral), motivation, mood, learning styles.
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favorable audience attitudes (under psychological audience analysis) include
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increase commitment, inoculation(implanting ideas), increase involvement
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environmental audience analysis
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physical setting, occasion, time of day, orders of speakers, length of the presentation, technology
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Audience adaptation before the presentation
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1. Direct methods 2. Indirect methods
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direct methods of audience adaptation before the presentation
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surveys, interviews/focus groups or questionnaires to gather info about your audience from your audience using open ended or closed ended questions.
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indirect methods of audience adaptation
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gather info about your audience from anyone/anywhere except from your audience.
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audience adaptation during the presentation
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Learning Styles: sensing/intuitive visual/verbal active/reflective sequential/global
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Adapting during a presentation: sensing/intuitive learning style
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factual and concrete (sensing) vs. abstract and theoretical (intuitive)
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Adapting during a presentation: visual/verbal
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visual: pictures and words verbal: stories and explanations
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Adapting during a presentation: active/reflective
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active: engage with groups reflective: thinking first, alone
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Adapting during a presentation: sequential/global
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sequential: step by step global: big picture
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focus groups
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interviewing 3 to 12 people as a group “A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.”
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qualities of a good topic
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interesting, significant, fresh, timely, audience appropriate, easy to research
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resources for topic ideas
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personal experience or interests, current events, internet searches, web blogs, social media.
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narrowing the topic
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general purpose -> specific purpose -> thesis statement ex. to persuade -> persuade my audience to become democratic -> thesis statement targeted to my audience on why they should become democratic ex. to inform -> to inform my audience on abortion -> abortion is ____,___, and____.
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Qualities of a good specific purpose
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-written as a full infinitive phrase -expressed as a declarative statement -limited to one distinct idea -clear and precise
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qualities of a good thesis statement
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-expressed as a full declarative sentence -limited to one idea -fits the speech purpose -constructed with clear and concise language structure
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qualities of a good introduction
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-captures the audience’s attention with a story/narrative -uses quotations/paraphrases -states interesting facts or statistics -use technology (audio/visual aid)
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qualities of a good story/narrative
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-employs recall -gains attention -well structured (narrative transport) -well delivered
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narrative transport
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the step by step flow of the story (must be good to produce a good speech).
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attention getters outside of the classroom
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-compliments audience -refer to recent events -solicit participation AVOID jokes and hypothetical situations
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what to consider in choosing an attention-getting device
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-building identification -the tone -time restrictions -strengths as a speaker -the audience (audience analysis) -your topic
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Speech introductions/body must haves:
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-establish credibility -relate material to the audience -announce the topic and preview the main points
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qualities of a good conclusion
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-restates the thesis and main points -ends with a clincher or memorable thought -refer back to attention-getter -quotation -call to action
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common conclusion pitfalls
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-ending abruptly -drawing it out -introduce new arguments or points -leaving conclusion implicit so that it is not plainly expressed.
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primary effect
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audience remembers what they hear first
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recency effect
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audience also remember what they hear last
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preview statement
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a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body
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relevance statement
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the statement that tells your audience why the speech you are giving is important to them
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qualities of good main points
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-the number of main points you want to have should fall between 2 and 4 (2-4). -employs patterns of organization -balanced -uses parallel wording -transitions -supporting evidence
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patterns of organization
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spatial pattern- when you want to discuss the relationship between material geographically or directionally (specific locations in the US, parts of a skeleton, etc). chronological pattern- a pattern that organizes a speech by how something develops or occurs in a time sequence. problem-solution pattern- a pattern that organizes a speech by describing a problem and providing possible solutions causal pattern (cause & effect): a speech organization pattern that explains cause and effect relationships in which each main point is either an event that leads to a situation or a link in a chain of events between a catalyst and a final outcome. topical pattern- topics divide into subsets of the topic. Topic is often broad or is very easy to draw front.
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spatial pattern
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allows you to describe the physical or directional relationship between objects or places
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chronological pattern
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Allows you to arrange your ideas in a time sequence or trace the history of a topic.
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problem-solution pattern
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a pattern that organizes a speech by describing a problem and providing possible solutions
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causal pattern (cause & effect)
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a speech organization pattern that explains cause and effect relationships in which each main point is either an event that leads to a situation or a link in a chain of events between a catalyst and a final outcome.
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topical pattern
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topics divide into subsets of the topic. Topic is often broad or is very easy to draw front.
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Transitions
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-directional transitions: ex. not that we understand… lets discuss -signposts (make exact points in speech): First, second, thirdly, lastly. -internal previews (within body of presentation or even a main point): only need if material is lengthy or contain many/complicated subpoints. -internal summaries: like previews, but come after, to remind the audience on the information
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directional transition
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Let the audience know that you are moving away and what direction your going into ex. now the we understand… lets discuss
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signpost transitions
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(make exact points in speech): First, second, thirdly, lastly.
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internal previews
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only need if material is lengthy or contain many/complicated subpoints.
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internal summaries
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like previews, but come after, to remind the audience on the information
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chunking
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discussing information in chunks, allowing the audience to remember more. subpoint w/sub points sub points w/main points main points w/body
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chunking
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Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory.
