COM100 Chap 4

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Analyze Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning below. What best describes the relationship between a word and a thing?
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They are indirectly related
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Ogden and Richards’ triangle of meaning demonstrates visually that meanings are in ___________.
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minds
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__________ govern how words sound when pronounced.
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Phonological rules
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___________ govern the arrangement or sequence of language.
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Syntactic rules
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When entering a public restroom, which set of language rules makes it possible for us to know whether to enter through the “Men’s” or “Women’s” door?
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Semantic rules
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Melanie asks a woman who is actually just overweight when the baby is due. What language rule did Melanie break?
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Pragmatic rules
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Language use can reflect a speaker’s willingness to take responsibility for his or her statements. Which of the following categories of statements reflects the highest amount of speaker responsibility?
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“I” statements
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The leader of a political party says a rival political party is “irresponsible because they are destroying the livelihood of millions of Southwestern ranchers with their policies.” An economist not affiliated with any political party cities data saying that the same ranchers “have sustained a 5 percent increase in taxes when purchasing feed.” Which statement best describes how the two statements compare?
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The first statement more likely uses emotive language, and the second is more likely a fact
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One study revealed that when a name is ___________, it is judged more favorably than ones that lack these qualities.
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simple, easily pronounced, and contains more letters
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Using the term “firefighter” rather than “fireman” is an example of __________ language.
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gender-neutral
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“I think we should give it another try. Don’t you?” This is an example of ___________.
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tag question
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Communicators who want to set themselves apart from others adopt the strategy of __________.
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divergence
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Dictionary definitions offer __________ meanings, while implied interpretations that reflect the people, culture, emotions, and situation involve provide __________.
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denotative; connotative
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__________ words have more than one correct dictionary definition.
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equivocal
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Fast or slow, small or large, smart r stupid, and shot or long are examples of words of what type?
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behaviorial
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According to research on names, which of the following women is most likely to become a judge?
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Cameron
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___________ language contains words that sound as if they are describing something when hey are really announcing the speaker’s attitude toward something.
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emotive
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Paul has been a close friend with Isabella for some time. He doesn’t know Susan very well, though; the two just don’t have much in common. Susan gets into some trouble for the first time ever in class. Paul tells his friends “Susan is a troublemaker!” A few weeks later, Isabella gets into the same kind of trouble in the same class. When asked, “Paul tells his friends that “Isabella got into trouble , but it wasn’t her fault.” What can you infer based on Paul’s language in this scenario?
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It’s most likely Isabella is an in-group member with Paul, and Susan is in an out-group
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__________ are pleasant terms substituted for more direct but potentially less pleasant terms.
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euphemisms
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The CEO of a company tells her employees that “each department will be restructuring within the next six months.” A department head in the same company tells employees that the department will sustain layoffs within the next six months. How do the statements compare?
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The CEO intentionally uses a vague term for “layoffs,” while the department head is harsh
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Kiley tells Luke, “You don’t listen to me anymore.” What still needs to be answered to make the statement a behavioral description?
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In what circumstances does he behavior occur
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Terms such as “sick” and “tight” may be interpreted by members of your in-group as compliments, but other people are likely them as insults. This is because __________ differ(s) from group to group.
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slang
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When your good friend tells you that you have a tendency to interrupt, you thank hi for his constructive criticism. When a new coworker accuses you of mainlining the conversation, you think silently to yourself, “Haters gonna hate.” The tendency to judge people we like more charitable when pole we don’t know is well known as __________.
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linguistic intergoup bias
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___________ describes a version of the same language that contains substantially different words and meanings.
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dialect
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Which of the following word types gains its meaning by comparison?
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relative
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A conclusion based on an interpretation of evidence is called a(n)
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inference
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Which of the following is true abut how women and men use language?
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Both men and women talk frequently about work, movies, and television
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A behavioral description describes behavior that is ___________.
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abstract
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Which of the following is true about gendered communication in the area of romance?
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Gender roles become more moderate as partners get to know each other better
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Jude tells Micah about a problem he’s been having at work. Considering the differences in the way men and women often communicate, how is Micah most likely to respond?
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By expressing sympathy or empathy
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Communicators from cultures that value __________ tend to use more ambiguous terms, hedges, and disclaimers.
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saving face
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Which of the following are types of evasive language?
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Euphemisms and equivocation
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Which of the following statements would researchers classify as being the most powerfully exposed?
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“I have a question.”
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Linguistic relativism means that __________.
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the worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
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Which of the following is an example of powerless speech?
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Hedges
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When communicators adapt their speech to fit with others they are adapting the strategy of __________.
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convergence
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Using acronyms online such as ILYSM or OOMP demonstrates _________.
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divergence
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Swear words are governed by _________.
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pragmatic rules
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The Inuit have dozens of words for what we typically call snow. This is an example of _________.
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linguistic relativism
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Research indicates that the notions that men and women communicate in dramatically different ways is __________.
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exaggerated

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