Com 200 Pre-Class Quiz 7 Essay

question

A pediatrician sees five children in her office one winter morning. Because all five have symptoms of influenza, the pediatrician concludes that her community is experiencing an influenza epidemic. The pediatrician has used ______ reasoning.
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inductive
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In a speech of refutation, deeply held beliefs are easier to demolish than a set of erroneous facts.
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false
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Most people are more deeply influenced by one clear, vivid personal example than by an abundance of statistical data.
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true
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A speaker says, “I knew a red-headed kid in third grade who was always getting into fights on the playground. And I know two red heads who are easily angered. I guess you can say that red heads are quick-tempered people.” The speaker is guilty of using which kind of fallacy in reasoning?
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hasty generalization
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The visualization step of the motivated sequence offers a scenario that is
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either positive or negative.
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In a persuasive speech, you should reveal to the audience
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your true goals and motives.
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A speaker says, “I owned a Ford and had nothing but trouble with it. My cousin had a Ford that was a lemon. And my best friend is unhappy with her Ford. I tell you, Ford is a lousy automobile.” What fallacy in reasoning is the speaker using?
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hasty generalization
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The statement-of-reasons pattern is a good method of organization when the audience leans toward your position but needs some justification for that leaning.
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true
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A leave-behind is a handout distributed at the end of a meeting.
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true
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Reasoning that moves from a generalization to a specific conclusion is ______ reasoning.
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deductive
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Drag each term on the left to the box that is matched up with the appropriate definition.
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*bandwagon fallacy*- equating popularity with truth and proof *building on an unproven assumption*- treating an opinion that is open to question as if it were already proved *straw man*- a weak opponent or dubious argument set up so that it can be easily defeated *red herring*- diverting listeners from the real issue to an irrelevant matter *either-or fallacy*- presenting only two alternatives when in fact more exist *evidence*- the facts, examples, statistics, testimony, and other information that support an assertion *fallacy*- an argument based on a false inference *false analogy*- creating a comparison that is exaggerated or erroneous *false cause*- assuming that because two events are related in time, the first caused the second *hasty generalization*- a conclusion that is based on inadequate evidence
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In a persuasive speech, your credibility is strengthened if you concede that your ideas sometimes do not work.
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true
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To convince listeners to reject the idea that tornadoes are incapable of striking large cities. This is an example of a specific purpose statement for a speech
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of refutation.
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According to the text, whether you succeed in persuasion often comes down to which of the following key questions?
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Are you trustworthy?
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Drag each term on the left to the box that is matched up with the appropriate definition.
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*comparative-advantages pattern*- an organizational scheme that shows the superiority of one concept or approach over another *motivated sequence*- a series of steps designed to propel a listener toward accepting the speaker’s proposition *persuasion*- the process of influencing, changing, or reinforcing listeners’ ideas, attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors *problem-solution pattern*- an arrangement of material that explores a problem and then offers a solution *speech of refutation*- an oral counterargument against a concept or proposition put forth by others *statement-of-reason pattern*- a variation of the topical pattern in which a speaker gives reasons for an idea *speech to influence thinking*- an oral presentation aimed at winning intellectual assent for a concept or proposition *speech to motivate action*- an oral presentation that tries to impel listeners to take action
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Drag each term on the left to the box that is matched up with the appropriate definition.
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*induction*- reasoning from specific evidence to a general conclusion *deduction*- reasoning from a generalization to a specific conclusion *Maslow’s hierarchy of needs*- a ranking of human needs from simple to complex *motivations*- the impulses and needs that stimulate a person to act in a certain way *reasoning*- using logic to draw conclusions from evidence *credibility*- audience perception of a speaker as believable, trustworthy, and competent *self-actualization*- the need of humans to make the most of their abilities *attack on a person*- criticizing an opponent rather than the opponent’s argument *syllogism*- a deductive scheme consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
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The final step in the motivated sequence is
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action.
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Persuasion in one’s career
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often requires weeks, months, or even years.
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Explaining your expertise on your subject matter is a good way to build credibility with an audience.
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true
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A speaker says, “We must change to the metric system or we will fall behind the rest of the world in science and industry.” This speaker is guilty of using which kind of fallacy in reasoning?
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either-or reasoning

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