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Types of supporting materials
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-statistics –
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statistics
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-make sure stats are representative -understand what they mean -explain the statistics -localize statistics (relate material to audience members and their geographic location directly). -limit your use of statistics -round off statistics -identify the source
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Qualities of a good topic: Audience Appropriate
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audience must not be offended or perplexed by your topic
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Qualities of a good topic: Topic Can be Easily Researched
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support for a topic should not be older than a year if you cant find enough recent research, topic is stale
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Qualities of a good topic: Topic is Timely
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-relatively new or presents new info on an old topic. -no new info, makes topic not useful to audience -ex. don’t define Alzheimers, talk about the break throughs in drug discovery for the disease instead
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How to select a topic
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Personal Experience Personal Interests Current Events News Releases, News Services, and Newsletters Internet Searches Weblogs Social Media Other Sources
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How to select a topic: Personal Experience
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-one of the best suggestions -feel more comfortable when we already know a lot about a topic -makes the process easier
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How to select a topic: Personal Interests
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-opportunity to explore something that you have always been interested in.
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How to select a topic: Current Events
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-these topics are discussed in society therefore they are timely, and relevant for audiences. -topics are also easy to fine making research process easier. -localized for presentation (localizing)
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localizing
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events that are taking place elsewhere are examined for their status or effect at the local level.
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How to select a topic: News Releases, News Services, and Newsletters
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–new ideas/products/discoveries -easily researchable -governmental, political, business, and organizations make these readily available –
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news releases
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communications from for-profit and nonprofit companies as well as private and governmental entities that are directed at members of the news media.
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How to select a topic: Internet Searches
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-narrow interests into specific ideas -makes search more and more specific until you find the right topic.
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How to select a topic: Weblogs
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-can get real stories from blogs -quick updates and breaking stories can give you good topic ideas -can publish breaking news ahead of a print run -posts also contain comments which can give you an idea of the attitude surrounding your topic.
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weblogs
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regularly, updated, self-published, online journals
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How to select a topic: Social Media
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-find out about grassroots movements whose actions and ideas would make interesting speeches. -pages exchange ideas, announcements, and updates
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How to select a topic: Other sources
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-brain storm on your general interests
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common mistake is trying to make a presentation on a topic that is too broad, which usually results in superficial treatment of the topic. Instead focus on an ____ of the topic
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aspect
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general purpose
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overarching goal of your presentation.
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general purpose
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Overarching goal of your presentation: 3 Categories -to inform -to persuade -to entertain
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General purpose to inform:
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you will be providing the audience with new information to create understanding. Informative presentations describe, explain, or demonstrate something. If you do not present new material or enhance your audience’s understanding of a topic, you have failed to meet the general purpose of the presentation.
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general purpose: to persuade persuasive presentation
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goal: to influence the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors of your audience.
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specific purpose
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refines your general purpose to make it more specific. It conveys what you want your audience to walk away from the presentation knowing or feeling. It expresses exactly what you hope to accomplish in the speech.. -to inform my audience… -to persuade my audience..
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specific purpose statement must…
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-include the audience in the statement -must be written as a full infinitive phrase -must be written as a full declarative statement -it must contain one distinct idea, and it must be clear and precise
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Qualities of a well-written specific purpose statement: Written as a full infinitive phrase
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ineffective: nutrition effective: To inform my audience about the new food pyramid issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
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infinitive phrase
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to + verb verb will either be inform or persuade
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Qualities of a well-written specific purpose statement: Expressed as a Full Declarative Statement
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give direction, not stated in the form of questions or fragments. Ineffective: What is nanotechnology? Effective: To inform my audience about the latest advances in nanotechnology.
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Qualities of a well-written specific purpose statement: Limited to one distinct idea
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ineffective: to persuade my audience to become active in campus organizations and to reside in on-campus housing. effective: to persuade my audience to reside in on-campus housing.
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Qualities of a well-written specific purpose statement: Clear and Precise
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ineffective: To inform my audience about technology in the college classroom. effective: to inform my audience about the new technology Hotseat that integrates social media to help students participate in class.
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thesis statement
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announces your topic and previews the main points of the presentation.
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Difference between specific purpose statement and thesis statement
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specific purpose statement: what you expect to accomplish in your speech thesis: what you will actually say to introduce your topic and main points in the introduction of your speech.
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Guidelines for a thesis statement
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Is expressed in a full declarative sentence fits the speech purpose is constructed with clear and concise language and structure
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Guidelines for a thesis statement: Is expressed as a full declarative sentence
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ineffective: How was the H1N1 vaccine developed? better: the development of the H1N1 vaccine was a complicated process that involved in-lab research and clinical trials.
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Guidelines for a thesis statement: is limited to one idea
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Ineffective: Our oceans are being destroyed by overfishing, pollution, and the importation of alien species. Better: Destructive alien species are being transplanted to our oceans through two primary means: ballast water and ocean liter.
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Guidelines for a thesis statement: Fits the speech Purpose
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ineffective: College students should get a hepatitis B vaccine to ensure they don’t contract this serious disease. better: Hepatitis B is a serious disease that affects the liver and can be prevented through a vaccine.
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Guidelines for a thesis statement: is constructed with clear and concise language and structure
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-more difficult for an audience to follow a verbal message than a written one. Use concise and not figurative language. Ineffective: we live in an exciting time characterized by many new advances in opthalmology that are pacing the way for revolutionary treatments for eye diseases that could rob us of those beautiful sunsets we all enjoy watching. Better: New advances in opthalmology are leading to changes in both prevention and treatment of eye disease.
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Anatomy of a Thesis Statement (see page 85)
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-start with your topic idea -narrow your topic -general purpose statement -specific purpose statement -thesis

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